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magistrates. The pope has three superb palaces, of which the principal is the Vatican, near St. Peter's church: the library of this palace is deemed the largest in the world, and rich, especially in manuscripts, in all languages and of all ages. In Rome the connoisseur will meet with innumerable paintings by the greatest masters, and with the finest works of sculpture, &c. Beside the university, which consists of several colleges, there are numerous academies and literary societies. The castle of St. Angelo serves more to keep the city in awe, than to repel any foreign attack. Several gardens and villas are within the ancient walls of the city, exhibiting a singular mixture of town and country, of porticos, and of miserable huts. Rome was entered, in 1798, by the French; and in 1799 it was retaken by the allies. In 1809 it became subject to France, and in 1814 it was restored to the pope. See ECCLESIASTICAL STATE. Rome is 110 m Nw Naples, 410 ssw Vienna, and 600 SE Paris. Lg. 12.29 E, Lt. 41.54 N.

Wood

ROME, a town of North America, United States, state New York, Oneida county. It has a good trade, and stands near creek, and the head of the Mohawk, 107 m WNW Albany; P. 4360 in 1830: Lg. 75.27 w, Lt. 43.12 N.

ROMENAY, a town of France, department Saone et Loire, 15 m NNE Macon.

ROMENE, or ROMNY, a town of Russia, government Poltava, chief of district, at the junction of the Romene and Soula, 108 m Poltava.

ROMERSTADT, a town of Austria, Moravia, in the neighbourhood of which are some iron mines. It is 20 m NNE Olmutz.

ROMFORD, a town of England, county Essex, it has a market on Tuesday for hogs, calves, and sheep, and on Wednesday for oxen, corn, &c., 12 m ENE London; P. 4294; polling-place.

ROMHILD, a town of the duchy of SaxMeiningen, with a castle, 14 m SSE Meiningen.

ROMKALA, a town of Asia, Syria, on the Euphrates, at the influx of the Simeren, 85 m NNE Aleppo; it contains the remains of an ancient and strong castle, in which are two churches.

ROMNEY, a county-town of North America, United States, state Virginia; it stands

on the w side of the sw branch of the Potomac, 195 m Richmond, 116 Washington; Lg. 79.5 w, Lt. 39.20 N.

ROMNEY, NEW, a town of England, county Kent, with a market on Thursday, one of the cinque-ports, and once contained 5 churches and a priory; but since the sea has retired, is much reduced. Old Romney, now small, is 1 m to the w, and was the

original port. The new town is on a hill, in Romney-marsh, 22 m sw Dover, 71 SE London; P. (of New) 983; P. (of Old) 113. Polling-place.

ROMNEY-MARSH, a tract, England, s part of Kent, between Hithe, Dungeness, and Rye-haven; it is 20 m long by 8, containing about 50,000 acres of firm land, and some of the richest pasture in England. Vast flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle, are fattened here to an extraordinary size, and sent hence to the London market. It includes the towns of Romney and Lydd, and 19 parishes, which were incorporated in the reign of Edward IV, by the title of the bailiff, jurats, and commonalty of RomneyMarsh.

ROMNY, Russia; see ROMENE.

ROMOE, a small island of Denmark, 3 m from w coast of Jutland, 4 ni NE Syltisland, forms a crescent, about 9 m long by 24 wide: Lg. 8.50 E, Lt. 55.8 N, both of

centre.

ROMORENTIN, a town of France, department Loire-et-Cher, with a castle; manufactures, serges and cloths; it stands on the Saudre, 26 m SE Blois, 40 s by w Orleans.

ROMSDAL, a town of Norway, capital of a province, government Trondheims; 100 m sw Trondheim.

ROMSEY, a town of England, county Hants, governed by a mayor, with a market on Saturday; a manufacture of shalloons, and several paper-mills: seated on the Andover-canal and the river-Anton, 8 m Nw Southampton, 73 w by s London; P. 5432; polling-place.

RONCESVALLES, a town of Spain, in Navarre, in the valley of Roncesvalles, 14 NNE Pamplona.

RONCIGLIONE, a town of Italy, patrimony of St. Peter, with a fortified castle; near lake-Ronciglione, 28 m NNW Rome.

RONDA, a town of Spain, in Granada, on an elevated and extensive plain, surrounded by a double enclosure of rocks. The envi rons are fertile in corn; near it are the ruins of the city of Acipino, vulgarly called Old-Ronda, among which are those of a large Roman-amphitheatre and an aqueduct; it is 42 m w Malaga, and 43 N by E Gibraltar: Lg. 5.9 w, Lt. 36.46 N.

