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North-America, the Ainos of Yesso, the Bodos of NorthEast India, the Tunguz of Siberia. This is the state of things which continues at higher levels of systematic civilization. Beside the Mexican Tonatiuh the Sun, Metztli the Moon had a smaller pyramid and temple ; 5 in Bogota, the Moon, identified in local myth with the Evil Deity, had her place and figure in the temple beside the Sun her husband ; & the Peruvian Mother-Moon, Mama-Quilla, had her silver disc-face to match the golden one of her brother and husband the Sun, whose companion she had been in the legendary civilizing of the land. In the ancient Kamireligion of Japan, the supreme Sun-god ranks high above the Moon-god, who was worshipped under the form of a fox. Among the historic nations of the Old World, documents of Semitic culture show Sun and Moon side by side. For one, we may take the Jewish law, to stone with stones till they died the man or woman who “ hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven.” For another, let us glance over the curious record of the treaty-oath between Philip of Macedon and the general of the Carthaginian and Libyan army, which so well shows how the original identity of nature-deities may be forgotten in their different local shapes, so that the same divinity may come twice or even three times over in as many national names and forms. Herakles and Apollo stand in company with the personal Sun, and as well as the personal Moon there is to be seen the Carthaginian goddess, whom there is good reason to look on as herself wholly or partly of lunar nature. This is the list of deities invoked: “ Before Zeus and Hera and



Loskiel, 'Ind. of N. A.' part i. p. 43. 2 Bickmore, 'Ainos,' in ‘Tr. Eth. Soc.' vol. vii. p. 20.

Hodgson, *Abor. of India,' p. 167. * Georgi, ‘Reise im Russ. R.' vol. i. p. 275. 5 Clavigero, 'Messico,' vol. ii. pp. 9, 35 ; Tylor, ‘Mexico,' l. c. 6 Waitz, vol. iv. p. 362. 7 Prescott, ‘Peru,' vol. i. p. 90. But compare Garcilaso de la Vega, iii. 21. 8 Siebold, 'Nippon,' part v. p. 9.

Apollo ; before the goddess of the Carthaginians (daluoros Kapxydovíwv) and Herakles and Iolaos; before Ares, Triton, Poseidon ; before the gods who fought with the armies, and Sun and Moon and Earth; before the rivers and meadows and waters ; before all the gods who rule Macedonia and the rest of Greece ; before all the gods who were at the war, they who have presided over this oath." 1 When Lucian visited the famous temple of Hierapolis in Syria, he saw the images of the other gods, “but only of the Sun and Moon they show no images.” And when he asked why, they told him that the forms of other gods were not seen by all, but Sun and Moon are altogether clear, and all men see them. In Egyptian theology, not to discuss other divine beings to whom a lunar nature has been ascribed, it is at least certain that Aah is the Moon in absolute personal divinity.3 In Aryan theology, the personal Moon stands as Selēnē beside the more anthropomorphic forms of Hekatē and Artemis," as Luna beside the less understood Lucina, and Diana with her borrowed attributes, while our Teutonic forefathers were content with his plain name of Moon. As for lunar survivals in the higher religions, they are much like the solar. Monotheist as he is, the Moslem still claps his hands at sight of the new moon, and says a prayer. In Europe in the 15th century it was matter of complaint that some still adored the new moon with bended knee, or hood or hat removed, and to this day we may still see a hat raised to her, half in conservatism and half in jest. It is with reference to silver as the lunar metal, that money is turned when the act of adoration

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* Deuteron. xvii. 3 ; Polyb. vii. 9; sce Movers, ' Phönizier,' pp. 159, 536, 605.

3 Lucian de Syria Dea, iv. 34.

3 Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 239, rol. v. p. 5. Bunsen, · Egypt,' vol. iv. See Plutarch. Is. et Osir.

* Welcker, ‘Griech. Götterl.' vol. i. p. 550, etc.
5 Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 27.
6 Grimm, ‘D. M.'ch. xxii.

