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end. "For, according to the first law, it will necessarily express something of the Divine Nature; and according to the second law, it receives existence on the condition of manifesting that resemblance, and of contributing towards the Great End; and according to the third, it is placed in a system of Medial Relations, in order that such manifestation may be made possible."
V. The fifth law recorded is, "That everything will be entitled to an amount of good, or of well-being, or will be found in the enjoyment of it, proportionate to the discharge of its obligations, or, to the degree of its conformity to the laws of its being." The law is thus illustrated: "As, according to the first law, everything will necessarily express something of the Divine Nature; and according to the second, will come into existence in order to express it; and according to the third, will receive and sustain a relation in which to fulfil this law of its being; and according to the fourth, will be held under obligation to this effect; it will follow, according to the fifth, that it cannot fulfil this law of its being without enjoying well-being. For, to manifest whatever its Nature is calculated to exhibit of God, is to stand related on one side to the greatest of beings, and on the other to the greatest of ends, so that to fulfil the law of this being, or to find its own highest end, is to answer the great end; nor could it be supposed to be in any way deprived of its right, while thus fulfilling the law of its being, without the great end itself being, in so far, defeated. And here is the coincidence of the creature's happiness with the Creator's glory. . . . According to the first law, it may be said, that everything looks back to its origin.-According to the second, forwards to its ultimate end.-According to the third, around, to its medial relations. According to the fourth, on the duty consequent on these relations.And according to the fifth, within, on its own well-being, or particular end, as the result of answering the Ultimate End."
VI. A further principle laid down is, "That everything will be found to involve the existence of necessary truth." "By necessary truth is meant that of which the proposition not only is, but must be true, and of which, therefore, the negation is not only false but impossible; so that it exists necessarily, and therefore universally, independently of the existence of the individual intellect which contemplates it. The origin of this knowledge, whether by induction, or otherwise, is a question for separate consideration."
VII. It is shown, likewise, "That everything will be found to involve the existence of contingent truth." By contingent truth," observes Dr. H., “is meant that of
VIII. An eighth principle is, "That everything will be found, by necessity of nature, and as a relative perfection, essential to the manifestation of Divine allsufficiency, to involve truth surpassing the perfect comprehension of the finite mindi.e.,-there will be ultimate facts." This appears in the highest degree reasonable; "for as everything must be related, in some respect, to time, space, and causation, as well as to every other thing included in the plan,-in consequence of these relations, if in no other respects, it will stand connected with the infinite incomprehensible."
IX. The ninth principle contended for is, "That the Manifestation be progressive; or, that the production of new effects, or the introduction of new laws, be itself a Law of Manifestation." Our author here ventures the striking remark, "that, that which is commonly regarded as miraculous interposition may be itself a law of Manifestation-not the exception, but the ruleor if the exception to us who view things only on the scale of a few days, to Him who views them on an unlimited scale it may be the rule."
X. It is farther held, by Dr. H., “ That the Manifestation, besides being progressive, will be continuous; or will be progressive by being continuous-leaving no intervals of time, or of degree, but such as the modifying influence of other laws may require or account for." The argument is this: "If all-sufficiency requires infinity, and eternity, in which to be developed, intervals in the manifestation of time and of degree are inadmissible; unless on the supposition that such intervals or pauses in the manifestation would themselves contribute to the manifestation of all-sufficiency."
XI. Then it is shown, "That the continuity of the Manifestation requires that all the laws and the results of the past should, in some sense, be carried forwards; and that all that is characteristic in the lower steps of the process should be carried up into the higher—as far as it may subserve the great end; or unless it should be superseded by something analogous and superior in the higher, and the future." Without this it is well contended, that "the manifestation would be neither progressive, nor continuous, but would be every moment beginning de novo.”
XII. The twelfth law is beautiful as it is self-evident, viz., "That everything will be found to manifest all that it is calculated to exhibit of the Divine Nature, by developing, or working out its own nature." How well is it said by Dr. H., that "A creature devoid of regulated activity, could be no manifestation of an ever-living and everactive God."