RONNE, a seaport of Denmark, island-ofBornholm, residence of the governor; seated near the middle of the w coast, and the harbour is fortified, but not deep: Lg. 14.55 E, Lt. 55.10 N.

pality of Altenburg, 14 sw Altenburg.

RONNEBURG, a town and castle, princi

ROODERPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindos tan, in Delhi, 42 m N Bareily.

ROPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, on the Setlege, 30 m x by w Sirhind,

ROQUEFORT, a town of France, department Landes, 15 m ENE Mont-de-Marsan.

ROQUE MAURE, a town of France, department Gard; it stands on a rock, near the Rhone, 22 m NE Nismes.

ROQUETAS, a town of Spain, province Granada, on the coast of the Mediterranean, 10 m sw Almeira, 52 SE Granada.

RORAS, a town of Norway, government Trondheim; noted for mines of copper, 68 m s Trondheim.

ROSA, MOUNT, a singular mountain of Italy, Sardinia, Pennine-Alps, at the NE boundary of Pidmont, little inferior in height to Mont-Blanc, 15,600 feet above the sea. It forms a circus of gigantic peaks, round the village of Macugnaga.

ROSARIO, a town of North America, Mexico, in Culiacan, near which are the rich mines of Copala; it stands on the river Rosario, 110 m SSE Culiacan.

ROSARIO, a town of South America, republic Buenos-Ayres, seated on the Paraguay, immediately below the influx of the Tercero, 74 m s Sta.-Fe.

ROSAS, a seaport of Spain, province Catalunia, with a fort and citadel: it was taken by the French in 1693 and in 1793. It stands on the bay-of-Roses, in the Mediterranean, 27 m NE Girona: Lg. 3.7 E, Lt. 42.17 N.

ROSCBACH, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of St. Gall, with a castle on a mountain. It stands on lake-Constance, 7 m NE St. Gall. Here is a magnificent granary, and the most considerable corn-market in Switzerland.

ROSCOMMON, a county of Ireland, in the province of Connaught, 56 in long and from 10 to 35 broad; bounded on the N by Sligo and Leitrim, E by Leitrim, Longford, WestMeath, and King's county, s by Galway, and w by Galway and Mayo; it is divided into 56 parishes, and returns 2 M.P. The whole extent of its E boundary is watered by the Shannon; the river-Suck is nearly its whole boundary from Galway; and it is interspersed with numerous small lakes, and many rivulets that flow to the Shannon. It is a tolerably level country, producing excellent corn and pasture, yet there are some lofty hills and extensive bogs; P. 207,777 in 1821, and 231,903 in 1831.

ROSCOMMON, a borough of Ireland, county Roscommon. The castle was rased to the ground in 1271, and of its monastic foundations there are but few remains; it is 88 m w by N Dublin; P. 3618: Lg. 8.42 w, Lt. 53.34 N.

ROSCREA, a town of Ireland, county Tipperary, anciently a bishop's see; 3 m SE is the ruin of an abbey, singular for its

situation on a dry island, of about two acres, in the centre of a large bog; it is 20 m wsw Maryborough, 32 N Cashel.

ROSEAU; see CHARLOTTETOWN.
ROSEMARKIE; see FORTROSE.

ROSENBERG, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, with a small castle, 25 m NE Oppeln.

ROSENBERG, a town of Austria, Bohemia, in the circle of Bechin, it stands on the Muldau, 21 m s Budweis.

ROSENHEIM, a town of Bavaria, 34 m SE München.

ROSENHEIM, a German colony, Russia, government Saratof, banks of the Volga;

it contains 60 families.

ROSETTA, a city of Africa, Egypt, near the mouth of that branch of the Nile which now forms one of the two great channels by which it enters the sea, built by one of the caliphs, but the precise time is not recorded; handsomer than Alexandria: the streets, however, are very narrow, and each successive story projects over that beneath, till at the top of the opposite houses almost meet. Upon the whole, however, though the streets are not straight, and that there is no remarkable edifice, yet when compared with the other Eastern cities, it has a neat and pleasing appearance. It is still more distinguished by the beauty of its environs, being completely embosomed in a grove of date, banana, sycamore, and other trees. The people are more employed in agriculture, and contain a smaller proportion of the rude Bedowins, or wandering Arabs, than in any other parts of Egypt: less turbulent than the inhabitants of Alexandria and Cairo; but being less accustomed to Christians, they view them with more intolerant hatred. Rosetta furnishes red cotton yarn, dressed flax linen, and silk dyes for the dresses common in the East. Taken by the French in 1798; and in 1806 the British, in attempting its capture, suffered very severely: Lg. 30.28.35 E, Lt. 31.24.34 N.

