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century before Christ the grammatical rules were woven into a remarkable poem, the Bhattikavya, by Bhartriharis. The professed subject of this poem of twenty cantos is the adventures of Rama, but its main purpose is to furnish practical illustrations of theoretical grammar, to which end it introduces the greatest variety of forms, anomaJies, and words rarely used, yet without becoming either obscure or inelegant. Panini's dark oracular sayings were likewise interpreted by a great commentary, the Mahabhashya, which is regarded as a standard authority, and ascribed to Patanjalis, the founder of the Yoga-philosophy ; and this again has found its commentators. The sutras themselves, with such explanations as seemed most necessary, have been published at Calcutta. The work of Ramachandras, called Prakrîyakaumudi, is shorter, and on a systematic plan; it, too, has undergone revision, and has appeared at Calcutta. From this was derived a popular grammar, the Sarasvata. One of the most recent, but highly esteemed in Bengal, is that of Vopadevas, styled Mugdabodha; its use, however, is rendered difficult by its new terminology. From these originals were drawn the first Sanskrit grammars of the Europeans; they were arranged in strict accordance with the native method, which was not calculated to facilitate the study of the language. The Jesuit Hanxleden had picked up and committed to paper some scanty particulars touching the language ; and from his collection the Carmelite Paulinus, likewise a German, made up the first Sanskrit grammar, abounding in the grossest errors, which he nevertheless struggled stoutly to defend against the English. These latter are the true founders of Sanskrit grammar, and first among them comes Colebrooke, whose work, unfortunately, was not completed and is very rare; Carey followed, and Wilkins, who excels all others in the simplicity and perspicuity of his arrangement; then Forster, who by the completeness of his paradigms did much to aid investigations into the structure of the language; the second part of his grammar, broken off by his death, was to have contained a translation of that of Vopadevas, a prosody, and such a treatise on the roots, with full references to the classic authors, as Rosen has since furnished us. Finally, Yates published a grammar according to the occidental system, which however is not entirely applicable to the Sanskrit, even had Yates's work been less inaccurate; its most valuable part is a list of grammatical terms and a brief treatise on prosody. The latter subject is often handled by the Indians in their own writings, and has engaged the attention of some of the greatest, poets. After these English, the first German grammar made its appearance, viz. that of Othmar Frank; in it some progress was made, particularly with reference to the syntax, 1849.]
which had before been neglected ; but Wilkins's clear arrangement it abandoned, and its lack of paradigms is an embarrassing defect, which however finds its excuse in the fact that Frank, for want of types, was compelled to make use of lithographs, at considerable trou. ble and expense. Bopp's complete grammar needs only to be mentioned, as the name of the author is a guarantee of the learning and accuracy of the work; it has been translated into Latin, and an abridged edition, adapted to general use, has also been published.
The subject of Sanskrit lexicography will demand less of our attention, as we have already mentioned the lists of roots, and as little has here been done by Europeans to help the student. The Indians possess an infinite number of native works in this department, commonly called koshas, thesauri; Wilson had met with seventy-six of them; but they are on the whole of less practical use than the catalogues of roots, for either they contain nothing but obscure glosses, or they are otherwise incomplete, and all, at the fancy of the collector, are homonymically or synonymically arranged in metrical stanzas. The best and most complete dictionary, in the estimation of the Indians, is the Amarakosha of Amarasinhas. The poems and other works of this author were destroyed during the persecution of the Buddhists, to which sect he belonged ; but his useful and not heretical lexicon was spared, and others labored to perfect and complete it. With its supplements, but without a word of explanatory matter, it was published at Calcutta in 1807; but here again came to our aid that same scholar who, with so varied and profound learning, had illustrated the Vedas, the religious ceremonies, the sects of the Buddhists and Jainas, the philosophy, laws, astronomy, mathematics, grammar, and prosody, of India, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, now (1830), in his old age, the worthy President of the Royal Asiatic Society in London. He republished the Amarakosha with a translation and explanations, and facilitated its use by a register or concordance as ample as the work itself, for the latter was formed on the plan of arranging together synonymous words, as for instance all forms of expression for God, for heaven, etc., and so, being intended to be learned by heart by the studious Hindoo, was utterly useless to a European. For this reason Paulinus mistook the work for a collection of traditions and liturgies, and Anquetil Duperon for a treatise on the Phallus (its opening subject being linga, gender, of words, that is to say), and both defended their opinion against the English with indecorous vehemence. From these and many other original word-books, eighteen in all, and ten commentaries on the Amarakosha, was made up the first and only Sanskrit dictionary (now, unfortunately, out of print), by Wilson, containing about sixty thousand words, but spite of its copiousness, still far from complete, and an insufficient guide through the Sanskrit literature. great desideratum, namely, a Glossary to the episodes and extracts which have been published in Germany, has been furnished to beginners by Bopp himself.
SPIRITUALITY OF THE BOOK OF JOB AS EXHIBITED IN A COMMENTARY ON CHAPTER XIV, EXAMINED IN CONNECTION WITH OTHER PASSAGES.
By Tayler Lewis, LL. D., Professor of Greek in the University of the City of New York.
(Concluded from p. 229.)
The apparent utter despondency . מִי יִתֵּן בִּשְׁאוֹל הַצְפַנְנִי .13
? of the preceding expressions is succeeded by the language of agonize ing prayer, as though the gloomy conception had suggested and even impelled the cry for deliverance. The idea of annihilation, when dwelt upon, becomes intolerable. The earnestness of the petition shows that the seemingly despairing statement had not been the l'anguage of denial, but of a soul seeking in it a confirmation to faith as the only refuge from the intolerable darkness of the opposing view. Oh that thou wouldst lay me up in Hades. 10$ means not simply to conceal generally, like no or non, but also to lay away in security as a precious deposit. Compare Ps. 27: 5 He will hide me in his pavilion, in the secret of his tabernacle. Hence the righteous are called hD, clientes Jehovah, as Gesenius gives it-more properly His hidden ones.