XIII. It is also shown, "That the same property or characteristic which existed in the preceding and inferior stage of the Manifestation, be superior in the succeeding and higher stages, or else be applied to additional or higher purposes, (if it be not altogether superseded by something superior;) or, that it be in the power of the succeeding, and the higher, so to render, or to apply it." This principle arises from the alliance and dependence of everything agreeably to the great law of manifestation. Everything looks to an end beyond itself, and hence its nature, or its relations and results, may be expected to advance, the further it proceeds from its original and starting point, towards the distant end, for the sake of which it exists.
XIV. "That as every law will have an origin or date, it will come into operation on each individual subject of it, according to its priority of date in the great system of manifestation." The orderly succession of law, is a law itself.
XV. The next principle announced is, “That everything will occupy a relation in the great system of means, and possess a right in relation to everything else, according to its power of subserving the end ;or, everthing will bring in it and with it, in its own capability of subserving the end, a reason why all other things should be influenced by it-a reason for the degree in which they should be influenced-and for the degree in which it, in its turn, should be influenced by everything else." According to the all-connecting purpose of God, "coexistence implies co-relation, co-relation involves mutual obligation or subserviency, determinable as to kind and degree, in every instance, by the subserviency of the subjects of it to the Great End."
XVI. The next principle stated is, "That every law subordinate in rank, though it may have been prior in date, be subject to each higher law of the Manifestation, as it comes into operation." This law follows from the preceding, and is only as if it were asserted that the means shall not in any case take the place of the end.
XVII. Then follows the fine principle, "That the whole process of manifestation be conducted uniformly as far as the end requires, or according to the operation of laws." Every event will be, in some sense, an effect, (which is in itself a law :)
and every divinely-originated effect will, when traced back to its origin, be found to express something in the Divine Nature."
XVIII. It is maintained, "That every part of the Manifestation must be analogous to every other part, or according to a plan." "The truth of this proposition," observes Dr. H., " may be inferred from the pervading operation of general laws :— from the primary relation, according to which he who is to conduct the great process sustains his office expressly as the Logos or Manifestation of God; so that everything else can answer the end of manifestation only as it is analogous, according to, or, in some respect, resembling the Logos: from the Great Purpose; for, if the whole creation is to be, in some sense, an analogue of the Divine nature, (and in no other way can it manifest God), then every separate portion of it must be similarly related to every other part, otherwise the whole will not resemble Him."
XIX. The next principle stated is, "That the law of ever-enlarging manifestation be itself regulated by a law determining the time for each successive stage and addition in the great process."
XX. The last General Law adduced is, "That the beings to whom this Manifestation is to be made, and by whom it is to be understood, appreciated, and voluntarily promoted, must be constituted in harmony with these laws; or, these laws of the objective universe will be found to have been established in prospective harmony with the designed constitution and the destiny of the subjective, which is to expound and profit by them."
We have thought it best thus to let the Author's great Laws speak for themselves; and we are sure they will do so. It may be objected, "Why so many Laws?" Let the objector try to dispense with one of them, and he will, if we mistake not, become reconciled to them. In the Author's third Part, he makes noble use of them all, by an inductive process which evinces an extent of scientific research and knowledge inferior in no respect to that indicated by the greatest philosophers of the age.
We cannot but congratulate the ranks of Nonconformity that they can lay claim to such men as Dr. Harris and Dr. J. P. Smith. (To be continued.)
The OBLIGATIONS of the WORLD to the BIBLE. A Series of Lectures to Young Men. By GARDINER SPRING, D.D., of New York. 12mo, pp. 320. 1s. 6d.
Collins, Paternoster row.
