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Baptists, that is, they always bap- profess obedience to the Oriental tized by immersion, and they still canon law, and the ordinances of the continue to do so. The learned father Emperor “ They (the Georgians Simon, who had so thoroughly studied or Iberians) obey not the patriarch, the religion and customs of the Eastern who takes the title of Catholic or nations, and who derived his informa- Universal; and yet it is not he who tion from the most authentic sources, is the chief in spiritual affairs, but says, “ They delay the baptism of the prince, who is supreme in spirichildren until the third, fourth, fifth, tuals and temporals. The prince has sixih, tenth, and eighteenth year of his voice with the bishops in the electheir age.” The Melcbites followed tion of the patriarch, and all choose the common opinions of the Greeks, * him whom he desires; and the will being in all things true Greeks.f The of the several lords within their terriGeorgians or Iberians “ are not very tories stands for law." “ The Abys. pressing to receive baptism; but they sines or Ethiopians, who in all things re-baptize those who return to the follow the religion of the Cophlites, faith after apostacy: with baptism (who were of the Greek Church,) are they administer to children confir- under subjection to him, who is called mation and the eucharist :" a proof the Emperor of the Greater and Upper by the bye, that the Greek Church Ethiopia." Some of the Oriental verer administered baptism to new

Churches are now in civil subjection bora babes; for they always gave to the Grand Seignior, the Armenians the eucharist immediately after bap. to the King of Persia. tism, and gave it to children in a Now the established Greek Church spoon.

• The Mingrelians administer never, in any instance, practised the baptism after the manner of the Geor- sprinkling of new-born babes; and if gians." In his supplement concerning Mr. R.'s account is well-founded, the the Georgians and Mingrelians, father Greek rituals were first composed Simon adds, “ Baptism is deferred only for adults, and afterwards adapted till the child be about two years old, to the circumstances of children. But, then they baptize it, dipping it in without the advantage of this latter hot water;" at length they give it argument, all their churches being bread that hath been blessed, to eat, Baptist and (except those who afterand wine to drink, which appears to wards became Latinized; Anabaptist, have been the ancient way of baptism. (all baptized by immersion,) being

Observations similar to these be under the canon laws of the Eastern makes of other Greek Christians, as Church, and the civil imperial laws; to the performance of the three sacra- under, too, the protection, authority, ments, baptism, confirmation and the and supremacy of reigning sovereigns eucharist, with a little variety of some and princes; with this constitution of few ceremonies accompanying them, ecclesiastical and civil arrangements, but not at all affecting baptism. what can there be wanting to deno

“ The Greek Church, subject to minate them, even according to the the patriarch of Coustantinople, was

acceptation of the word, not always of that vast extent to which National Churches? it attained after that it pleased the I am surprised, I own, that a Uni. Eastern Emperors to lessen other pa. tarian (though I ought to beg pardon triarchates for greatening that of Con- of him for wandering out of my restantinople; which they could the cord, by referring to his own book on more easily do, because their power, Infant Baptism, as your Correspondent as to thiogs of that nature, hath been will perceive I ani) shonld have emfar greater than the Emperor of the ployed such an argument, it being, West, and that for erecting new bi- as I humbly conceive, not only not shoprics, or granting new rights and founded in truth and fact, but cutting jurisdictions, they stood but very little both ways, like a two-edged sword, on the consent of patriarchis." "They against his lufant Spriukling, as well

as bis Unitarianism. I do not say, Critical Hist, of the Religion and however, that because any particular Custoins of the Eastern Nations. Done into doctrine has not been the established English by A. Lovel, A.M. 1685, p. 5. religion of any country, therefore it is

† Ibid. pp. 61, 62. | Ibid. p. 66. not true, but only that if this gentlo.

common

66

man's argument has any force against testimony. Your readers were thus Adult Baptism, it would have equal furnished with the proper evidence to force against Unitarianism. For I try the merits of the question. These doubt whether there is au Established, learned men were taken from our own a National Church, of Christian Uni- country; and they might very easily tariaus, at least in Mr. Belsham's sense have been multiplied. But that our of the word. In the Greek Established jury may be as complete as possible, Church, Trimitarianism was sometimes we beg leave to add to them a few the national religion, and sometimes names of foreigners. They shall be Arianism, the difference lying be- taken from among critics of ditierent tween the óps5196 and ouo.Polos; it opinions on other theological points, settled at length in the Trinitarian but all of the first eminence for learning doctriue. The Latin Church was all and their know ledge of Christian antiTrivitarian; the Established Reformed quity aniong their several religious Churches were all Trinitariau, as may denominations. This part of my work be seen in their several confessions, in being ready done to my hand by Van Quick's Synodicon. The Polish Uni. Dale, I shall do little more than transtarians, with all their talents, learn- late their testimonies from him. ing, dignity and power, (and they

