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the nature of the unpardonable sin, and of the real state of their own minds, or perhaps from a tincture of melancholy, are apt to suspect that they have committed it, it may be proper, before we dismiss this subject, to observe,

8. That no sin, however great, which men may commit through ignorance and unbelief, or previous to their having received the knowledge of the truth, is the unpardonable sin. The crucifixion of Christ was certainly a sin of the first magnitude; yet, amidst the tortures of the cross, he prayed for his murderers, "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do," Luke xxiii. 34. which prayer was undoubtedly answered. Peter charged home on the Jews their having killed the Prince of life; yet as he knew that through ignorance they did it, as did also their rulers, he calls them to repent and be converted that their sins may be blotted out, Acts iii. 11, 17, 19. Saul of Tarsus was a cruel persecutor of Jesus, compelling his disciples to blaspheme; yet he obtained mercy, because he did it ignorantly in unbelief, 1 Tim. i. 13.

oaths; yet he obtained repentance and forgiveness, Matt. xxvi. 69– 75. The churches of Galatia after they had been called into the grace of Christ, were in a great measure subverted from the faith by false teachers; yet the apostle travailed in birth of them again until Christ was formed in them, Gal. i. 6. iii. 1, 3, 4. iv. 9, 15, 19. In short, there may be many grievous occasional sins committed by real Christians, after having received the knowledge of the truth, and tasted of the good word of God, which, though highly aggravated, are none of them that wilful sin which the apostle describes, nor what our Lord calls the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost which shall never be forgiven.

10. From the scripture account of this sin it may easily be distinguished from all others-1. It is a wilful sin, and committed not through mistake, or reluctantly through the overbearing force of temptation, but of design, and from a deliberate determination of mind; which, considering the knowledge they have of the truth, must involve in it the most daring presumption.-2. It is termed a falling away, or drawing back; not merely a partial decline or backsliding; but a total apostacy from the faith of the gospel; openly and avowedly renouncing Christ, the profession of his name, and all part and interest in him, and disclaim

9. No act of sin, however heinous, and even though committed after being once enlightened, if the word of God calls to repent of it, and contains any instance of repentance or forgiveness for that or such like sin, can be considered as the unpardonable sin. A calling all allegiance and subjection to to repentance always supposes him.-3. This is clear, from the that there is place for it. It im- hatred, malice, and contempt with plies, that upon repentance and which they treat him: They are application to the blood of Christ represented as crucifying to themfor cleansing, pardon will be grant-selves the Son of God afresh, putted; and this is expressly promised, ing him to an open shame, treadProv. xxviii. 13. 1Johni. 9. David, ing him under foot, and counting though enlightened by the Spirit his blood an unholy thing. And and an inspired prophet, fell into because the Holy Spirit bore witthe sin of adultery and deliberateness to him by his miraculous murder; yet he repented and was operations and spiritual gifts, thereforgiven, 2 Sam. xii. 7-14. Psal.fore they spitefully insult the Spirit xxxii. 5. Peter, after his faith had of grace, by blasphemously ascribbeen approved of, denied his Lording these to evil spirits.

thrice, with imprecations and 11. From this account of the

unpardonable sin we may see, that it is not a simple transient act, or occasional transgression of a particular precept, but a wilful, total and avowed apostacy from the faith of the gospel, and that in the face of all the supernatural evidence by which its truth is confirmed; in opposition to all the motives to stedfastness which it holds forth, and in violation of all the obligations which they have come under: This can be accounted for upon no other principle than a deep rooted and settled enmity of heart against Christ, his holy character, and the way of salvation through him. As there is no remission of sin without a sacrifice, and no effectual sacrifice for sin, but that which they despise and reject; so nothing remains for them but a certain fearful looking for of judgment, ver. 27. which instead of disposing them to repentance, only serves to increase their enmity, it being a desperate hopeless fear of him as their enemy, such as devils have.

the unpardonable sin, it will have the most pernicious effects upon him. For though he should still highly prize the gospel salvation, and think them happy who par take of it, (which does not consist with this sin;) yet the apprehension that he has forfeited that salvation, and is himself cut off from any part or interest in it, must overturn his faith in the atonement, and hope in divine mercy, fill him with terror and despair, and militate against every principle of love and obedience.


[From Dr. E. D. Clarke's Travels,
Octavo. Vol. II. p. 339, &c.]