ROSIENNA, a town of Russia, govern. ment Vilna, chief of district, on the Doubias, formerly belonging to Poland, and then capital of province Imoutz; 2 churches, 70 m s Mittau, 188 m NE Warszawa.

of

ROSIERS-AUX-SALINES, a town France, department Meurthe, on the Meurthe, 9 m SE Nancy.

ROSKILD, a town of Denmark, isle-ofZealand; a bishop's see; now a poor place, but was the residence of the kings of Denmark for several centuries before Copenhagen was founded, and the cathedral is yet the place of their sepulture, where their magnificent coffins lie open to view. treaty of peace was concluded here in 1658: at the end of the E branch of the gulf-ofIsefiord, 16 m w Copenhagen.

A

ROSLAVL, a town of Russia, government Smolensk, chief of district, on 2 small rivers -Stonovoï and Glazomoika, 77 m s Smolensk; 6 churches, courts of justice, 5 watermills; P. 3150.

ROSLIN, a village of Scotland, 8 m s Edinburgh, on the North-Esk; remains of a castle, on an almost insulated rock; and a beautiful chapel, which is one of the most entire pieces of Gothic-architecture in Scotland.

Rosor, a town of France, department Seine-et-Marne, with a magnificent castle, 16 m ENE Melun, 30 SE Paris.

ROSPOPINSKAIA, a village of Cosaques of-the-Don, Russia, right bank of the Don; fine pasture country.

Ross, a town of England, county Hereford, on an elevated rock, on the Wye, 12m SE Hereford, 120 w by x London, with a market on Thursday; owes most of its improvements and charitable institutions to John Kyrle, commonly called the Man-ofRoss, 4 m sw are the massive remains of Goodrich-castle, and near it are the ruins of Flanesford priory, the chapel of which is converted into a barn; P. of Rossborough, 2045; of Ross - Foreign, 1033. Pollingplace.

Ross, a town of Ireland, county Cork, and united to Cork as an episcopal see. The cathedral serves also as a parochial church, and the castle is under the command of a governor. The harbour was formerly famous, but has been gradually filled up with sand, and the town is sunk from its former splendour; on a bay of the Atlantic, 20 m sw Kinsale: Lg. 8.58 w, Lt. 51.32 N.

Ross, NEW; see NEW-Ross.

ROSSANO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Calabria-Citra, an archbishop's see, on an eminence, surrounded by rocks, 3 m from the gulf-of Tarento, 136 SE Naples. The adjacent valleys yield oil, capers, saffron, and pepper: Lg. 16.38 E, Lt. 39.48 N.

ROSSBRUNN, a post-village of Germany, Bavaria, province Lower-Mayn, 9 m w by N Würzburg; post-road to Frankfurt.

Ross, a county of Scotland, 80 m long by 70, bounded N by Sutherlandshire, and the frith-of-Dornock, w by the Minch; wholly encloses the county of Cromarty, except the E extremity; divided into 30 parishes, and returns 1 M.P. Middle and Nw parts are mountainous and dreary, and the E part is variegated with woods, lakes, and rivers. The hills feed horses, oxen, sheep, and goats, and abound with game; the rivers and lakes teem with fish and waterfowl, and the loches on the w coast are convenient for the herring fishery. The island of Lewis is attached to this county; Tain is

the capital; P., including Cromartyshire, 55,343 in 1801, and 74,820 in 1831.

ROSSBACH, a village of Prussia, province Sachsen, 10 m Mersburg; famous for a victory obtained by the king of Prussia, over the French and Austrians, in 1757.

RossoCHI, a German colony, Russia, government Saratof, district Camychine, on a small river of the same name which joins the Ilavlia, 58 m Saratof; soil very rich; P. 150.

ROSSWEIN, a town of Saxony, with a good trade in wool, flannel, and cloth; on the Freiberger-Mulde, 23 m w Dresden.

ROSTAK, a town of Asia, Arabia, province Oman, the seat of a sovereign prince, 120 m w Maskat: Lg. 57.30 E, Lt. 23.30 x.

ROSTOCK, a sea-port town, grand-duchy of Mecklenberg, with a university, a good harbour, a strong citadel, an arsenal, and 3 churches; divided into the old, the new, and the middle town, and is the most considerable in the duchy: chief exports, corn, hemp, flax, hops, wax, honey, and cattle,

and has numerous distilleries and breweries; on the Warne, 10 m from its entrance into the Baltic, 32 ENE Wismar; P. 13,000: Lg. 12.20 E, Lt. 54.10 x.