Dr. Spring is a writer and preacher of great interest, and most of his publica
tions have been well received by the Christian public. He displays great precision of thought and language; and generally carries home his conceptions with great force to the judgment and heart of his readers. The volume which we now introduce to our readers is one of a highly original class. The train of thought pursued in it is far removed from anything that can be pronounced to be trite or commonplace. And yet the subjects discussed are such as all enlightened and inquiring per sons must feel a deep interest in, and they are handled in a manner greatly calculated to enhance the infinite value of God's holy word. The outline of the lectures will give a very just idea both of their design and importance:-1. The use of oral and written language to be attributed to a supreme revelation. 2. The literary merit of the Scriptures. 3. The obligations of legislative science to the Bible. 4. The Bible friendly to civil liberty. 5. The Scriptures the foundation of religious liberty and the rights of conscience. 6. The morality of the Bible. 7. The influence of the Bible upon social institutions. 8. The influence of the Bible upon slavery. 9. The influence of the Bible on the extent and certainty of moral science. 10. The pre-eminence of the Bible in producing holiness and true religion. 11. The pre-eminence of the Bible for the influences of the Holy Spirit. 12. The obligations of the world to the Bible for the sabbath. 13. The influence of the Bible on human happiness. 14. Conclusion.
In addition to these lectures, the volume contains four essays, well known, but of great value.-1. Internal evidences of revelation. 2. The church in the wilderness. 3. The useful Christian. 4. Moral gradations.
A more refreshing sample of Christian literature has not issued from the press in modern times. We have, however, one grand exception to this high and deserved commendation; Dr. Spring's lecture on slavery, with all its information, is not in sight of the Christian mark. It too much resembles the reasonings of American ministers on this subject, and can effect nothing for the emancipation of the millions of bondmen in America.
The SOLAR SYSTEM. BY THOMAS DICK, LL.D., author of "The Christian Philosopher," "The Sidereal Heavens," &c., &c. 18mo, pp. 384.
Religious Tract Society.
We are happy to find this valuable work among the cheap publications of the Religious Tract Society. The name of Dr. Dick
is a guarantee for the scientific accuracy of the volume, no less than for its decidedly scriptural character. "In the following
volume," observes the author, "it shall be our endeavour to direct the general reader in the study of some of those objects which the heavens unfold; and we shall chiefly select those parts of astronomical science which are most level to the comprehension of those who have had little opportunity of engaging in scientific pursuits. It is proposed to confine ourselves chiefly to a description of the solar system, and the phenomena it exhibits, together with a few instructions as to the best mode of contemplating the apparent motions and the diversified aspects of the firmament." The treatise, with its diagrams and illustrations, is very interesting, and truly instructive. We should reccommend that henceforth all schools use Dr. Dick's work. It may be fully depended upon for sound and accurate information.
1. The PROTESTANT MISSIONARY MAP of the WORLD. For the names of the Societies which have established the Missionary Stations marked on this Map, see "The Missionary Guide Book."
Seeley, Burnside, and Seeley.
2. The MISSIONARY GUIDE BOOK; or, a Key to the Protestant Missionary Map of the World; showing the Geography, Natural History, Climate, Population, and Government of the several Countries to which Missionary Effort has been directed; with the moral, social, and religious condition of their Inhabitants. Also the rise and progress of Missionary Operations in each Country. Illustrated by Forty-five Wood-cuts, representing the costume of each people. 8vo, pp. 492.
Seeley, Burnside, and Seeley.