? Akerblad, 'Lettre à Italinsky.' Burton, Central Afr.' vol. ii. p. 346. Mungo Park, ‘Travels,' in ‘Pinkerton,' vol. xvi. p. 875.

is performed, while practical peasant wit dwells on the illluck of having no piece of silver when the new moon is first seen.

Thus, in tracing the development of Nature-Worship, it appears that though Fire, Air, Earth, and Water are not yet among the lower races systematized into a quaternion of elements, their adoration, with that of Sun and Moon, shows already arising in primitive culture the familiar types of those great divinities, who received their further development in the higher Polytheism.

· Grimm, 'D. M.' pp. 29, 667; Brand, vol. iii. p. 146; Forbes Leslie, * Early Races of Scotland,' vol. i. p. 136,

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Polytheism comprises a class of Great Deities, ruling the course of Nature and

the life of Man --Childbirth-god-Agriculture-god-War-god-God of the Dead - First Man as Divine Ancestor-Dualism ; its rudimentary and unethical nature among low races; its development through the course of culture-Good and Evil Deity-Doctrine of Divine Supremacy, distinct from, while tending towards, the doctrine of Monotheism - Idea of Supreme Deity evolved in various forms among the lower races ; its place as completion of the Polytheistic system and outcome of the Animistic philosophy ; its continuance and development among higher nations-General survey of Animism as a Philosophy of Religion - Recapitulation of the theory advanced as to its development through successive stages of culture ; its primary phases best represented among the lower races, while survivals of these among the higher races mark the transition from savage through barbaric to civilized faiths-Transition of Animism in the History of Religion ; its earlier and later stages as a Philosophy of the Universe ; its later stages as the principle of a Moral Institution.


POLYTHEISM acknowledges, beside great fetish-deities like Heaven and Earth, Sun and Moon, another class of great gods whose importance lies not in visible presence, but in the performance of certain great offices in the course of Nature and the life of Man. The lower races furnish themselves with such deities, either by giving the recognised gods special duties to perform, or by attributing these functions to beings invented in divine personality for the purpose. The creation of such divinities is however carried to a much greater extent in the complex systems of the higher polytheism. For a compact group of examples showing to what different ideas men will resort for a deity to answer a special end, let us take the deity presiding over

Childbirth. In the West Indies, a special divinity occupied with this function took rank as one of the great indigenous fetish-gods ; 1 in the Samoan group, the household god of the father's or mother's family was appealed to ;? in Peru the Moon takes to this office, and the same natural idea recurs in Mexico ;4 in Esthonian religion the productive Earthmother appropriately becomes patroness of human birth ; 5 classic theology carries on both these ideas, in so far as the Greek Hēra represents the Earth and the Roman Lucina the Moon ;7 and to conclude the list, the Chinese work out the problem from the manes-worshipper's point of view, for the goddess whom they call “Mother” and propitiate with many a ceremony and sacrifice to save and prosper their children, is held to have been in human life a skilful midwife.8

The deity of Agriculture may be a cosmic being affecting the weather and the soil, or a mythic giver of plants and teacher of their cultivation and use. Thus among the Iroquois, Heno the Thunder, who rides through the heavens on the clouds, who splits the forest-trees with the thunderbolt-stones he hurls at his enemies, who gathers the clouds and pours out the warm rains, was fitly chosen as patron of husbandry, invoked at seed-time and harvest, and called Grandfather by his children the Indians. It is interesting to notice again on the southern continent the working out of this idea in the Tupan of Brazilian tribes; Thunder and Lightning, it is recorded, they call Tupan, considering themselves to owe to him their hoes and the profitable

1 Herrera, 'Indias Occidentales,' Dec. i. 3, 3 ; J. G. Müller, 'Amer. Urrel. pp. 175, 221.

· Turner, ‘Polynesia,' p. 174.
3 Rivero and Tschudi, ‘Peru,' p. 160.

Kingsborough, ‘Mexico,' vol. v. p. 179.
5 Castrén, Finn. Myth.' p. 89.
6 Welcker, ‘Griech. Götterl.' vol. i. p. 371.
7 Ovid. Fast. ii. 449.
8 Doolittle, “Chinese,' vol. i. p. 264.
9 Morgan, 'Iroquois,' p. 158.



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