The first is of Campegio Vitringa, had much of each,) never rose to be the celebrated Professor of Theology a national, established religion. The and History at Amsterdam, well religion of the ancient Jews, indeed, known for his critical works on Isaiah founded in the ipsa unitas of the and the Revelations. He was docDeity, without any distinctions or trinally a Predestinarian. qualities, as Maimonides “ expresses it,

“ What is advanced out of Cyprian of time, place or person, (about which is more evident; although from all the Trinitarian and Unitarian coutro- the other writers referred to, nothing versies, through their many shades of can be collected but this; that infants difference, are concerued,; the religion might be baptized, and sometimes of the Jews was a national Unitarian were; but not that it was the custom religion. Mahomet, too, colleaguing in the first Church that they should be with a Jew and Nestorian Christians, baptized just after their birth, as is and extractivg from them a sort of done in our sacred assemblies," &c. essence of religion, a fundamental Observationum, Lib. ii. Cap. xvi. principle, (which appears to have He then refers to Ludovicus Vives, been ihe foundation of most ancient and he shall be our next testimony, theologies, till they degenerated into who, in his observations on Augusidolatry,) formed a national religion, tive, (De Civitate Dei, Cap. xxvii. on the abstract idea, the Unity of Lib. i.) after other remarks, adds : God. But I beg leave to submit to “ Let no one be deceived by this your learned Correspondent, whe. passage; no one formerly was laved ther in his sense of the words, there by sacred baptism, till of an adult age, ever was, or is at this day, any Na- and when the same person both knew tonal Church of Unitarian Chris- what he wished of that mystical wa. tians ?

ter, and desired to be washed, and In examining Christian antiquity, not merely once asked,” &c. in reference to the question under The next testimony that I shall prodiscussion, it was thought no impro- duce is that of Salmasius, which may per way to appeal, in a former letter, also be taken as that of Van Dale to the testiniony of some learned and bimself, who was equal at least to independent men, who, having gone those whom he quotes, in that sort of over this ground with the same end literature which is necessary for a in view, would be competent to give complete knowledge of bis subject, as

his own admirable work abundantly • See M, Robinson's Ecclesiastical proves. Researches. Church of Poland, p. 554.

Something, therefore," says Van + Deus nullas babet qualitates--Quare

Dale, “inust be said of the origin and constanter asserimus, illum absolutissimè progress of this Pædobaptisın, wbich esse unum Maimonidis. Moreh Nevos cheim, pp. 79, 80.

* Hist. Baptismatum cum Hebraicorum I See Puideaux's Life of Mahoinet, tum Christianorum.

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I thus shew first from the celebrated Sir, Swakeleys, Jan. 6, 1819. Salmasius, a man of such great name

ERMIT me to assure your Chi.

PER among the Reformed. (Ex Epistola chester Correspondent [Vol. XIII. ad Justum Pacium sub nomine Sim- p. 749,] that nothing he has written plicii Verini.) In the two first on the subject of my

“ Bible Only" centuries nobody received baptism, School at Binham, has in the “Jeast but he who, being instructed in the anuoyed” its well-meaning, however faith, and imbued with the doctrine mistaken patron. He has warrantaof Christ, could give testimony that bly enough, aps, bestowed upon he believed, on account of those it a title, which it seenis however, it words, · He who shall believe and be did not deserve. The whole difference baptized. Therefore, the first thing of opinion that obtains between us, is was to believe: thence arose the indeed, I am willing to hope, no more order of catechumens in the Church. than this: that while I am content to The perpetual custom also then con- seat my little plebeian catechumens stantly prevailed, that the eucharist

“ at the feet of Jesus" and his apostles should be immediately given to those alone, he would place some Apollos catechumens after baptism. After- beside them of the same way of thinkwards an opinion prevailed, that no- ing with himself, so long as they were body could be saved, unless he had under my exclusive jurisdiction; for been baptized : and thence arose the beyond that moment I profess to give custom of giving baptism to infants. them up again to their parents. As But because the eucharist was given little, I trust, will he be, in return, to adult catechumens, as soon as they “anuoyed" by my Anti-isms of every were washed with sacred baptism, description, if, in a spirit which“thinkwithout any space of time intervening, eth no evil” of any other opposed to it was instituted that this also should it, I venture to record my conviction, be done to infants, after the introduc- that, were every“ note and comment tion of Infant Baptism.'” Thus far now extant on the Bible, committed Van Dale, who was not of the clerical to-morrow to the flames, the religion profession, but all whose works are of Christ might somewhere or other, full of erudition. *

