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had gone astray in matters of faith, he had persisted in making him abjure his errors. It was also shown how Morone had always supported the Inquisitors in Modena, Bologna and Novara, and that he had himself punished two heretics in Bologna. A suspicious utterance concerning the heretics in Bologna, to the effect that he would warn them in time, was explained by the defence as having merely been intended as an expression of courtesy, which, in any case, could not weigh in the balance against the measures actually taken by the Cardinal against the heretics.1

The witnesses called to testify against Morone were remarkable, several of them having entertained views that were heterodox, while others were openly hostile to him; one of them retracted what he had previously alleged. Their credibility, therefore, was more than open to suspicion, and Morone justly protested against such witnesses. Several others, such as the Prior of the Dominicans in Modena and the Bishop of Civita Castellana, even testified in his favour, and spoke in praise of him, but these favourable pronouncements were not entered in the minutes of the trial! This, however, was not the only injustice in the legal procedure against the Cardinal. Morone had also to complain of the fact that his defence was rendered more difficult, and even to a certain extent impossible, because the names of various witnesses and their guarantors were withheld from him, although he had earnestly requested to be informed of them; the same applied to the statement of where and when he had been found wanting.2

As had been the case with the witnesses, nothing damaging to the Cardinal could be found among the books and papers confiscated in his palace; on the contrary, the superscriptions with which Morone had provided the heretical books proved that he condemned them, and did not wish them to be read.

1 See the extracts from the documents found by me in the Seminary Library, Foligno, in Appendix Nos. 46-47.

2 See ibid. An *Avviso di Roma of March 30, 1560, states that papers had been found which had been hidden by Paul IV. because they testified in Morone's favour (Cod. Urb. 1039, P. 144. Vatican Library).

The letters of Vittoria Colonna to the Cardinal proved to be the merest business letters, in which religion was not even mentioned.1

It was clear from all this that there were no grounds for accusing Morone of the crime of heresy. Only a few trifling instances of want of prudence could be proved against him, and these could very easily be explained by the fact that the Cardinal had a generous and conciliatory nature, and that he personally went as far as possible to meet the heretics, and before adopting severe measures endeavoured to win them over by kindness. Errors were in this way unavoidable, since he, a prelate of the time of Leo X., had not had a thorough theological training. Even though he may in consequence have expressed himself, from time to time, in a materially erroneous sense, he had never at any time been guilty of a formal act of heresy, and therefore, according to the decision of the Council, his conduct was free from all blame.

In spite of this Paul IV. was anything but satisfied of the innocence of Morone, for a conviction to the contrary was too deeply rooted in his mind. The Cardinal remained in the strictest confinement, and was, from the first, treated more like a convicted heretic than a prisoner under examination. His request to be allowed to say mass was refused, indeed, he was not even permitted to hear mass. In the middle of July the Pope deprived him of his office as governor of Sutri, although so far none of the accusations against him had been

1 See Appendix, Nos. 46-47.

2 See Navagero's report of June 19, 1557, in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 941. An *Avviso of August 21, 1557, first mentions at this time his deprivation of hearing mass; this is, however, a mistake for the refusal to allow Morone to gain the Indulgence then published, which he had begged to do; see BROWN, VI., 2, n. 1018.

3*Il Papa ha levato il governo di Sutri al rev. Morone et datolo al card di Napoli. Navagero on July 17, 1557 (Cod. 6255 of the Court Library, Vienna). The villa of Morone at Sutri now belongs to the seminary there; a mantelpiece (now in the bishop's palace) bears the inscription: Io. Card. Moronus.



proved. For this reason Morone refused to purchase his freedom by an abjuration of heresy in general. He rightly understood that by so doing he would acknowledge that he had been found wanting in matters of faith.1

At the beginning of August the supporters of the Cardinal requested that he might be set at liberty. They were informed that if he were to ask mercy of the Pope, a way of setting him free would be found. Morone, however, could not be induced to do this; he declared that mercy presupposed a fault, and that therefore he could not ask it; the only thing he asked was justice, even if they were to keep him in the Castle of St. Angelo all his life.2


As Morone, in the consciousness of his innocence, persisted in remaining firm on this point, he had to languish in the dark dungeons of the Castle of St. Angelo until the death of Paul IV. It appears that, besides Morone and Pole, other Cardinals came under the suspicion of the Inquisition. the last half of August, 1557, the same tribunal ordered the arrest of Cardinal Bertano's secretary, of a member of the household of Cardinal Farnese, and also of a theologian of Cardinal du Bellay. These arrests were made in connection with a charge of heterodoxy, although this seems to have been a mistake; on the other hand the proceedings against them were based on grave offences against morality, of which they had been guilty.