The sight of this missionary map and missionary guide-book, has really gladdened our hearts. The publication of two such works is a proof of progress in the right direction. Missionary labours are beginning to take the place which belongs to them; and the day is not far distant, we trust, when they will be regarded with far higher interest than any of the schemes of national ambition and worldly aggrandisement. We have long looked upon such a work as the one before us in the light of a desideratum, in the prosecution of the grand undertaking of a world's conversion. We know not by whom "The Missionary Guide Book" has been executed; but, from the manner in which he has performed his task, he need not have shrunk from the avowal of his name; for we can assure our readers that he has
well discharged a difficult and laborious service, for which he deserves the hearty thanks of all our Missionary Boards in Great Britain, on the Continent, and in the North American States. The
plan of the "Guide-Book" is remarkably good; and affords facilities for discovering at a glance what every Protestant mission is accomplishing, in every quarter of the globe. While, on the other hand, the notices of the geography, climate, natural history, political institutions, social habits, manners and forms of religion, of every people among whom our missionary brethren are labouring, impart a peculiar charm to the entire volume, and will, we trust, commend it to the notice and perusal of many who have hitherto overlooked, or but partially estimated the labours and successes of our missionary institutions. The beautiful wood cuts of the various races with their costumes, among whom the representatives of our Protestant missions are scattering the good seed of the word, are a great ornament to "The Missionary Guide Book." The Author is so impartial, that he asks for the critical remarks of our several Missionary Committees, in order that future editions of his work may be rendered more perfect. "The Protestant Missionary Map," which the volume noticed is the key, is a finely executed work of art; and represents, by suitable colourings, the portions of the globe which are Protestant, Roman Catholic, belonging to the Greek church, Makometan, decayed Christian churches, and heathen. Missionary stations are printed in a particular type; places not missionary are distinguished in the same way, by another type.
MEMOIRS of the late CHRISTMAS EVANS, of Wales. By DAVID RHYS STEPHEN. 12mo. pp. 302.
Aylott and Jones.
Our readers will have, with ourselves, a great treat in the perusal of these memoirs of one of the most remarkable men, in some views of his character, the Principality has ever produced. By the force of his own native genius, aided by the providence of God, Christmas Evans emerged from the very depth of early neglect and ignorance, and acquired for himself a reputation, as lofty as it was pure and unsullied. Some of the specimens of his pulpit eloquence have long been familiar in Christian circles in this country; and they are better known through many parts of Wales, where he was wont to rivet the attention of large assemblies, by his striking and pathetic representations of the leading facts and doctrines of Scripture. Both the narrative of Mr. Evans's life and labours contained in this volume, and the selections in the appendix from his manuscript sermons, are invested with a peculiar charm. The author of the Memoir has succeeded in thoroughly enlisting our sympathies, in all that pertains to the subject of his biographical sketch. He has performed his task well, having neither written too much, nor too little. He has made his country interesting, too, by the light which he has thrown upon the instrumentality by which its earlier evangelization was effected. We recommend this cheap and spirit-stirring volume to the cordial notice of the Christian church.
PHILOSOPHY of the PLAN of SALVATION. A Book for the Times. By AN AMERICAN CITIZEN. 18mo, pp. 192.
Religious Tract Society.
As we have already expressed our strong and decided opinion as to the exalted merits of this transatlantic essay on the truth of the gospel, we need not again to volunteer any argument in its support. We think it is more likely to lodge an impression in the human conscience, in favour of the divine authority of Christianity, than any similar work of the modern press. And as it seeks an avenue to the human heart somewhat different from the ordinary mode of approaching it, we cannot help thinking that this will materially contribute to its success. We cannot but commend the decision of the Tract Society, in placing this deeply interesting work in the list of its monthly volumes, at the trifling cost of sixpence.
CHEMISTRY of the FOUR SEASONS
SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN, and WINTER; an Essay, principally concerning Natural Phenomena, admitting of Interpretation by Chemical Science, and illustrating Passages of Scripture. By THOS. GRIFFITHS, Professor of Chemistry in the Medical College of St. Bartholomew's Hospital; author of "Recreations in Chemistry," and "Chemistry of the Four Elements." 12mo. pp. 514.
John Churchill, Princes-street, Soho. Works on particular sciences, which either illustrate Bible principles, or tend to sup. port the data of revealed truth, are quite within our province. Indeed, it is our full purpose to pay more attention to such productions in the future, than we have done in the past, though we have by no means overlooked them.
