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a crown,


In ascertaining the place of the different schism, the Arian controversy, &c;*)
visions and their chronological coincidence, which is borne out by the descrip-
I pay strict attention to the internal
marks.” Preface, p. vii.

tion, that peace was to be taken

from the earth. At the opening of the first seal is The black horse under the third seen a white horse, with a rider seal, (verses 5, 6,) is interpreted having a bow, to whom was given of the darkness and ignorance

and he went forth con- which prevailed through what are quering and to conquer." (Rev. vi,

(Rev. vi, called the dark ages, beginning with 2.) The horse is interpreted to be the fifth century and terminating an emblem of victory; the white with the Reformation. The yoke color, -of pure and holy conquests; (not balances, as Gvyov is translated the bow, as the Author concludes in our version) denotes the burdenfrom Ps. xlv, 5, denotes those con- some rites and ceremonies, and unquests to be also spiritual; and the scriptural doctrines, imposed upon rider is considered to be a hierogly- the consciences of inen.

As twenty phical, not a real character. The chœnices of wheat were, in ordinary whole therefore represents the tri- times of plenty, sold for a penny, umphant progress of the Gospel of the proclamation that only one was Christ in the three first centuries, now to be had for that sum further which was the purest age of the indicates great famine of the word Church.

of God and gospel ordinances; and We own that we were previously yet, that neither the illuminating nor wont to interpret the rider of Mes- consoling influences of the Spirit, siah himself; (the more so when we (represented by the command not considered the 45th Psalm ;) and the to hurt the wine and oil,) were to crown given to him, and the circum- be taken from those who sought the stance that he goes forth “ conquer- Lord. ingat the time of his outset, and The fourth seal exhibits death on

to conquerhereafter, appeared the pale (x^wpos) or livid green confirmatory of this view.

horse. This is applied to the here feel the value of Mr. Cuning- persecutions which arose from papal hame's principle, which recals us power, commencing early in the from an interpretation that would 13th century, down to the revocanot be analogous with the three tion of the edict of Nantes. Hades, next seals : for if one rider be a real who follows Death, is explained to and not a hieroglyphical person, so denote the place of departed spirits must all; and we have never yet into which the souls of the martyrs seen any interpretation attempting were gathered, not the place of to make them all persons, which torment. brought conviction with it.

The fifth seal (verses 9–11) is The great sword given to the interpreted of the same souls of the rider under the second seal, and the martyrs which are seen crying for red or fire color of his horse, (v. 4,) vengeance against their persecutors, are assumed to be emblems of dis- just before the Reformation. White cord and dissension, and to re- robes are given them, emblematic late to the disputes of the fourth of their justifying righteousness ; and fifth centuries; (the Donatist and an intimation is also given to

But we

* See also Eusebius's description of the state of the Church just before the persecution of Dioclesian, at the beginning of the fourth century.

them, that others were likewise to be justly dissents from this view; and slain. This Mr. Cuninghame con- from the resemblance of the princeives intended to place before us cipal symbols to those of Isaiah, the improved condition of the Joel, and the Evangelists, he conChurch which followed the pro- cludes, that it relates to that great testant Reformation ; (p. 17;) but and final revolution which is to conto us it seems rather obscure to vulse the nations of Christendom, make the words which contain a cry previous to the second advent of our for vengeance, and an intimation, Lord. Further, he considers this that they must rest till others of revolution to be the same with that their brethren and servants should under the seventh trumpet; and as be slaughtered, a symbol of the he interprets this to have begun at

improved condition of the Church, the French revolution, he conwhen the protestants generally ob. sequently commences the sixth seal tained complete toleration, and in at that period likewise.

The resome parts even a victory."

volution under Constantine will The earthquake under the sixth come before us presently. seal (verses 12_-17) is by some The seventh chapter of the Apocainterpreters, and among them Mede lypse is a continuation of the events and Newton, applied to the revolu- of the sixth Seal. The first words tion which took place after Con- after these things I saw, &c.” imstantine ascended the throne ; an in- ply, that the earthquake described terpretation which, however plausi- in the previous chapter had combly supported in some particulars, menced; but that the grand conhas ever seemed to us so greatly to vulsions, which are to consummate violatc chronology and consistency, the judgement on the apostacy, are and to be so inadequate to the to be suspended, until an elect people language which describes this earth- are sealed in the forehead--that is quake, that we have wondered how until the number of God's people any could carefully compare those shall be completed through the events with the prophecy, and yet preaching of the Gospel. This, arrive at such a conclusion. There according to our Author, is reprewas no overthrow of the imperial sented by the four angels holding power at the accession of Con