ROSTOW, a fortified town of Russia, government Iaroslaw, chief of district, on the banks of the fine lake-Nero, but generally called Rostow, which communicates with the Volga by the Kotorost, 36 m ssw Iaroslaw, 95 m NE Moscow; site swampy; the town and suburb measure in circum

ference nearly 6 m. The town is inclosed by modern fortifications, consisting of ramparts of earth, and a wet ditch, but no covert-way nor glacis; 3 convents, a cathedral richly ornamented, and containing the bodies of several saints; the archbishop's palace, containing a seminary for 60 students, 5 churches, and vast accommodation; the town has, moreover, 24 churches, 1016 houses, 333 shops; P. 5000: Lg. 40.25 E, Lt. 57.05 N.

ROSTOw, or ST.-DIMITRI-OF-Rostow, a small fortified town of Russia, government Ecatherinoslav, right bank of the Don, between Azow and Tcherkask, where the Temernik unites with the Don; it has a custom-house and ship-building yard: the garrison and town under a military commandant.

ROSTREVOR, a town of Ireland, county Down, with considerable salt-works and a pottery: on Carlingford-bay, 9 m sSE Newry.

ROTA, a town of Spain, province Andalucia, on the bay of Cadiz, 8 m NNW Cadiz, famed for its wine called tent.

ROTA, or ZARFANE, Pacific-ocean, one o the Ladrone-islands, Asia. On the slope of a mountain are remains of some ancient

monuments, consisting of fragments of pillars 3 feet in diameter, forming part of a ruined circular edifice, 800 paces round. The natives show it by the name of the House of the Ancients-FREYCINET's Voyage. Lg. 145.5 E, Lt. 14.20 N.

ROTAS, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Bahar, chief of district. The fort stands on the level top of an extensive mountain, by the Soane, 106 m sw Patna: Lg. 83.50 E, Lt. 24.38 N.

ROTENBERG, a town of Bavaria, province Rezat; on a mountain, 18 m NE Nürnberg, 27 ssw Baireuth.

ROTENBURG, a town of Switzerland, canton Lucern, 7 m N Lucern.

ROTENBURG, a town of Würtemberg, in the Schwarzwald, with a castle. Near it is a famous mineral spring; on the Neckar, 6 m wsw Tubingen.

ROTENBURG, a town of Hannover, province Verden, on the Wumme, 15 m NE Verden.

ROTENBURG, a town of Hesse-Cassel, with a palace, belonging to the prince of Hesse-Rheinfels; on the Fulda, 27 m SSE

Cassel.

ROTENBURG, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg; on the Oder, 14 m E Crossen.

ROTH, a town and castle of Bavaria, province Rezat, and stands at the conflux of the Roth with the Rednitz, 18 m s Nürnberg: birth-place of Gessner.

ROTHBURY, a town of England, county Northumberland, with a market on Friday; on the Coquet, 9 m sw Alnwick, 302 x by w London; P. 1014.

ROTHENBERG, a town of Prussia province Silesia; on the Neisse, 15 m N Görlitz.

ROTHENBURG, a town of Bavaria, province Rezat, surrounded by moats and ramparts, and stands on a mountain by the Tauber, from which it is supplied with water by means of a machine: it has 5 churches, was lately an imperial town, - and is 15 m wNw Ansbach.

ROTHERHAM, a town of England, county West-York, on the Don, below the influx of the Rother, 32 m s Leeds, 159 N by w London, with a market on Monday; famous for considerable iron-works in the vicinity, at Masbrough: 2 annual fairs, and fortnight fairs for the sale of oxen, sheep, and swine; P. 4033.

ROTHSAY, a borough of Scotland, isle of Bute, capital of Buteshire, E side of the island, and has a good harbour and pier, 80 m w by s Edinburgh: an ancient castle, once a royal palace, considerable trade in the herring fishery, and several

cotton-works; P. 4817: Lg. 4.53 w, Lt. 55.48 N.

ROTTWELL, a town of Würtemberg, province Ober-Neckar, near which to the s is Rothmünster-abbey, where they receive none but noble women; on the Neckar, near its source, 27 m ssw Tubingen.

ROTTERDAM, a city of Holland, province South-Holland, at the influx of the Rotte with the Merve (the most northern branch of the Maas), 30 m ssw Amsterdam, and next to Amsterdam, the most considerable place for trade, and the beauty of its buildings. Its port is more frequented than Amsterdam, and there are so many deep canals, that ships may unload at the very doors of the warehouses. On the E side of the city is a large basin and dock, for the purpose of building vessels employed in the service of the Admiralty and the East-IndiaCompany. The townhouse, the bank, the exchange, and the arsenal, are magnificent. Some of the houses are built in the old Spanish style, with the gable ends embattled in front; but there is a great number of modern brick houses, which are lofty and spacious, particularly on the magnificent quay called the Bomb-Puss. On this quay is a handsome synagogue. A statue of Erasmus, in bronze, stands at the head of one of the canals, and on the house in which he was born, in 1467, is an inscription to his honour: it received the French troops in 1795: Lg. 4.29 E, Lt. 51.56 N.

