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Eliot took pains, as he had oppor., his prayer to God Almighty ?" tunity, to instruct them in hulAnother asked, “ Whether her bandry; and to excite them to a husband's prayer fignified any prudent management of their af. thing, if he continued to be anfairs.

gry with his wife, and beat her?” On the third of March 1647, At this, and some other meet. the Rev. Messrs. John Wilson of ings, the English gave away Boston, John Allen of Dedham, clothes to the Indian men, woHenry Dunítar, the first prefi- men, and children ; so that on a dent of Harvard College, and lecture day, the greatest part of Thomas Shepard of Cambridge, them appeared decently dressed afwith several other English went to ter the English manner. Noonanetum ; a discourse was While these things were doing delivered, and after fermon they at Noonanetum, or Nonantum, desired, that if any of the Indian the Indians about Concord exwomen had any difficulties with pressed their desires of being civ. regard to the Christian religion, ilized, and taught Christianity. they would propose them, either They earnestly desired Mr. Eliot by acquainting their husbands, or

to come and preach to them; and the interpreter privately with addressed the government for a them. Accordingly one asked, tract of land, either by the side of “ Whether she prayed, when the the Bear Swamp, or on the east only joined with her husband in fide of Mr. Flynt’s Pond, to build

them a town. Alout the latter respect to health. Maft not the Indian, / end of February 1647, several of that we would civilize, be allowed, at their fachems and principal men least for a season, a pretty free use of

met at Concord, and agreed upon his fishing line, his bow and arrow, and his fowling piece, and those innocent, sundry laivs for their civil and active amusements, to which he has religious government. been long accustomed ? Nature, or con They prohibited, by what they tracted habits of this kind, cannot be deemed suitable penalties, * all cxpelled at once. These customs now mentioned may be intermixed with la- powowing, drunkenness, ftcaling, bor in the field, or work at some me profanation of the Sabbath, fornichanic art. It must be a work of time cation, murder, adultery and unto expel nature, or babit, which is a le- natural luft, and beating their cond nature. These observations may wives (which, it seems, was a comapply to those who turn their attention

mon practice among them). to the Atudy of the learned languages, or of the arts and sciences, if any here

They resolved to lay aside their after should incline to engage in these old ceremonies of howling, greaf. pursuits. In ancient times

, a collegiate ing their bodies and adorning building was fequeftered at Cambridge their hair, and to follow the Engfor the use of Indian youth. Sundry lifh fashions. were admitted into college, and pursued their studies. Most of them, if I miss

They agreed to pray in their take not, died before the time came wigwams, and to attend to religround for receiving the honors of the ious duty at their tables. Society. I think but one was gradua There, and some other orders ted. Perhaps sufficient attention was of the same nature, were publishDot paid to diet, ais, and exercise. It is doubtless of great consequence, that ed, and approved by the whole ftriæ regard be paid to each of these ; and we may add to cleanliness, which the Indians are by no means distinguish Shepherd's clear sunshine, qnoted ed for encouraging, and pradising. by Mr. Neale.

company; and Capt. Willard* | “helps. I have considered the of Concord, was desired to be « word of God in 2 Tim. ï. 3. their recorder, and see them put“ Endure hardship as a good fol. in execution.

“ dier of Christ." When he had Mr. Eliot was very resolute and once entered upon the teaching of diligent in his miffionary labors a- the Pagans, it is almoft incredible mong the Indians, and his sphere how much time he expended, how of action was extenfive. Besides much toil he underwent in the this settlement at Noonanetum, prosecution of this undertakingand that at Concord, he visited how many wearisome days and and preached to the Indians at nights rolled over him-how ma. Dorchester mills, Watertown, and ny

fatiguing journies he pursued other parts of the Massachusetts, and how many terrible dangers he and as far as Pantucket falls on was exposed to, but, by the interMerrimack river. He travelled pofition of a watchful providence, also into various parts of the colo- escaped.* ny of New Plymouth, offering to The sachems and powows were preach the gospel to as many of in general at forf, and a great the fachems, and their subjects, number of them afterwards, invet. as were willing to hear him.t erate enemies to Chriftianity. The Many attended to the proposal ; fachems generally did all they but others turned away with dif- could, that their subje&s might dain, rejecting the counsel of God not entertain the gospel. Dr. against themselves, as may be tak- Mather supposes, that in the Masen notice of in the sequel. fachusetts, and New Plymouth,

