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It is announced that Dean Roscoe Pound of the Harvard Law School will deliver five lectures at the University of Texas during the week beginning April 16.

Dean John C. Townes, of the Law School of the University of Texas, has resigned, effective at the beginning of the next school year. The Regents have selected as his successor Professor George C. Butte of the law faculty. Professor Townes will continue his teaching work.

The Eleventh Annual Convention of the League of Texas Municipalities will be held at Bryan, Texas, May 9-10, 1923.

Mr. B. F. Wright, Jr., of the Department of Government, is the the author of a new bulletin just published by the Division of Government Research on "The Merit System in American States with Special Reference to Texas.”

Under the auspices of the Bureau of Extension of the University of Texas and at the request of the Texas League of Women Voters, The Texas Congress of Mothers and Parent Teachers' Associations, and the The Texas Federation of Women's Clubs, a second Conference on Citizenship, Education and Home Welfare was held, February 5-9, 1923.

BOOK REVIEWS

EDITED BY MALBONE W. GRAHAM

University of Texas

WARSHAW, J. The New Latin-America. (New York:

Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1922. Pp. xxii, 415. Price $3.00 net.)

The tide of books on Latin-America continues to rise, a very good omen of a better understanding of our southern neighbors. Professor Warshaw's book, to which Dean James E. LeRossignol has written an introduction, was written, the author tells us, “to present a faithful picture of progressive Latin-America, the Latin-America of today, the Latin-America which is still too generally unknown.”

In his first chapter Professor Warshaw sets forth some plain facts of geography, many of which are unknown to many who may consider themselves slightly above the “average” citizen of the United States. After pointing out the end of isolation in travel, trade, and immigration, he devotes four chapters to agriculture, manufacturing, and commerce. Herein he points out that our foreign trade with Latin-America increased from $2,253,191,295 in 1919 to $3,256,285,601 in 1920, when it was about one-fourth of our total foreign trade. To hold this trade is the problem.

No writer, on Latin-America can ignore the Monroe Doctrine. After pointing out the “North American peril" which overhadows the smaller Latin-American countries and the resentment in all countries to the transformation of the Monroe Doctrine from a policy of protection to one of hegemony and imperialism, Professor Warshaw reaches the conclusion that "Reviewing the Monroe Doctrine ... in its triple aspect of protection, imperialism, and hegemony from any just angle it is difficult, indeed, to see where, in its relation to the non-Caribbean countries of Latin-America, it has a leg to stand upon.” But why except the Caribbean countries? Our dominance in that region he freely confesses is due to "financial and commercial considerations" which "are the motives which mold politics everywhere.” Perhaps so, but many will not approve of the cavalier fashion in which the author sanctions the way that Roosevelt and Wilson stretched the Monroe Doctrine to cover a multitude of financial and commercial sins in the Caribbean.

Chapters VIII-XII, dealing with religion, amusements, education, literature, and the position of women, throw much light on social progress in Latin-America. Chapter XIII tells of the great expansion of American investments in Latin-America, catalogues the American captains of industry in Latin-America as Homer catalogued the heroes of Troy and lays open a still greater “field of opportunity" for others yet to come. But, in the final chapter, he draws a picture in “As Latin-Americans See Us" which should cause the would-be prospector to pause and consider his ways and those of the Latin-Americans. An appendix furnishes a lot of geographical and economic information useful both to the student and to the business man.

The book is written in an easy, not to say attractive, style and makes pleasant reading. It is worth while to the serious student of Latin-America. University of Arkansas.

DAVID Y. THOMAS.

JENNINGS, W. W. The American Embargo, 1807-1809, with

particular reference to its effects on industry. (University of Iowa Studies.).

The especial merit of this complete and detailed study of Professor Jennings of the University of Iowa is the exhaustive examination he makes of the effects of the embargo on American manufactures, agriculture, and commerce. Familiarity with the literature and concrete facts of the subject, careful organization and thorough analysis are evidenced in the compact chapters of the book. The scope of the study is indicated by the chapter headings: American Commerce, 1798-1807, Foreign Restrictions on Commerce, The Embargo in Legislation, Congressional Debate, and Diplomacy, The Economic Effects of the Embargo on Warring Nations with Particular Reference to England and her Colonies, The Attitude of the United States toward the Embargo, The Growing Opposition to the Embargo Finally Forces Repeal, The Effect of the Embargo on Manufactures, The Effect of the Embargo on Agriculture, and the Effects of the Embargo on Commerce.

The author shows from a thorough investigation which he reports in well tabulated form that the curtailment of foreign trade increased the demand for home manufactured goods thereby stimulating home manufactures. The effects on agriculture were of an opposite nature. Prices of farm products declined, debts increased, and the mortgaging of property and foreclosing of farms followed. Likewise the effects on commerce were lamentable. Professor Jennings says: "Though many a smuggler made a fortune through dishonesty, many a law-abiding merchant went bankrupt. Many thriving ports groaned uneasily under the blasting effects of the embargo; many involuntarily idle sailors and fishermen cursed with quiet or noisy vehemence' while their families endured the agonies of hunger.” Again in summary, “If, in conclusion, the effects of the embargo on industry can be epitomized in one final sentence that final sentence will read, “The embargo stimulated manufactures, injured agriculture, and prostrated commerce.'”.

Dr. Jennings sets forth clearly the surrounding circumstances, political, including the diplomatic, and economic, and discusses the reaction of public opinion resulting finally in the repeal of the measure. He has made an extensive as well as intensive research into the literature of the period for concrete and definite proof of every proposition before reaching a conclusion. Another feature of the monograph to be commended is the bibliography including the various types of material gathered from sketches of correspondence, national, state, and city histories, special historical studies, American newspaper material, and collections of miscellaneous material. Baylor University.

CHARLES D. JOHNSON.

CASE, CLARENCE MARSH. Non-Violent Coercion. (New

York: The Century Co. Pp. 423. Price $3.00.)

In Non-Violent Coercion by Dr. Clarence Marsh Case professor of sociology at the State University of Iowa, we have an instructive and readable volume. It does not argue, preach, or philosophize, but it does analyze and treat authoritatively one of the most curious and interesting forms of phenomena in human history. The writer lets the facts, which he presents in abundance, speak for themselves

-facts gleaned from sources as old as Confucius and as modern as the movement of Gandhi, the moving spirit of non-violent resistance in India today. The array of details is well organized and presented in a manner so suggestive and stimulating that the reader is fascinated and enlightened upon a subject of such timely and engaging interest.

Beginning with the philosophies of non-violence, Professor Case develops the history of the idea of non-violent opposition in a lucid and analytical manner. After treating of several of the outstanding "pacifist" groups, among them the Bohemian Brethren, the Anabaptists, the Mennonites, the Quakers, and other religious, political, and non-political non-violent sects and parties, he includes chapters under such captions as, Peace Sectarians and Conscientious Objectors during the World War-both individual and group aspects, Psycho-social Traits of Non-Violent Resistantsboth historical and statistical evidence, Passive Resistance in Theory and Practice, and Successes and Failures of Passive Resistance. These chapters amply demonstrate, by use of historical data, that "passive resistance never was mere passive submission.” It was always in the nature of an impersonal and non-violent conflict. Being an aspect of conflict "it naturally merges into constraint and coercion,” but of a non-violent sort.

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