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(or Brinton's translations, Ugly Spirit and Beautiful Spirit, may be more accurate). The Good Mind, not contented to remain in darkness, wished to create a great light; the Bad Mind desired that the world should remain in its natural state. The Good Mind took his dead mother's head and made it the sun, and of a remnant of her body he made the moon. These were to give light to the day and to the night. Also he created many spots of light, now stars: these were to regulate the days, nights, seasons, years. Where the light came upon the dark world, the monsters were displeased, and hid themselves in the depths, lest man should find them. The Good Mind continued the creation, formed many creeks and rivers on the Great Island, created small and great beasts to inhabit the forests, and fishes to inhabit the waters. When he had made the universe, he doubted concerning beings to possess the Great Island. He formed two images of the dust of the ground in his own likeness, male and female, and by breathing into their nostrils gave them living souls, and named them Ea-gwe-howe, that is "real people; " and he gave the Great Island all the animals of game for their maintenance; he appointed thunder to water the earth by frequent rains; the island became fruitful, and vegetation afforded to the animals subsistence. The Bad Mind went throughout the island and made high mountains and waterfalls and great steeps, and created reptiles injurious to mankind; but the Good Mind restored the island to its former condition. The Bad Mind made two clay images in the form of man, but while he was giving them existence they became apes; and so on. The Good Mind accomplished the works of creation, notwithstanding the imaginations of the Bad Mind were continually evil; thus he attempted to enclose all the animals of game in the earth away from mankind, but his brother set them free, and traces of them were made on the rocks near the cave where they were shut in. At last the brethren came to single combat for the mastery of the universe. The Good Mind falsely persuaded the Bad Mind that whipping with
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flags would destroy his own life, but he himself used the deer-horns, the instrument of death. After a two days' fight, the Good Mind slew his brother and crushed him in the earth; and the last words of the Bad Mind were that he would have equal power over men's souls after death; then he sank down to eternal doom and became the Evil Spirit. The Good Mind visited the people, and then retired from the earth.1
This is a graphic tale. Its version of the cosmic myth of the World-Tortoise, and its apparent philosophical myth of fossil footprints, have much mythological interest. But its Biblical copying extends to the very phraseology, and only partial genuineness can be allowed to its main theme. Dr. Brinton has profitably criticized this, referring to early American writers to show how much dualistic fancy has sprung up since the times of first intercourse between natives and white men, and pointing out the habit of European narrators to make distinctions between good and evil spirits in ways foreign to Indian thought. When we compare this legend, he says, with the version of the same legend given by Father Brebeuf, missionary to the Hurons in 1G3G, we find its whole complexion altered; the moral dualism vanishes; the names of Good and Bad Mind do not appear; it is the story of Ioskeha the White One, with his brother Tawiscara the Dark One, and we at once perceive that Christian influence in the course of two centuries had given the tale a meaning foreign to its real intent.
Brinton's tracing of the myth to its earlier stage is quite just, and in great measure also his view as to the development of its dualism. Yet if we go back to the earliest sources and examine this myth of the White One and the Dark One, we shall find it to be itself one of the most perfect examples the world can show of the rise of primitive dualism in the savage mind. Father Brebeuf's story is as
1 Schoolcraft, 'Indian Tribes,' part v. p. 632; see part i. p. 316, part vi. p. 166; 'Iroquois,' p. 36, see 237; Brinton, 'Myths of New World,' p. 63.