in this our enlightened day and geneI have already alluded to the opi- ration), arise from their ashes in a purer nion of Socinus, and other learned form than any it now exbibits in any Unitarians in Poland. To the opinion single established or non-established also of the accomplished critic' Gro- Church in Christendom. tius, an allusion has also been made ; With regard to my projected plan of and his opinion was, that Infant Bap- a place of worship, it is indeed, 'I fear, tism miyht be practised, and was prac. still more Utopian than he justly retised pretty early, but not by Christ presents it; for it by no means proor his apostles. Annot. in Matt. xix. fesses to aim at inoffensiveness on the Sensus est veniant ad Christum, ut ground of being alike and in common instituantur, non ut baptizentur, nisi acceptable to every denomination of posta vim baptismi intellixerent." Christians. Its avowed object is an

My intention was, Mr. Editor, to approximation to the apostolic model have subjoived a few thoughts on Mr. of religious homage: et jure aut inBelsham's sense of Infant Baptism, in juriâ comprehends io vocation of the reference to Tertullian, and a critique Saviour of the world. The Unitaon the word norint, as used by him, rian would have to tolerate Idolatry together with some remarks on Mr. under a roof beneath which the TriniBelsham's “ important testimony of tarian had connived at the blasphemy Justin Martyr," and his quotations of not addressing the Son as“ an equal from Irenæus and Origen. But these person with” the Father; while The matters, I perceive, must be deferred. GOD and Father of our Lord Jesus

D. Christ was alone ultimately addressed

as “the Author of every good and Il pratiqua cette science (Médecine) every perfect gift," as « the GOD avec succès, et se fit une réputation dans above all

, as well as through and in us l'Europe par sa profonde érudition.- all," the “one Lord,"* the “made Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique.

1 Cor, viii. 6,

in

Lord," • the “ Advocate at the Fa. Broom Bank, near Sheffield, ther's right hand," and in the midst Sır, January 17, 1819. of a congregation met together in his THE Reviewer of my Discourse, name, would be also petitioned, pray. ed to, as able to save io the uttermost before the Supporters of the Unitarian all who come unto that GOD through Fund, baving intimated to me, (Vol. him. Towards such an approxima XIII. p. 766,)“ that it is not quite cortion, the first step would be the abdi. rect " perhaps, “ to quote Luke vi. 12, cation of all unscriptural phraseology; as a proof that our Lord continued a the subordination and delegated autho. whole night in a dreary solitude,' rity of the Logos—Theos, the next: since mporezmo, sometimes, and probabut within the ample range of this bly bere, signifies an oratory, or preliminary circumscription, the pro- “ house of prayer;" I feel myself call. posed Liturgy would expatiate as free. ed upon to explaint. I am well satisly as the letter of the Bible would ficd, and have always entertained the admit, and scarcely therefore propiti- opinion, that the word uporeixo often ate, in all its paris, an quanimous, signifies an oratory, and that such is though concurrent expression of de. the sense in the passage quoted, is votion. While “ the mercy-seat " well as in Acts xvi. 13, to which the shone with none but borrowed rays, reviewer has referred me. But the it would still perhaps peer as ove of term “ dreary solitude" was a term the most promineni features of the which I applied, as every reader may sanctuary; as the incense ascended see, not to the topor EUX", but the mounfrom its altar, the high priest who tain to which our Lord had gone, and wafted it towards heaven might still on which he continued all night, (oicefix the tearful eye of many a suppliant, νυκτερευων εν τη προσευχη του Θεού) « in and when the Allelujah ascended with the oratory of God." Some indeed one heart and voice to Him who sit- think this to be rather a harsh translateth upon the throne, what if the tion, and prefer the common version, Lamb were not all around, so with one which is also adopted in the new one, hcart aud voice, forgotten? These and which I have followed, notwithare appalling annunciations, undoubt. standing its supposed incorrectness. edly, to many a scriptural Christian; Indeed this adoption cannot require there are, on the other hand, not a few much defence, when it must be admit. as consistent Biblists, whose ear they ted that prayer or devout communion will by no means offend; and for one, with God (which is prayer taken in I am free to confess, that though re- its most comprehensive sense) was formation proceeded no farther than our Saviour's object. Indeed it ought to these linits, most cordially should to be mentioned in favour of the comI rejoice to see the religious service of mon translation, that the Cambridge the Established Sect (the best, in my Manuscript has autcŨ after the word opinion, but for its traditional defois mporeux? instead of tū. The reviewer mities, with which I am acquainted,) has referred me to Acts xvi. 13, so far purged of what every idolater of and Bishop Pearce's Commentary and the litera scripta of the sacred records Note. I have not that author at hand, must deem its two capital pollutions. but I admit that the Jews had their Whether the more sweeping Unitarian Topcoeuxar near to rivers, or by the seawould patronize what he might deem side, and in other retired places on the so partial, so insufficient a compro- plains; or, near to (as the preposition mise, I know not: but from the si- eis sometimes signifies) the mountains; lence of our body, I certainly presume but they had them also on the hills an that'mere man-ism, (I use the word in mountains themselves, the retreat of no invidious sense,) is averse from the the most recluse, because the least exexperiment. To that implied deci. posed to intrusion. See Jennings's sion, I now therefore respectfully bow Jewish Antiquities, Vol. ll. p. 91, with regret, and subscribe myself, also p. 69. These mporeryan included J. T. CLARKE. a certain space of ground enclosed

