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21. Squarrose (squarrosus); when the parts spread out at right angles, or thereabouts, from a common axis; as the leaves of some Mosses, the involucra of some Compositæ, &c.

22. Fasciated (fasciatus); when several contiguous parts grow unnaturally together into one; as the stems of some plants, the fruits of others, &c.

23. Scaly (squamosus); covered with small scales, like leaves. 24. Starved (depauperatus); when some part is less perfectly developed than is usual with plants of the same family. Thus, when the lower scales of a head of a Cyperaceous plant produce no flowers, such scales are said to be starved. 25. Distant (distans, remotus, rarus); in contradiction to imbricated, or dense, or approximated, or any such words. 26. Interrupted (interruptus); when any symmetrical arrangement is destroyed by local causes, as, for example, a spike is said to be interrupted when here and there the axis is unusually elongated, and not covered with flowers; a leaf is interruptedly pinnated when some of the pinnæ are much smaller than the others, or wholly wanting; and so on. 27. Continuous, or uninterrupted (continuus); the reverse of the last.

28. Entangled (intricatus); when things are intermixed in such an irregular manner that they cannot be readily disentangled; as the hairs, roots, and branches of many plants.

29. Double, or twin († duplicatus, geminatus); growing in pairs.

30. Rosaceous (rosaceus); having the same arrangement as the petals of a single rose.

31. Radiant (radiatus); diverging from a common centre, like rays; as the ligulate florets of any compound flower.

2. Of Number.

1. None (nullus); absolutely wanting.

2. Numerous (numerosus); so many that they cannot be counted with accuracy; or several, but not of any definite number.

3. Solitary (solitarius, unicus); growing singly.

4. Many (in Greek compounds, poly); has the same meaning as


5. Few (in Greek compounds, oligos); means that the number is small, not indefinite. It is generally used in contrast with

many (poly) when no specific number is employed; as in the definition of things the number of which is definite, but variable

Besides the above, De Candolle has the following Table of Numbers (Théorie, 502.):

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Terms of qualification are generally syllables prefixed to words of known signification, the value of which is altered by such addition. These syllables are often Latin prepo


1. Ob, prefixed to a word, indicates inversion: thus, obovate means inversely ovate; obcordate, inversely cordate; obconical, inversely conical; and so on. Hence it is evident that this prefix cannot be properly applied to any terms except such as indicate that one end of a body is wider than the other; for, if both ends are alike, there can be no apparent inversion: therefore when the word oblanceolate is used, as by some French writers, it literally means nothing but lanceolate; for that figure, being strictly regular, cannot be altered in figure by inversion.

2. Sub, prefixed to words, implies a slight modification, and may be Englished by somewhat: as, subovate means somewhat ovate; subviridis, somewhat green; subrotundus, somewhat round; subpurpureus, somewhat purple; and so on. The same effect is also given to a term by changing the termination into ascens, or escens: thus, viridescens signifies greenish; rubescens, reddish; and so on.


In Botany a variety of marks, or signs, are employed to express particular qualities or properties of plants. The principal writers who have invented these signs are, Linnæus, Willdenow, De Candolle, Trattinnick, and Loudon.

* Linn., Willd., De Cand., Tratt., indicates that a good description will be found at the reference to which it is affixed.

+ Linn., Willd., De Cand., Tratt., indicates that some doubt or obscurity relates to the subject to which it is affixed.

! De Cand., shows that an authentic specimen has been examined from the author to whose name or work it is annexed.

? The note of interrogation varies in its effect, according to the place in which it is inserted. When found after a specific name, as Papaver cambricum? it signifies that it is uncertain whether the plant so marked is that

species, or some other of the genus; if after the generic name, as Papaver ? cambricum, it shows an uncertainty whether the plant so marked belongs to the genus Papaver; when found affixed to the name of an author, as Papaver cambricum Linn., Smith, Lam.?, it signifies that, while there is no doubt of the plant being the same as one described under that name by Linnæus and Smith, it is doubtful whether it is not different from that of Lamarck. It may be remarked, that when the interrogation has a general, and not a particular, application, it should be placed at the commencement of the paragraph; as? Papaver cambricum Smith, &c., not Papaver cambricum Smith ?, &c., as is the usual practice.

5 Linn. Willd. A tree or shrub.

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5 De Cand.

r Tratt.

SA small tree.

A tree more than twenty-five feet high.

A simple-stemmed arborescent monocotyledon

↑ Loudon. J ous tree; such as a Palm.

4 Linn., Willd., De Cand., Tratt.

▲ Loudon.

}A perennial.

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Tratt. A plant that is propagated by new tubers, which perish as soon as they have borne a plant; as the Potato.

Tratt. A plant that is propagated by suckers; as Poa


m Tratt. A plant that is propagated by runners; as the Strawberry.

4 Tratt. A viviparous plant; or one that increases by buds which fall from it; as Lilium tigrinum,


↑ Tratt.

A stemless plant; as Carduus acaulis.
A plant whose flowers are borne upon a scape; as
Hieracium Pilosella.


* Tratt. A plant which bears its flowers and leaves upon two separate stems; as Curcuma Zedoaria. sort of plant is called by Trattinnick heterophytous.

m Tratt. Loudon. J De Cand.

P Tratt.

(De Cand.

A calamarious, or grassy, plant; as Bromus



A twining plant.

Which twines to the right. Which twines to the left. 3 Loudon. A deciduous twining plant.

) De Cand.

Loudon. An evergreen twining plant.
Loudon. A deciduous climbing plant.
A Loudon. An evergreen climbing plant,

Loudon. A deciduous trailing plant.
Loudon. An evergreen trailing plant.
Loudon. A deciduous creeping plant,
Loudon. An evergreen creeping plant.
Loudon. A deciduous herbaceous plant.
Loudon. An evergreen herbaceous plant.
Loudon. A bulbous plant.

* Loudon. A fusiform-rooted plant.
Loudon. A tuberous-rooted plant.
Loudon. An aquatic plant.
Loudon. A parasitical plant.

A De Cand., Tratt. An evergreen plant.
∞ De Cand.



An indefinite number.

Willd., &c. The male sex.

Willd., &c. The female sex.

Willd., &c. The hermaphrodite sex.

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