THE particulars of Mr. Howard's death were communicated to us by his two friends, Admiral Mordvinof, then Chief-Admiral of the Black-Sea fleet, and Admiral Priestman, an English officer in the Russian service; both of whom had borne testimony to his last moments. He had been entreated to visit a lady about twenty-four miles from Cherson, who was dangerously ill. Mr. Howard objected, alleging that he acted only as physician to the poor; but, hearing of her imminent danger, he afterwards yielded to the persuasion of Admiral Mordvinof, and went to see her. After having

12. The design of the apostle in setting before the Hebrews the awful consequences of apostacy, was to put them upon their guard against every approach towards it, and to make them take heed lest there should be in any of them an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God; which is always a necessary caution, especially in times of particular temp-prescribed for this lady, he retation, or when symptoms of that turned; leaving directions with sin begin to appear. But it was her family, to send for him again far from his design to drive any of if she got better; but adding, that them into despair, or even to dis- if, as he much feared, she should courage them, but the very re- prove worse, it would be to no verse. Therefore persons ought to purpose. Sometime after his rebeware that they charge not this turn to Cherson, a letter arrived, sin either on themselves or others, stating that the lady was better, without a due consideration and and begging that he would come knowledge of its nature as describ- without loss of time. When he ed by the apostle, and having the examined the date, he perceived fullest evidence that the descrip- that the letter, by some unaccounttion really applies to the delay, had been eight days in When a man through mistake getting to his hands. Upon this, imagines that he has committed he resolved to go with all possibl

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expedition. The weather was ex- death: but I entertain very dif tremely tempestuous, and very cold, ferent sentiments. Death has no it being late in the year; and the terrors for me: it is an event I rain fell in torrents. In his im- always look to with cheerfulness, patience to set out, a conveyance if not with pleasure; and be asnot being immediately ready, he sured, the subject of it is to me mounted an old dray-horse, used more grateful than any other. I in Admiral Mordvinof's family to am well aware that I have but a convey water, and thus proceeded short time to live; my mode of to visit his patient. Upon his life has rendered it impossible that arrival, he found the lady dying: I should recover from this fever. this, added to the fatigue of the If I had lived as you do, eating journey, affected him so much, heartily of animal food, and drinkthat it brought on a fever: his ing wine, I might, perhaps, by clothes, at the same time, had altering my diet, be able to subdue been wet through. But he attri-it. But how can such an invalid buted his fever entirely to another cause. Having administered something to his patient to excite perspiration, as soon as the symp. toms of it appeared, he put his hand beneath the bed-clothes, to feel her pulse, that she might not be chilled by his removing them; and he believed that her fever was thus communicated to him. After this painful journey, Mr. Howard returned to Cherson, and the lady died.

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as I am lower his diet? I have been accustomed, for years, to exist upon vegetables and water; a little bread, and a little tea. I have no method of lowering my nourishment, and consequently I must die. It is such jolly fellows as you, Priestman, who get over these fevers!" Then, turning the subject, he spoke of his funeral; and cheerfully gave directions concerning the manner of his burial. "There is a spot," said he, near the village of Dauphigny: this would suit me nicely: you know it well, for I have often said that I should like to be buried there; and let me beg of you, as you value your old friend, not to suffer any pomp to be used at my funeral; nor any monument, nor monumental inscription whatsoever, to mark where I am laid: but lay me quietly in the earth, place a sundial over my grave, and let me be forgotten." Having given these directions, he was very earnest in soliciting that Admiral Priestman would lose no time in securing the object of his wishes; but go im

It had been almost his daily custom, at a certain hour, to visit Admiral Priestman; when, with his usual attention to regularity, he would place his watch upon the table, and pass exactly an hour with him in conversation. The Admiral, observing that he failed in his usual visits, went to see him, and found him weak and ill, sitting before a stove in his bed-room. Having inquired after his health, Mr. Howard replied, that his end was approaching very fast; that he had several things to say to his friend; and thanked him for having called. The Admiral, finding him in such a melancholy mood, en-mediately, and settle with the deavoured to turn the conversa- owner of the land for the place of tiou, imagining the whole might be his interment, and prepare every the effect of his low spirits; but thing for his burial. Mr. Howard soon assured him it The Admiral left him upon his was otherwise; and added, "Priest-melancholy errand; fearing at the man, you style this a very dull consame time, as he himself informed versation, and endeavour to divert us, that the people would believe my mind from dwelling upon him to be crazy, in soliciting a

burying-ground for a man then | buried according to the rites of

living, and whom no person yet knew to be indisposed. However, he accomplished Mr. Howard's wishes, and returned to him with the intelligence: at this, his countenance brightened, a gleam of evident satisfaction came over his face, and he prepared to go to bed. Soon afterwards he made his will; leaving as his executor a trusty follower, who had lived with him more in the capacity of a friend than of a servant, and whom he charged with the commission of bearing his will to England. It was not until he had finished this will, that any symptoms of delirium appeared. Admiral Priestman, who had left him for a short time, returned and found him sitting up in his bed, adding what he believed to be a codicil to his will; but it consisted of several unconnected words, the chief part being illegible, and the whole without any meaning. This strange composition he desired Admiral Priestman to witness and to sign; and, in order to please him, the Admiral consented; but wrote his name, as he bluntly said, in Russian characters, lest any of his friends in England, reading his signature to such a codicil, should think he was also delirious. After Mr. Howard had made what he conceived to be an addition to his will, he became more composed. A letter was brought to him from England, containing intelligence of the improved state of his son's health; stating the nature of his occupations in the country, and giving reason to hope that he would recover from the disorder with which he was afflicted.* His servant read this letter aloud: and, when he had concluded, Mr. Howard turned his head towards him, saying, "Is not this comfort for a dying father?" He expressed great repugnance against being