This volume of Mr. Griffiths is a beautiful illustration of the perfect harmony which exists between the discoveries of chemistry and the facts and references of holy writ.
The work, moreover, considered in a scientific point of view, appears entitled to rank with the best chemical treatises of the present age. We little think in what a wondrous laboratory of nature we live, as the revolving seasons are running their ceaseless round. One could hardly have imagined that a book with this title should have been rendered so interesting to persons only possessing a smattering of scientific knowledge. Rarely have we perused a more instructive treatise. The multitude of striking facts amassed by Mr. Griffiths, as he lays open the various processes of chemical action which take place in the vicissitudes and changes of the seasons, tend, in a remarkable manner, to set forth the vast contrivance, and infinite benevolence of the Eternal Mind.
To the intelligent youth of our several families, Mr. Griffiths' "Chemistry of the Four Seasons" will be a most appropriate present. For while it will not fail to interest and amuse, it will secure the still higher results of imparting correct scientific information, and of elevating their conceptions of the grandeur and goodness of Him, in whom we all "live, and move, and have our being," and whose stately steps are here traced in all the changes of the revolving year.
The INFLUENCE of LITERARY PURSUITS on the CHRISTIAN MINISTRY. An Address to the Students of Stepney College, delivered at the commencement of the Session, Sept. 2nd, 1846. By WILLIAM JONES. 8vo. pp. 36. 1s.
Jackson and Walford.
This is an address of extraordinary power, worthy of general circulation among our younger brethren in the ministry. Mr. Jones, who is well known in his own circle as a man of highly-cultivated mind, and of unusual strength of intellect, will, we hope, become more extensively known to the religious public, through the medium of this college address. It is full of thought of the best stamp; and contains so many just views of the present times, and of the temptations and advantages which belong to them, that we are happy to contribute our mite of influence to give publicity to his noble sentiments. An essay such as Mr. Jones's is calculated to rouse all the energies of the rising ministry, and to put the students in our various colleges upon a right course of mental culture. We would express, with much humility, our fervent wish, that our dear young brethren may be so enabled to prosecute their preparatory studies as to become able and successful ministers of the New Testament.
It is discreditable to Congregational Dissenters, that they have not better supported this Calendar, which has been well conducted from the first, and uniformly devoted to the interests of the denomination. As it is now reduced one-half in price, with but slender subtraction of the matter formerly supplied, we cannot think so meanly of our body as to imagine that they will let the Union be a loser by the publication of it.
We greatly regret one error into which the editor has fallen, because it is calculated to give pain to a most esteemed brother, as well as to inflict some little injury. It is stated that the Rev. E. A. Dunn, of Buckingham Chapel, only preaches in the afternoon. Now, this is quite inaccurate. Mr. Dunn preaches all day, as formerly.
MEMOIRS of the LIFE of the Rev. JOHN WILLIAMS, Missionary to Polynesia. By EBENEZER PROUT. Fourth Thousand. Imperial 8vo. pp. 176. 3s.
It must be highly gratifying to the friends of missions, and to the personal admirers of the late dear Mr. Williams, to find that three thousand copies of his Memoirs have found their way into the hands of the Christian public. This is a strong testimony to the ability with which our esteemed friend, Mr. Prout, has executed the delicate and difficult task committed to him. But the public are not yet satisfied; multitudes who could not afford to purchase the more expensive edition, yet long to read the Life of Williams; and they will now be gratified to find, that they have the entire work at the comparatively small cost of three shillings. We cannot think, that henceforward there will be a single Sunday-school library in the United Kingdom without a copy of the Life of Williams. If this suggestion is acted upon, which it may be but for the apathy of librarians and superintendents, the circulation of the cheap edition will far exceed that of the more expensive one.
WORKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED.
1. The Mosaic Creation, viewed in the Light of Modern Geology. By GEORGE WIGHT. Recommendatory Note, by W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D., F.A.S. Small 8vo. pp. 276. James Maclchose.