the winds, that the stormy elements stantine ; but only a conversion of which are to bring on the great it towards the cause of Christ. whirlwind” of destruction may be Nor was

overthrow restrained for a time : and the fulfilof the kingdoms and principalities ment of this he further considers to subject to him ; nor any alarm and

nor any alarm and have commenced at the time when dismay among the rulers thereof, he wrote, by the mighty confederacy as if afraid of the termination of of those princes of Europe who their power ; for the greater part procured a peace. came over quietly into the profession Mr. Cuninghame wrote this imof christianity. More especially it mediately after the peace was accomwas no time of wrath upon them, or plished; which (though it ought to of recompense for their persecutions, be no objection to those who say, we though it might stay them. Such cannot understand prophecy until an interpretation is as little satis- accomplished) may prejudice those factory, as that which refers to who are wont to say, that interConstantine the commencement of preters of prophecy can mould any the thousand years.

Our Author events to an accordance with the

there any

of war.

divine predictions. It is remark- rush like a

rush like a whirlwind upon the able however, that Vitringa (our nations! And if the winds are only copy of whose work on the Apoca. restrained until the number of lypse is dated 1705, and with whose God's elect be accomplished, how writings Mr. Cuninghame was un- near we are to that awful hour, acquainted when he adopted this when the door of mercy will be interpretation) takes a similar view closed upon this generation, and all of the winds and the angels, and of who have been sowing the wind will the preservation of the elect: though reap the whirlwind, being recomof course he does not apply them pensed with the fruit of their own to the particular event in question. devices,—the spark of their own It is worthy also of notice, what kindling,—the cockatrice which they efforts have since been made and themselves have hatched ! How are now making by the great pow- ought we to endeavour to second ers of Europe to restrain the winds; and promote the Lord's present purand how general is the opinion even poses of mercy; faithfully to declare of irreligious men, that we only the apostacy and danger of an unwant a spark to kindle throughout godly world ; and to warn sinners to all Europe the general conflagration “repent, for the kingdom of heaven

And we will further add, is at hand!” that although this event—the re- As the Author assumes the former straining of the winds—had in part part of this chapter to represent the transpired when our Author wrote; certain preservation of the true he had not then witnessed another Church of Christ from the general event, which has since strikingly destruction ; so in the concluding illustrated the correctness of his verses, (9–17,) he considers is set principle of interpretation in this forth the actual translation of the instance. Few would in 1817 Church from the great tribulation have anticipated, by the mere dint into the Millennial rest. We notice of political shrewdness, that the this for the sake of observing one peace which then appeared so firmly of those important chronological established should in 1830 be so indices so frequently pointed out in fearfully threatened ; and all Europe this work. It is, that the palmagain be agitated by another shock bearing multitude stand before God of that earthquake, the subterranean and worship him in his temple; causes of which (if we may so (v. 15 ;) whereas this temple is not speak) were still at work. Yet in opened till the sounding of the a note which refers to the general seventh trumpet : therefore the pacification of Europe the Author event here described must be subsays :

The present

present state of sequent to the sounding of that · Europe seems to me to resemble trumpet. And further, that as the an edifice, hastily built with loose temple, when then opened, (in order stones, without mortar or cement :

as we presume to excite the lively · I still believe that we are in the expectation of the redeemed,) yet ' midst of the last great earthquake. continued so filled with smoke as to Feb. 1817.P. 25.

be inaccessible to men till after the Here we cannot but pause a mo- seven vials were poured out; so this ment and consider, what an awful worship in the temple must also be crisis we are in, if Mr. Cuninghame's subsequent to that event. interpretation be correct. oh, what Thus does Mr. Cuninghame ena war will that be, which shall next deavour to prove, that the first six


seals contain a kind of epitome of We must remind the Reader, that the history of the Church, from the we cannot do justice to an elaborate time of our Lord's ascension until work of this description, by setting the kingdoms of this world are pro- forth all the arguments by which claimed to be his : a view which is the interpretation contended for is certainly wonderfully confirmed by supported, neitherthe inconsistencies the page of history, and borne out which are shewn to exist in former by the structure of the Book of and contrary expositions. For these Daniel and many of the cursory matters we must refer him to the prophecies.

work itself.

To be continued.