* Mr. Howard's son laboured under an attack of insanity.

the Greek Church; and, begging Admiral Priestman to prevent any interference on the part of the Russian priests, made him also promise, that he would read the Service of the Church of England over his grave, and bury him in all respects according to the forms of his country.

Soon after this last request, he ceased to speak. Admiral Mordvinof came in, and found him dying very fast. They had in vain besought him to allow a physician to be sent for; but Admiral Mordvinof renewing this solicitation with great earnestness, Mr. Howard assented, by nodding his head. The physician came, but was too late to be of any ser vice. A rattling in the throat had commenced: the physician administered what is called the musk draught, a medicine used only in Russia, in the last extremity. It was given to the patient by Admiral Mordvinof, who prevailed with him to swallow a little; but he endeavoured to avoid the rest, and gave evident signs of disapprobation. He was then entirely given over; and shortly after breathed his last.

Mr. Howard had always refused to allow any portrait of himself to be made; but after his death, Admiral Mordvinof caused a plaster mould to be formed upon his face: this was sent to Mr. Whitbread. A cast from the same mould was in the Admiral's pos-, session when we were in Cherson, presenting a very striking resemblance of his features.

He was buried near the village of Dauphigny, about five versts from Cherson, by the road to Nichola ef, in the spot he had himself chosen; and his friend, Admiral Priestman, read the English Burial-service, according to his desire. The rest of his wishes were not exactly fulfilled: the concourse of spectators was immense, and the order of his funeral was

more magnificent than would have them to him after our deparmet with his approbation.

A monument was afterwards erected over him: this, instead of the sun-dial he had requested, consisted of a brick pyramid or obelisk, surrounded by stone posts with chains. The posts and chains began to disappear before our arrival; and when Mr. Heber made the sketch from which the Vignette to this Chapter was engraven, not a vestige of them was to be seen; the obelisk alone remained, in the midst of a bleak and desolate plain, where dogs were gnawing the bones of a dead horse, whose putrifying carcase added to the revolting horror of the scene. A circumstance came to our knowledge before we left Russia, concerning Howard's remains, which it is painful to relate; namely, that Count Vincent Potocki, a Polish nobleman of the highest taste and talents, whose magnificent library and museum would do honour to any country, through a mistaken design of testifying his respect for the memory of Howard, had signified his intention of taking up the body, that it might be conveyed to his country-seat, where a sumptuous monument had been prepared for its reception, upon a small island in the midst of a lake. His Countess, being a romantic lady, wishes to have an annual fete, consecrated to Benevolence; at this the nymphs of the country are to attend, and to strew the place with flowers. This design is so contrary to the earnest request of Mr. Howard, and at the same time such a violation of the dignity due to his remains, that every friend to his memory will join in wishing it may never be fulfilled. Count Potocki was absent during the time we remained in that part of the world, or we should have ventured to remonstrate: we could only therefore entrust our petitions to a third person, who promised to convey



The distance from Cherson to Nicholaef is only sixty two versts, or rather more than forty-one miles. At the distance of five versts from the former place, the road passes close to the Tomb of Howard. It may be supposed we did not halt with indifference to view the hallowed spot. "Fo abstract the mind from all local emotion, would be impossible if it were endeavoured, and it would be foolish if it were possible. Whatever withdraws us from the power of our senses; whatever makes the past, the distant, or the future, predominate over the present; advances us in the dignity of thinking beings. Far be from me, and from my friends, that frigid philosophy which might conduct us indifferent or unmoved over any ground that has been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or virtue.” So spake the Sage, in words never to be forgotten: unenvied be the man who has not felt their force : lamented he who does not know their author.



IT is an important admonition
which the apostle gives the be-
lieving Hebrews in ch. xiii. 9. of
his epistle to them, when he says,
"Be not carried about with divers
and strange doctrines."
In oppo-
sition to which unstable conduct,
so perplexing to themselves and
inconsistent with their Christian
profession, he recommends it to
them to have their hearts "esta-
blished with grace;" that is, with
the free love and favour of God
revealed in the gospel through the
sacrifice of Christ, of which he
had treated so largely throughout
the whole of his letter to them.

Among the doctrines which may justly be denominated strange, or foreign to, and inconsistent

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