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Boadicea, her suicide, ii. 53, note
Bolingbroke's Reflections on Exile,'

i. 201, note
Bona Dea, story and worship of, i.

94, note. Popularity of her
worship among the Romans, 106,

Boniface, St., his missionary labours,

ii. 247
Bonnet, his philosophy, i. 71
Bossuet, on the nature of the love

we should bear to God, i. 18,

Brophotrophia, in the early church,

ii. 32
Brotherhood, effect of Christianity

his “Creation of the World,' ii.
Cæsar, Julius, denies the immor-

tality of the soul, i. 182. His
condemnation of suicide, 213.
His colonial policy, 233.

multiplication of gladiatorial

in promoting, ii. 61
Brown, on the motive for the practice

of virtue, i. 8, note. On theologi-

cal Utilitarianism, 16, note
Brunehaut, Queen, her crimes, ap-

proved of by the Pope, ii. 236,

237. Her end, 237
Brutus, his extortionate usury, i.

193, 194
Buckle, Thomas, his remarks on

morals, i. 74, note. On the differ-
ence between mental and physical
pleasures, 90, note. His views of
the comparative influence of in-
tellectual and moral agencies in

civilisation, 103, note
Bull-baiting in England, ii. 175,

Bulgarians, their conversion to Chris-

tianity, ii. 180
Butler, Bishop, maintains the reality

of the existence of benevolence in
our nature, i. 20, 21, note. On
the pleasure derived from virtue,
32, note. His analysis of moral
judgments, 76. His definition of

conscience, 83
Byzantine Empire, general sketch of
the moral condition of the, ii. 13,
14. Moral condition of the em-
pire during the Christian period,

shows, 273
Caligula, his intoxication with his

imperial dignity, i. 259. His

superstitious fears, 367
Calvinists : tendency of the Supra-

lapsarian to deny the existence of

a moral sense, i. 17, note
Camma, conjugal fidelity of, ii. 341
Capital punishment, aversion to, ii.

Carlyle, Thomas, on self-sacrifice, i.

57, note. The influence of con-
science on the happiness of men,

Carneades, his expulsion from Rome

proposed by Cato, i. 399
Carpocrates, licentiousness of the

followers of, i. 417
Carthage, effect of the destruction of,

on the decadence of Rome, i. 169.

The Decian persecution at, 452
Carthaginians, the, amongst the

most prominent of Latin writers,

i. 235
Cassius, the tyrannicide, his suicide,

i. 215
Castellio, his exposure of the for-

geries of the Sibylline books, i.

Catacombs, the, i. 453, 455
Catholicism, Roman, the system of

education adopted by, contrasted
with that of the English public
schools, i. 114. Conflict of the
priests with political economists
on the subject of early marriages,
114, 115. The teaching of, on
many points the extreme anti-
thesis of that of the pagan philo-
sophers, 208. Its view of death,
riages, ii. 325, note
Chastity, in Utilitarian systems, i.

208, 210. Little done by it for
humanity to animals, ii. 173, 177,
188. Influence on despotism, 186.
Its total destruction of religious
liberty, 194–199. Causes of the
indifference to truth manifested in
its literature, 241. Protestantism

contrasted with it, 368
Cato, his refusal to consult the ora-

cles, i. 165, note. His stoicism,
185. His inhumanity to his
slaves, 193. His study of the

Phædon'the night he committed
suicide, 212. His opposition to
Greek philosophy, 231. His view

of pre-nuptial chastity, ii. 314
Cattle plague, theological notions

respecting the, i. 356
Catullus, on the death of a sparrow,

ii. 165, note
Cautinus, Bishop, his drunkenness,

ii. 236
Celibacy among the ancients, i. 106.

The Catholic monastic system,
107. How discouraged by Au-
gustus, 232. Celibacy the primal
virtue of the Christians of the
fourth and fifth centuries, ii, 122.
Effect of this upon moral teach-
ing, 122, 123. History of the

celibacy of the clergy, 328, 336
Celsus calls the Christians Sibyl-

lists, i. 376. And jugglers,

Celts, Spanish, their worship of

death, i. 206, 207. Causes of
their passion for suicide, 207,
note. Their lamentations on the

birth of men, 207, note
Censors, Roman, minute supervision

of the, i. 168
Character, influence of, on opinion,

i. 172. Governed in a great mea-
sure by national circumstances,

Chariot races, passion for, at Con-

stantinople, ii. 37

Charity, a form of self-love, accord.

ing to the Utilitarians, i. 9, and
note. Impossibility of charity
becoming a pleasure if practised
only with a view to that end, 36.
Charity of the Stoics, 191. Cice-
ro's emphatic assertion of the
duty, 270. Exertions of the
Christians in the cause of charity,
ii. 75, 79. Inadequate place given
to this movement in history, 84,
85. Christian charity, in what it
consists, 73. Laws of the Romans,
73. Pagan examples of charity,
78. Noble enthusiasm of the
Christians in the cause of charity,
78, 79. Charity enjoined as a
matter of justice, 81. Theological
notions of charity, 85, 90, 91.
Evils of Catholic charity, 93–94.
Legends respecting the virtue,

245, and note
Charlemagne, his law respecting

Sunday, ii. 245. Fascination ex-
ercised by him over the popular
imagination, 271, 272. His poly-

gamy, 343

Charles V., the Emperor, his law

against beggars, ii. 97
Charles Martel, his defeat of the

Mahommedans, at Poictiers, ii.