follows: Aataentsic the Moon fell from heaven on earth, and bore two sons, Taouiscaron and Iouskeha, who being grown up quarrelled; judge, he says, if there be not in this a touch of the death of Abel. They came to combat, but with very different weapons. Iouskeha had a stag-horn, Taouiscaron contented himself with some wild-rose berries, persuading himself that as soon as he should thus smite his brother, he would fall dead at his feet; but it fell out quite otherwise than he had promised himself, and Iouskeha struck him so heavy a blow in the side that the blood gushed forth in streams. The poor wretch fled, and from his blood which fell upon the land came the flints which the savages still call Taouiscara, from the victim's name. From this we see it to be true that the original myth of the two brothers, the White One and the Dark One, had no moral element. It seems mere nature-myth, the contest between Day and Night, for the Hurons knew that Iouskeha was the Sun, even as his mother or grandmother Aataentsic was the Moon. Yet in the contrast between these two, the Huron mind had already come to the rudimentary contrast of the Good and Evil Deity. Iouskeha the Sun, it is expressly said, seemed to the Indians their benefactor; their kettle would not boil were it not for him; it was he who learnt from the Tortoise the art of making fire; without him they would have no luck in hunting; it is he who makes the corn to grow. Iouskeha the Sun takes care for the living and all things concerning life, and therefore, says the missionary, they say he is good. But Aataentsic the Moon, the creatress of earth and man, makes men die and has charge of their departed souls, and they say she is evil. Iouskeha and Taouiskaron, the Sun and Moon, dwell together in their cabin at the end of the earth, and thither it was that the four Indians made the mythic journey of which various episodes have been more than once cited here; true to their respective characters, the Sun receives the travellers kindly and saves them from the harm the beauteous but hurtful Moon would have done them. Another missionary of still earlier time identifies Iouskelia with the supreme deity Atahocan: "Iouskelia," he says, "is good and gives growth and fair weather; his grandmother Eatahentsic is wicked and spoils."1 Thus in early Iroquois legend, the Sun and Moon, as god and goddess of Day and Night, had already acquired the characters of the great friend and enemy of man, the Good and Evil Deity. And as to the related cosmic legend of Day and Night, contrasted in the persons of the two brothers, the White One and the Dark One, though this was originally pure unethic nature-myth, yet it naturally took the same direction among the half-Europeanized Indians of later times, becoming a moral myth of Good and Evil. We have thus before us the profoundly interesting fact, that the rude North American Indians have more than once begun the same mythologic transition which in ancient Asia shaped the contrast of light and darkness into the contrast of righteousness and wickedness, by following out the same thought which still in the European mind arrays in the hostile forms of Light and Darkness the contending powers of Good and Evil.
Judging by such evidence as this, at once of the rudimentary dualism springing up in savage animism, and of the tendency of this to amalgamate with similar thought brought in by foreign intercourse, we may fairly account for many systems of this class found in the native religions of America. While the character and age of the evidence may lead us to agree with Waitz that the North American Indian dualism, the most distinct and universal feature of their religion, is not to be referred to a modern and Christian origin, yet we shall be cautious in claiming anything that may be borrowed civilized theology, as being genuine evidence of primitive development. The Algonquin's belief recognizes the antagonistic Kitchi Manitu and Matchi Manitu, the Great Spirit and Evil Spirit, who preside over the
1 Breboufin 'Rel. des Jesuites dans laNonvelle France,' MM, p. 34, 1636, p. 100. Sagard, 'Histoiredu Canada,' Paris, 1636, p. 490. L. H. Morgan, 'Iroquois,' p. 156.
spiritual contending hosts which fill the world and struggle for the mastery over it. They are especially associated, the one with light and warmth, the other with damp and darkness, while some tribes identify them with Sun and Moon. Here the nature-religion of the savage may have been developed, but was not set on foot, by the foreigner. In the extreme north-west, we may doubt any native origin in the semi-Christianized Kodiak's definition of Shljem Shod the creator of heaven and earth, to whom offerings were made before and after the hunt, as contrasted with Ijak the bad spirit dwelling in the earth. In the extreme south-east, we may find more originality among the Floridan Indians two or three centuries ago, for they are said to have paid solemn worship to the Bad Spirit Toia who plagued them with visions, but to have had small regard for the Good Spirit, who troubles himself little about mankind.1 On the southern continent, Martius makes this characteristic remark as to the rude tribes of Brazil: "All Indians have a lively conviction of the power of an evil principle over them; in many there dawns also a glimpse of the good; but they revere the one less than they fear the other. It might be thought that they hold the Good Being weaker in relation to the fate of man than the Evil." This generalization is to some extent supported by statements as to particular tribes. The Macusis are said to recognize the good creator Macunaima, "he who works by night," and his evil advers&ry Epel or Horiuch: of these people it is observed that "All the powers of nature are products of the Good Spirit, when they do not disturb the Indian's rest and comfort, but the work of evil spirits when they do." Uauiiloa and Locozy, the good and evil deity of the Yumanas, live above the earth and toward the sun: the Evil Deity is feared by these
1 Waitz, 'Anthropologic,' vol. iii. pp. 182, 330, 335, 345; La Potherie, 'Hist, de l'Amcr. Septentrionale,' Paris, 1722, vol. i. p. 121 ; J. G. Muller, p. 149, etc. Schoolcraft, 'Indian Tribes,' part i. p. 85, etc., 320, 412; Catlin, vol. i. p. 156 ; Gregg, 'Commerce of Prairies,' vol. ii. pp. 238, 305; Cranz, 'Grbnland,'p. 263.