For a long time nothing more was heard of Cardinal Morone; a contemporary states that it seemed as if he had been crossed out of the book of the living. When Alba again drew atten

1 See Carne's report of July 2, 1557, in TURNBULL, n. 641. The report of Masius (Briefe, 297) shows how right Cardinal Morone was.

2 See the **report of Navagero of August 5, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna).

3 See the letter of September 18, 1557, in the Lett. de' princ.,

I., 195.

4 See in Appendix No. 39 the *Avviso di Roma of August 21 1557; cf. Navagero in Brown, VI., 2, n. 996. Bernardino Pia reports in a *letter of August 21, 1557, to Cardinal E. Gonzaga

tion to the prisoner, who was still being kept in the strictest confinement, and interceded for him, he only succeeded in getting the case taken up once more.1 The speedy termination of the proceedings which was promised to him,2 was not, however, realized. As the Cardinal had successfully repudiated all the charges against him, and proved that he had taken proceedings against the very persons whose heretical views he was accused of sharing,3 his detention must be condemned in the severest terms. Paul IV. was possessed by the idea that Morone, as well as Pole, was infected with heresy, and the terrible picture of a suspected heretic one day ascending the throne of St. Peter left him no peace.1

Queen Mary of England had, in the meantime, offered resistance to the recall of Pole which had been ordered by Paul IV. As her earnest representations, that such a measure would seriously interfere with the Catholic movement in England, proved unavailing, she resolved to take a grave step; an order was issued that any bearer of Papal letters should be arrested. The attitude of Pole himself was very different. Although the Papal brief had not been delivered to him, he was aware of it, and that was enough. He immediately resigned his title and the insignia of legate, and at once refrained from every function connected with his office. In order to learn what the head of the Church really wished, and

that Cardinal Bertano had been in great trouble at first, on account of the arrest of his secretary Adriano by the Inquisition, ma poi ch'ella è chiarita che tal captura è per interesse particolare del medmo M. Adriano imputato per heretico et d'haver mangiato carne il venerdì ella si è consolato." The teologo of du Bellay, who was also arrested at that time by the Inquisition, is not mentioned here by name (Gonzaga Archives, Mantua).

1 Cf. Navagero in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 1041 and 1042, the **Avviso of October 9, 1557, and TACCHI VENTURI, I., 538 seq., n. 3.

2 See the letter of B. Pia to Cardinal E. Gonzaga of September 22, 1557 (Gonzaga Archives, Mantua).

3 Cf. Navagero in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 1062.

4 See ibid.



also to justify himself against the accusations that had been made against him, he sent his confidential envoy, Niccolô Ormanetto, to Rome. Ormanetto, however, did not succeed in accomplishing anything. Paul IV. insisted that Pole was suspected of heresy, and that he must defend himself in person in Rome; it was also necessary that he should at once be confronted with Morone.1

Cardinal Carafa received orders, before he entered upon his Spanish legation in October, 1557, that he was to justify the proceedings against the two Cardinals with Philip II., and to urge the king to deliver up Pole. It is incredible that Paul IV. could have supposed that the Spanish king would agree to such a proceeding, as the whole world knew that, if he returned to Rome, Pole could only expect the same treatment as Morone, who had been imprisoned for months in the Castle of St. Angelo, and was still kept there, although the Inquisition could fix no guilt on him at his trial. Much as the Inquisitors endeavoured during the time that followed to obtain proofs against him, they could not succeed in doing so. On the contrary, documents were discovered which left no doubt as to the Catholic sentiments of Morone, but in spite of this, the unfortunate Cardinal was not set at liberty.

Paul IV. looked upon Cardinal Pole as the more guilty of the two. Morone, he considered, had only been a docile pupil, who had become worse than his master. The Pope complained to Navagero that Priuli, Pole's secretary, also belonged to this accursed school, and to this house of apostates, as also did Marcantonio Flaminio, who would have been burned, had he not died. "We have had his brother, Cesare Flaminio, burned in the piazza before the church of the Minerva." Galeazzo Caracciolo had been a friend of Priuli, and at the mention of his name Paul IV. would get into a terrible state of excitement, for Caracciolo, a grandson of the Pope's sister, had


1 Cf. BECCADELLI, Vita del card. R. Pole, in the Monum., II., 318 seq.

2 See TURNBULL, n. 641; PALLAVICINI 14, 5, 2; ZIMMERMANN, Pole, 332, 337.

3 See Navagero in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 1086.

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