Charondas, law of, on second mar-

12, 49. Sketch of the history of,
103-107, The Catholic monastic
system 107. Modern judgments
of, ii. 282, 283. Cato's views,
314. Mystical views, 315. Ser-
vices of the ascetics in enforcing

the duty of chastity, 318–320
Childrer, charge of murdering in-

fants, among the early Christians,
i. 417. Abortion, i. 20-24.
Infanticide, 24, 26. Exposed
children, 32. Institutions of the


Romans for the benefit of children,

Chilon, his closing hours, i. 207
Cholera, theological notions respect-

ing the, i. 356
Christian and pagan virtues com-

pared, i. 190
Christianity; distinctions between

the pagan and Christian concep-
tions of death, i. 208. The im-
portance of Christianity not
recognised by pagan writers, 336.
Causes of this, 338. Examination
of the theory which ascribes part
of the teaching of the later pagan
moralists to Christian influence,
340. Theory which attributes
the conversion of Rome to evi-
dences of miracles, 346. Opinion
of the pagans about the credulity
of the Christians, 347. Incapacity
of the Christians of the third cen-
tury for judging historic miracles,
375. And for judging prophecies,
376. Contemporary miracles rep-
resented as existing among them,
377. Christian miracles had pro-
bably little weight with the
pagans, 385. Progress of Chris-
tianity to what due, 386, 387.
Singular adaptation of it to the
wants of the time, 387. Heroism
it inspired, 390. Explanation of
the conversion of the Roman Em-
pire, 393. Account of the perse-
cutions of the Christians, 395.
Reasons why the Christians were
more persecuted than the Jews,
403, 406, 407. The first cause of
the persecution of the Christians,
406 Charges of immorality
brought against them, 414. Due
in a great measure to Jews and
heretics, 416, 417. The distur-
bance of domestic life caused by
female conversions, 418. Anti-
pathy of the Romans to every
system which employed religious

terrorism, 421. Christian intole-
rance of pagan worship, 423.
And of diversity of belief, 424–
427. History of the persecutions,
429. Nero's, 429. Domitian's,
431. Condition of the Christians
under the Antonines, 434. Be-
come profoundly obnoxious to the
people, 436. Marcus Aurelius,
439, 440. Introduction of Chris-
tianity into France, 442, and note.
Attitude of the rulers towards it
from M. Aurelius to Decius, 451,
et seq. Condition of the Church
on the eve of the Decian persecu-
tion, 448. Gallus, 454. Valerian,
454. Gallienus, 455. Erection
of churches in the Empire, 457.
Persecutions of Diocletian and
Galerius, 458. End of the perse-
cutions, 463. Massacre of Chris-
tians in Phrygia, 464. Moral
efficacy of the Christian sense of
sin, ii. 3. Dark views of human
nature not common in the early
Church, 5. The penitential sys-
tem, 6. Empire Christianity at-
tained in eliciting disinterested
enthusiasm, 8. Great purity of
the early Christians, 10, 11. The
promise of the Church for many
centuries falsified, 12. The first
consequence of Christianity a new
sense of the sanctity of human
life, 17. Influence in the protec-
tion of infant life, 20–32. In
the suppression of gladiatorial
shows, 34. Its effect upon per-
secutions, 40, et seq. The penal
code not lightened by it, 42.
Condemnation of suicide, 43.
Second consequence of Christianity
Teaches universal brotherhood,
61. Slavery, 61-66. Ransom of
captives, 72. Charity, 73. Exer
tions of the Christians in the
cause of charity, 75, 79. Their
exertions when the Empire was


subverted, 81, 82, 88. Theologi-
cal notions concerning insanity,
85-90. Almsgiving, 90-92.
Beneficial effect of Christianity
in supplying pure images to the
imagination, 97. Summary of
the philanthropic achievements
of Christianity, 100. Ways in
which the ascetic mode of life
affected both the ideal type and
realised condition of morals, 122,
et seq. History of the relations
of Christianity to the civic virtues,
140. Improvements effected by
Christianity in the morals of the
people, 153. Attitude of Chris-
tianity to the barbarians, 178.
How it achieved their conver-
sion, 179–181. Tendency of the
barbarians to adulterate it, 181.
Legends of the conflict between
the old gods and the new faith,
181. Fierce hatred of rival
sects, and total destruction of
religious liberty, 194, 200. Poly-
theistic and idolatrous form of
Christianity in mediæval times,
229. The doctrine of purgatory,
232. Benefits conferred by the
monasteries, 243-245. The ob-
servance of Sunday, 245. Influ-
ence of Christianity upon war,
254, 259. Upon the consecration
of secular rank, 260, et seq. Upon
the condition of women, 316, et
seq. Strong assertion of the
equality of obligation in marriage,
345, 346. Relation of Christianity
to the female virtues, 358, et

Chrysippus on the immortality of

the soul, i. 183
Chrysostom, St., his labours for

monachism, ii. 107. His treatment
of his mother, 132
Cicero on the evidence of a Divine

element within us, i. 56, note.
His definition of conscience, 83.