He took frequent journies, of- they did more to hinder the body ten thro' bad roads in a new coun of the people from receiving the try: he exposed himself necessari. gospel, than even the powows ly, at times, to heat and cold, to themselves ; tho' the latter had storms and tempeits, and to other great influence, and used it to the hardships in the wigwams of the utmost. The ground of this con. natives, where, it must be fuppof- duct of the fachems was a fear ed, the accommodations must be left the Christian religion should generally mean. In a letter to abridge them of the tyranny, the Hon. Mr. WinNow, he wrote which they had accustomed them. thus, “ I have not been dry night felves to exercise. They held " nor day from the third day of their people in absolute servitude, “ the week to the fixth, and so and ruled by no law but their will, “ travel, and at night pull off my which left their poor flaves noth“ boots, wring my stockings, and ing that they could call their own. “ on with them again, and so con. They now suspected, that religion “ tinue ; but God steps in and would put a restraint upon luch

usurpations, and oblige them to a He was father of Rev. Samuel more equal and humane way of Willard of Boston, vice-president of government. Some of them there. Harvard College. Concord was set fore addressed the Englih, and zled in 1636. Their first ministers were Rev. Messrs. Peter Bulkley, and urged, that no motions about re

-Jones. See wonder-working prov-ceiving the Christian religion might idence of Zion's Saviour.

ever be made to them. When + Hutchinson's Hift. vol. i. p. 263.

Magnalia, B. iii. p. 196

Neale, vol. i. p. 249.

some of the subjects of a number The powows were no less in, of them professed the Christian tent upon hindering the propagafaith, the fachems would present- tion of Christianity than the sachly raise a storm of persecution ems. Their influence over the which beat hard upon the new people was great. Tho' fome of professors. Some were driven in the converts had courage enough to exile-some well-disposed but to defy the power of these jugtimorous persons were tempted to glers, yet others were afraid to conceal their sentiments in religion appear openly against them; and -others fled to the English for Mr. Eliot relates, that he observa protection, and others were put ed a remarkable difference in their to death by the fachems ; and countenances, when the powows nothing but the formidable power were present, and when they were of the English hindered them from out of the way. But having give massacreing great numbers of the en, in the second number of this new converts. *

historical essay, a particular ac

count of this order of men, I shall Governor Hutchinson, after Dr. | not now add, but refer the reader Mather, Mr. Matthew Mayhew, and to what was there related. others, obferves, that some tribute was Now, if Mr. Eliot's profelytes paid to support the Indian prince, or

were hated by the sachems and fachem. Mr. Mayhew takes notice of several particulars: they expe&ted prof. fo much severity, it need not seem

powows, and treated by them with ents of their subjects, which were counted due debts; they were also en- ftrange, that he himself was the titled to the skins of beasts killed in their dominions, to firft fruits, &c. Neale observes, was in part true ; for They were much distinguished from whereas before, the fachem had an abtheir subjects in their manner of living : | folute disposal of the fortunes of his they appeared in a comparative degree subje&s, they gave him now of magnificence; their families and al more than they thought reasonable. tendants being well clothed with the But to wipe off the reproach which skins of moose, bears, deers, beavers, Cutshamoquin had laid upon them, &c. The provisions for their tables, as those few praying Indians who were Aefh, fish, roots, fruits, berries, corn, present, told Mr. Eliot what they had beans in great variety and abundance, done for their sachem the two last were always brought by their neghbor- years, leaving him to judge whether ing subjects; concerning all which they their prince had any reason to comwere as void of care as the most power- plain : at one time they gave him twenful prince in the universe.

ty-six bushels of corn--at another time He also obferves, that as the prince fix more-on two hunting days they was acknowledged absolute lord on the killed him fifteen deers--they broke up land, so he had no less sovereignty at for him two acres of land--they made sea: for as all belonged to him which him a great house, or wigwam--they was stranded on the more of the sea paid a debt for him of three pounds coast, so whatever whales, or other ten shillings--one of them gave him a wreck of value, floating on the fea, lkin of a beaver of two pounds, besides taken up on the feas, washing his shores, many days' work in planting corn all or brought and landed from any part together: yet, they said they would of the sea, was no less his own. (Mag- 1 willingly do more, if he would govern nalia, B. vi. p. 51.]

them juiliy, by the word of God. But Mr. Hutchinson gives this account; this fachem, swelling with indignation that Cutshamoquin, a fachem, com at this petulant discourse of his vafsals, plained to Mr. Eliot, that some of his turned from the company and went Tubjects were more flack in their tribute away in great race; tho' upon het. of corn, &c. than they were before they ter confideration, he himself professed profeffed Chriftianity; which, Mr. ' Chriftianity not long after.

no

means

object of their fixed averfion, when | Differtation concerning the book of he was using his strenuous endea

Job. vours to draw off the people from

HE canonical authority of their old superstitions to a new

T

this book is sufficiently religion, and to introduce a regular and equitable form of government. tion of Job in Ezekiel, xiv. 14–

supported by the honorable menThe lachems and powows both apprehended, that upon Mr. El 20.—by the quotation in 1 Cor.