Probable rupture between the Porte and Egypt. The waters of the mystic Eu- but because, when judgements are phrates continue to recede ;-a con- threatening our own Land, it adclusive evidence, that we are at least monishes us, how the heart may beliving under the outpouring of the come hardened under them, instead sixth vial. (See Rev. xvi, 12.) A A of being taught righteousness. rupture between the Sultan and the Bagdad was in the last year Pasha of Egypt, the most formidable visited by

visited by the plague. When of his viceroys, appears inevitable. the inhabitants would have fled The Pasha continues contumacious, from it, an inundation from the and the Sultan has (in the Moniteur land locked them in, and destroyed Ottoman) caused to be inserted an


The waters increased so indirect threat against him of re- much as to wash down part of ligious excommunication. We can- the city walls and many houses; not but look with particular interest which so contracted the space in to that quarter ; since we feel con- which the inhabitants could remain, vinced, (notwithstanding modern that they fell by thousands under applications of Dan. xi, 8, 9,) that the deadly influence of the pestithe sovereign of Egypt is the king lence.

The dead were so numerous of the South,” who “at the time of that they remained unburied in the the end shall push” at the wilful streets and houses ; and out of king. (v. 40.)

eighty thousand inhabitants fifty five Judgements at Baydad. thousand perished ! But instead We would likewise draw attention of the remnant being affrighted and to what has taken place at Bagdad: giving glory to God, the one part not so much because of the awful began to engage in factious and depopulation there, tending also to bloody contests for the government; diminish the waters of Euphrates, whilst others went about and atand further marking that a vial of tacked the various houses for plunder! wrath is poured upon the empire; (See the Journals of Mr. Groves.)

New Publications. In the press, STRICTURES ON MR. THE

DELUSION MAITLAND'S PAMPHLETS ON Pro- CHRISTIANS touching the ways of PHECY, and in vindication of the God's revealing himself to the Protestant Principles of Prophetic Prophets. First printed in A. D. Exposition. By W. CUNINGHAME, 1713. Seeley and Sons. 8vo. 12s. OF LAINSHAW. J. Nisbet, London.





No. II.

The sacred writers use language gain over Syria.d So also Jeremiah's in every proper way,—that is, liter- girdle, which he concealed in a ally and with every variety of figure. rock : the decayed state of the girdle They generally wrote the history of was a type of the manner in which their times in literal language; but God would

mar the pride of Judah, on particular occasions they have and the great pride of Jerusalem. .' adopted a parabolic method to re- And again Ezekiel's removing his cord past events,a and they have goods through a hole in the wall in done the same when foretelling the sight of his neighbours; when future events. It must be evident he was commanded to say," I am to every attentive reader of the your sign : like as I have done, so Bible, that there are literal and shall it be done unto them : they figurative prophecies; among the

· shall

remove and go into caplatter of which some are typical and *tivity."e others symbolical.

The symbolical prophecies are The literal prophecies are those those which represent future events the fulfilment of which corresponds by certain ideal objects, such as trees to the words of the prophet in their animals, &c. For example,

example, the primitive and original sense—“Be- great image and great tree of hold a virgin shall conceive and Nebuchadnezzar; the image being bear a son:"b They pierced my a symbol of the successive kingdoms hands and my feet.” The typical of the nations to the end of the prophecies are those which foretel world. The head was the symbol future events by some peculiar

peculiar of the kingdom of Babylon; the actions or things, having certain breast and arms were representations correspondencies to the events pre- of the Medes and Persians; the dicted. Such was the burning bush, belly and thighs of brass denoted the which was not consumed by the Grecian monarchy; the legs and fire; the bush being a typical pro- feet were emblems of the Roman phecy of the fiery trials of the

of the empire ; and the stone that smote children of Israel and their preserva- the image was a symbol of the tion in the midst of them. Such kingdom of Christ. The great tree was Elisha's directing Joash the was a symbol of Nebuchadnezzar king of Israel to shoot an arrow out himself; its being cast down denoted of the window, and afterwards to the judgment that should come upon smite on the ground with arrows; him; and the stump being left in the number of strokes with which the earth denoted his preservation he smote the ground being types of until he should know that the the number of victories he should heavens do rule.g

heavens do rule.g The different

d 2 Kings

a 2 Sam. xiv, 2--20; Ps. lxxx. xiii, 17-19. e Ezek. xii, 1-12.


b Isa. vii, 14. c Ps. xxii, 16.

f Dan. ii, 31–43. & Dan. iv, 10--26. 2 M

April, 1832.

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