His conception of the Deity, 164.
His opinion of the popular beliefs,
165. Instance of his love of truth,
176, note. His desire for post
humous reputation, 185, note.
His declaration as to virtue con-
cealing itself from the world, 185.
His belief in the immortality of
the soul, 204. His view of death,
205, 206. His complacency on the
approach of death, 207. His con-
ception of suicide, 213. His
maintenance of the doctrine of
universal brotherhood, 240. How
he regarded the games of the
arena, 285. His friendship with
his freedman Tiro, 323. His re-
marks on charity, ii. 79. His
rules respecting almsgiving, 92
Circumcelliones, atrocities of the, ii.

41. Their custom of provoking
martyrdom, 49
Civic virtues, predominance accorded

to, in ancient ethics, i. 200
Civilisation, refining influence of, on

taste, i. 79. Pleasures of a civi-
lised and semi-civilised society
compared, 86. Views of Mill and
Buckle on the comparative influ-
ence of intellectual and moral
agencies in, 102, note. Effect of
education in diminishing cruelty,
and producing charity, 134. Moral
enthusiasm appropriate to differ-
ent stages of civilisation, 136.
Increase of veracity with civilisa-
tion, 137. Each stage of civilisa-
tion specially appropriate to some

virtue, 147
Clarke, on moral judgments, i. 77
Classical literature, preservation of,

ii, 199. Manner in which it was

regarded by the Church, 200-204
Claudius, bis delight in gladiatorial

shows, i, 280. His decreo as to

slaves, 307
Claver, Father, his remark on some

persons who had delivered a


criminal into the hands of justice,

i. 41, note
Cleanthes, his suicide, i. 212
Clemency, Seneca's distinction be-

tween it and pity, i. 189
Clement of Alexandria, on the two

sources of all the wisdom of an-
tiquity, i. 344. On the Sibylline

books, 376. On wigs, ii. 149
Clemens, Flavius, put to death, i.

Cleombrotus, his suicide, i. 212, note
Clergy, corruption of the, from the

fourth century, ii. 150, 237. Sub-
mission of the Eastern, but inde-
pendence of the Western, clergy
to the civil power, 264–268. His-

tory of their celibacy, 328
Climate, effects of, in stimulating or

allaying the passions, i. 144
Clotaire, his treatment of Queen

Brunehaut, ii, 237
Clotilda, her conversion of her hus.

band, i. 410 ; ii. 180
Clovis, his conversion, i. 410; ii.

180. Gregory of Tours' account

of his acts, 240, 241
Cock-fighting among the ancients

and moderns, ii. 164, and note,

175, note
Cock-throwing, ii. 164, note, 175,

Coemgenus, St., legend of, ii. 111,

Coleridge, S. T., his remarks on the

practice of virtue as a pleasure, i.
28, note. His admiration for
Hartley, 28, note. On the bind-
ing ground of the belief of God

and a hereafter, i. 55, note
Colman, St., his animal companions,

ii. 170. His girdle, 319, note
Colonies, Roman, the cosmopolitan

spirit forwarded by the aggran

disement of the, i. 233
Colosseum, the, i. 275. Games at

the dedication of the, 280

Columbanus, St., his missionary la-

bours, ii, 246
Comedy, Roman, short period during

which it flourished, i. 277
Comet, a temple erected by the Ro-

mans in honour of a, i. 367
Commodus, his treatment of the

Christians, i. 443
Compassion, theory that it is the

cause of our acts of barbarity, i.

71, 72
Concubines, Roman, ii. 350
Concupiscence, doctrine of the Fa-

thers respecting, ii. 281
Condillac, cause of the attractive-

ness of utilitarianism to, i. 71.
Connection with Locke, i. 122,

Confessors, power of the, in the

early Church, i. 390, and note
Congo, Helvétius, on a custom of the

people of, i. 102, note
Conquerors, causes of the admira-

tion of, i. 94, 95
Conscience, association of ideas

generating, i. 28. Recognised by
the disciples of Hartley, 29. Defi-
nitions of Hobbes, Locke, Ben-
tham, and Bain, 29, note. The
rewards and punishments of con-
science, 60–62. Unique position
of, in our nature, 83. As defined
by Cicero, the Stoics, St. Paul,

and Butler, 83
Consequences, remote, weakness of

the utilitarian doctrine of, i, 42-
Consolations, literature of, leading

topics of, i. 20+
Constantine, the Emperor, his foun-

dation of the empire of the East,
ii. 12. His humane policy to-
wards children, 29, 30. His sanc-
tion of the gladiatorial shows, 36.
His laws mitigating the severity
of punishments, 43. His treat-
ment of slaves, 64. His law

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