iii. 19. from Job, v. 13. and the iot's success, there would be a great diminution of their power lary patience, James, v. 11.—and

apoftolic reference to his exempand wealth : accordingly Mr. Elict was frequently treated in a ceived as a part of the inspired

also by this, that it has been recontemptuous and rude manner,

word of God by the Jews, in all and sometimes threatened with the loss of life. And it is sup- ages, who not only have had the posed these men would gladly uine books of holy scripture of

of determining the gen. have assassinated him, had they the old testament, but are also not dreaded the consequence, a

well known to have exercised the rupture with the English. Sometimes , in the wilderness

, moft diligent caution on this imwithout the company or aslistance

portant subject. of any Englisbman, he has been Various are the questions which treated with very threatening lan- have arisen concerning this book, guage by some of the Indian ru- among which are the following; lers ; but God inspired him with viz. When and where lived Job so much resolution, as to tell and his friends? Who was the then), “ I am about the work of author, or penman of the book ? “ the great God, and my God is Whether it be a fimple narration 6 with me; so that I fear neither of facts and events, or adorned “ you nor all the sachems in the with poetic license ? What is

country ; I will go on; and do the moral and religious instruction you touch me at your peril !” which it contains, or for what end

But notwithstanding the oppo- was it written ? Obvious difficul. fition made to the gospel by the ties attend us in attempting an anfachems and powows; notwith. swer to each of the three first of standing the bias of education, these questions ; as we have no which has no {mail influence upon contemporary or collateral writers the minds of most men, particu- who cast any confiderable light larly the ignorant and superiti- on this book, excepting in the retious; notwithitanding these and ferences already noticed and the other obitructions, the force of author has affixed no date to the truth, under divine influences, birth and death of Job, or hinted gradually prevailed. In a course any thing by which the day in of years, several Indian churches which he lived can be certainly de. were gathered, many congrega- termined ; and touching his countions of catechumens were formed, try, has only informed us that it and the prospect was so pleasing, was the land of Uz. A like obthat Mr. Eliot and other misfion- scurity attends the other four aries were encouraged to pursue, speakers who are introduced, and with vigor, the benevolent work. make up an important part of the

(To be continued.) history. We shall, however, es

as

amine each of the questions by the that his children had arrived to lights in our possession. And, maturity, and were settled in fa.

1. When and where lived Job milies before his calamity. If so, and his friends?

he must have been at least fifty or It appears from Gen. x. 23. lixty years old at that time, which that Uz was the name of a grand added to the number just mentionson of Shem. And from the 29th ed, is about two hundred. Now verse of the same chapter we learn 6 the Lord blessed the latter that one of his descendants in the end of Job more than his beginfifth generation was named Jobab. ning” and we are assured that

From Gen. xxxvi. 28. with the when he died, he was an old man 1 Chronicles i. 42. we learn that and full of days, we may suppose one of the posterity of Esau, was him to have lived fifty or fixty called by this name. Gen. xxxvi. years, or perhaps more in the 33. we learn that Jobab, a de. whole longer than those of his gefcendant of Efau reigned in Edom, neration in common, which will before any king reigned in Israel; place him somewhere in the time from all which it appears that of the sojouring of the Ifraelites both Uz and Fobab were family in Egypt, or a little before the names in the descendants of Shem. time of Mofes. Concerning EliAnd it is to be presumed that the phaz, Bildad, Zophar, and Elihu, first of note gave name to the we are in a still wider field of con. country, ftiled the land of Uz. jecture, but from the mention of And it has been conjectured, that them in this book connected with Jobab was the father of Jom the following passages, it is moft hence we may suppose that job probable, they were the descendwas a descendant of Şhem, and of ants of Abram, by Keturah, InEsau, and that his country was mel, or Efau. See Gen. xxv. 51. in some part of the possessions of chap. xxxvi. 10, 12, 15.chap.xxv. the Edomites, called from ano 2. or that Elihu was a descendant ther of the posterity of Shem the of Nahor_fee Gen. ii. 21. and land of Uz ; at least that he reign- Jeremiah xxv. 23. ed there, for it seems from the ac II. We now proceed to encounts in Gen. xxxvi. that, at that quire who was the author, or pen. time, the kingdom was not her man of this book ? On this, the cditary, in one family, but was opinions of the learned are various, possessed in rotation, by men of such are the following: the best family and character. 1. That it was written by Job's

If the preceding observations three friends, as some compensaare jult, it will follow that Job tion for their injurious treatment must have lived not long before of him---Sanctíus, and Quidam the age

of Moses. And this con- in Sanetium. jecture is strengthened by the ac 2. Solomon-see Nazianzen, count of his age, in the close of Nicetus, Olympiodorus, Poly. the book. We are there inform- | chron. &c. ed that Job lived one hundred and 3. Job himself-fo Pineda, forty years, after his aflictionsGregory, Scultetus. and that when he died, he was an 4. Ilaiah, from likeness in the old man and full of days. From compofition. the representation in the beginning 5. Ezra, after the Babylonith of the book, it appears probable captivity-Prideaux Con. VOL. III. No. 12.

LII

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