with walls and open to the Heavens,

according to Philo, Josephus and other • Acts ii. 36. See Griesbach in loc. writers, whither devout persons re

sorted alone, or in company, for reli

gious exercises. Tliose on the high and apply them to the important purgrounds, or within the bosom of the poses in view, present, in my estimadreary mountains, were frequented by tion, the most positive exclusion of such persous as wished to be as much his Deity that can offer itself to a reas possible remote from the haunts flecting mind. I would add, that the and interruptions of man. Such a translation of the word evou Geto “ was solitude would naturally, I think, be wont to be made,” in Acts xvi. 13, is, our Saviour's choice, under the cir- I apprehend, very improper. The cumstances which I brought before the proper rendering would be "register. reader, and which shew the anxious ed, or allowed by law.” In the same state of bis mind at the time, and prove sense the word is used in Luke iii. 23, how necessary he found it to fly to where, instead of reading “ being as God, in retirement from the world, was supposed, the Son of Joseph," and seek counsel and direction for the we should rather read “ legally sancgreat work before him. The absolute tioned, or “allowed to be according to and entire dependence of Christ on his law,' “registered as the Son of Father's wisdom and support, and his Joseph.'” loug.continued earnestness to obtain

NATH. PHILIPPS.

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BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

Suggestion on John i. 1.

Philadelphia, U. S.

June 12, 1818.
DMITTING that .

Heb. xi. 5, where it is said, “ before his translation he had this testimony that he pleased God."

The next person spoken of as

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John relate to the Christian dispen- Gen. vi. 9: “ Noah was a gust man, sation, and that, by “ the word,Jesus and perfect in his generations, and Christ is to be understood as the per- Noah walked with God.Here, as in son designated; the explanation which the former instance, the reference is is usually given of that part of the to personal character; and as walking first verse in which we read, that indicates a steady, regular course, the the word was with God," appears to meaning will be, that both Enoch me to be liable to several objections. and Noah were pious and religious It is said, that, to be with God," persons when this character was given means, to receive divine communica- of them. tions; and that, “ as Moses was with In the first Epistle of John, several God in the mount, so was Christ in passages are to be met with in which the wilderness, or elsewhere; to be similar phraseology is used. Thus, it instructed and disciplined for his high is said, chap. i. 3, “ and truly our and important office:" but, in the fellowship is with the Father, and with context, there is no mention of, and his Son Jesus Christ." Chap. iii. 24: no allusion to, such an occurrence; He that keepeth his commandments, and the supposition of Socinus, that dwelleth in him, and he in him." Chap. to be with God,” in the passage iv, 15: “ Whosoever shall confess that before us, signifies, that, as the word Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth of God, Jesus was known to God in him, and he in God.As these are alone, is, to my mind, equally unsa. general declarations, they cannot be tisfactory.

descriptive of any special or peculiar In illustrating the phraseology of communications to particular persons; Scripture, and particularly the He. but are easily understood, if referred braisms with which the New as well to religious character. as the Old Testament abounds, it is Perhaps, the strongest and most often useful to recur to the passages exactly parallel expression, is that in which they are first to be met with, which occurs in Psalm Ixxiii. 23 : and thus to ascertain their original “ Nevertheless, I am continually with signification.

thee." These are the words of Asaph, In Gen, v. 22, we read, “ And a man who made no claims either to Enoch walked with God." How he the prophetic character, or to any " walked with God," we learn from divine mission; they would, there

VOL. XIV.

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