Bix. This word alone is sufficient proof that the ancient Hebrews, from the earliest periods of their language, believed in a separate world of souls, a realm of the dead, distinct from the grave, for which they had another distinct and well known term. Although regarded as denoting a subterranean habitation, or as a region to which the grave might seem the local entrance, yet almost every use of the word, from Genesis to Malachi, indicates a conception clearly distinct from that of the mere earthly receptacle of the body. This, indeed, seems conceded both by Herder and Rosenmüller. There can be no better proof than the account of the transaction between Saul and the
487 witch of Endor, to convince any candid mind that such a ghost-world, or realm of departed spirits, was a settled part of the common belief of the common Jewish mind, entertained as strongly, and perhaps more strongly, than the prevailing notions now existing respecting an unseen spirit land. Whatever view we may take of that strange narrative, as wholly or partly real in respect to the particular scenes exhibited, it proves incontestably three things. It shows us, first, a common or popular belief in a world of departed human spirits; secondly, a belief in the reäppearance of such spirits, at certain times, upon the earth; and thirdly, in the power of a certain class of persons called oboth (niais) thus to have intercourse with, and to bring up, the departed dead. In fact, this incident, together with the frequent mention of the effort made to put a stop to the evil practices connected with such a belief, and which date back to the time of Moses, proves that among the Jews there was as firm a recognition of a ghostly state, as has ever prevailed among us. The very name given to these professed dealers with the spiritual world, was sometimes applied to the ghost itself, as in Isa. 29: 4, And thy voice shall be like that of a spirit (ais) coming out of the earth.1
There may be traced a manifest resemblance between the Hebrew Sheol and the Greek Hades. The etymology ever given by the older Hebraists, whether Jews or Christians, made this more striking. Ha. des means the invisible, the unknown. The same idea was sought in the Hebrew word, by supposing it to be derived from the verb bu, to ask or demand. Of this, two views were taken: one referred the verb to the ghostly world itself, as ever demanding or asking more and more victims, as never satisfied, rapax orcus,” as it is styled by the Latin poet Catullus ; the other regarded it as addressed, objectively, to Sheol, in the sense of anxious and gloomy interrogation. In this way it presents the conception of the unknown state, towards which is ever directed the very inquiry contained in the 10th verse of this chapter, Man dies and yields up his breath, and oh where is he? (**) It is the unseen spirit land, from whence no answer comes, although so often and so anxiously invoked. From such conception came the ancient practice of thrice solemnly calling upon the manes, as the mortal remains were borne towards their final resting place. It is this feeling of the unknown, of the unseen, of the unsatisfied, which be
Gesenias defines the sis vekvóuavtis, i. e. hariolus incantationum et carminum magicorum vi manes evocans.
? It would almost seem as if there were some allusion to such a supposed etymological sense of the word, by the prophet Habkkuk, ch. ii. verse 5, who hath enlarged his desire like Sheol, and cannot be satisfied.
longs to the Greek Hades; and if this derivation could be allowed, the Hebrew Sheol would etymologically present the same idea, only through a different organ of sense. From the one, it might be said, there comes no gleam of light to the anxious eye ;! from the other, no voice to the listening ear. The other derivation, which is probably the correct one, regards it as connected with the radical bou, having the sense of hollowness, cavity, and corresponding to the Greek xolos, the German Hölle.
Although the Hebrew conception of Sheol, as well as the Greek of Hades, was of a sombre, and on the whole undesirable state, still it was regarded as a condition of conscious rest, where one might be supposed to repose in security under the watchful eye of God, and which might, therefore, be looked to and prayed for, by the suffering, as a refuge from the overwhelming calamities of the present life. Thus the ghost of Samuel complains, or is represented as complaining, when disquieted and made again to revisit the agitating scenes of this world, 1 Sam. 28: 15. There are, moreover, some sew intimations of distinct apartments for the righteous and the wicked. It is in reference to the latter, that it is so often spoken of as the pit; and there are now and then expressions of a far different kind, which seem to denote a different state, if not a different locality, for the beloved of God. Ofthis kind were,
the congregation of the fathers—the secret place of the Most High -the shadow of the Almighty, where he hides his chasidim, or subjects of his grace. These latter terms, it is true, are metaphorically used of the divine protection even in this life; but they may be also regarded as having their fullest import in reference to the unseen world, and to those who, although long since departed, are said still to “live unto Him,” and of whom he styles himself “their God.” He is not the God of the dead, but of the living.
The general feeling, however, accompanying the word Sheol, is that of a joyless and undesirable life; and therefore, although Job may have looked to it as, in some sense, a refuge, there is an exceeding naturalness and probability in the allusion which he afterward seems to make to a deliverance from Sheol into some higher condition of renovated being, whenever and wherever it might be, whether upon the carth, or in the heavens, or heaven of heavens ; whether to be a life like the present, or one far more blessed, permanent, and glorious. As also in
With the etymological conception of Hades, as the obscure, the unknown, the invisible, are connected some of the more common expressions of the Greek poets for life, such as opův púos heriolo, and also the poetical use of verbs of sight as equivalent to Giv or Gbelv. The same metaphor also exists in the Hebrew, as in Ecclesiastes 11: 7, It is a pleasant thing to behold the sun.