ROTTERDAM, Australasia, one of the Friendly-islands, South Pacific-ocean, discovered by Tasman in 1643: Lg. 174.30 w, Lt. 20.16 s.

ROTTINGEN, a town of Bavaria, province Unter-Main, 17 m s Würtzburg.

ROUEN, a city of France, capital of department Seine-Inferieure, and an archbishop's see; on the N side of the Seine, 7 m in circuit. The streets are narrow and crooked, and chiefly consist of wooden houses, notwithstanding which it is one of the most opulent and commercial places in France: the principal manufacture is linens, which are much esteemed. Among the public buildings the most distinguished are, the great hall of the palace, the old castle, the cathedral, and the churches of St.-Ouen and St.-Maclou. In the marketplace is the statue of the celebrated Maidof-Orleans, who was burnt here by the English for alleged sorcery in 1430. The suburb of St.-Sever, on the other side of the Seine, communicates with the city by a bridge of boats, which is made to open so as to admit the passage of ships, but an elegant stone bridge is now building: the birth-place of the two Corneilles, and of Fontanelle; 50 m sw Amiens, and 80 NW

Paris; P. of commune 88,086: Lg. 1.2 E, by Berwickshire, E and s by Northumber Lt. 49.26 N.

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ROUSSELART; see ROULERS.

ROUSILLON, an old province of France, s of Languedoc, and separated from Spain by the Pyrenees; now forms department Pyrenees-Orientales.

ROUNO-ISLAND, small, Russia, gulf-ofRiga, 14 m Riga, and nearly the same from Aronsburg: light-house; the inhabitants Swedes.

ROUZA, a town of Russia, government Moscow, chief of district, both banks of the Rouza, and on the banks of the Gorodenka and Saratchka; divided into three parts, viz. the fortress, town, and suburbs; 65 m Moscow. The fortress is situated on elevated ground, having three sides protected by the waters above-named, and on the other is a deep ravine; the fortifications form a parallelogram, ramparts high, steep, and of earth; 1 cathedral, 3 churches, 40 shops, 3 breweries, and 2 fairs; P. 2500: Lg. 36.25 E, Lt. 55.45 N.

ROVEREDO, a town of Austria, Tyrol, near the Adige, at the foot of a mountain, defended by a strong citadel: great trade in silk, and much tobacco is raised here. The Austrians were defeated near this place, in 1796, by the French, who took possession of the town, but they were obliged to abandon it soon afterward; 13 m s Trent.

ROVIGNO, a seaport of Austria, Istria, with two good harbours, and quarries of fine stone; on a peninsula in the gulf-ofVenice, 36 m s Capo-d'Istria: Lg. 13.58 E, Lt. 45.11 N.

ROVIGO, a town of Austria, Italy, the residence of the bishop of Adria; on the Adige, 37 m sw Venice.

ROVILIA, a German colony, Russia, government Saratof, district Camychine;

53 m Saratof; P. 300.

ROVNO, a town of Russia, government Volhinia, chief of district, left bank of a small river, which falls into the Gorya, 147 m Jitomir.

ROXBURGH, a county of Scotland, sometimes called Teviotdale, bounded on the N

land and Cumberland, and w by the shires of Dumfries and Selkirk, about 30 m long by 30, and divided into 31 parishes; returns IM.P.: the principal rivers are the Tweed, the Teviot, and the Liddel. It exhibits a rough appearance of mosses, hills, and mountains, interspersed with narrow valleys well watered, and fertile in corn; the hills feed great numbers of sheep and cattle. Had its name from the once magnificent city and castle of Roxburgh, between the Teviot and the Tweed, nearly opposite Kelso; of the city no traces are now evident, and the castle, near the mouth of the Teviot, is a ruin at this castle in 1460, James II of Scotland lost his life by the bursting of a cannon. About 2 m w from the castle, on the banks of the Teviot, is a village called Roxburg: the capital is Jedburg; P. 33,682 in 1801, and 43,663 in 1831.

ROXBURY, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Norfolk county, at the foot of a hill, and at the entrance of the neck of land leading to Boston, 2 m ssw of that city: manufactures of soap and candles; P. 5249 in 1830.

ROYAN, a town of France, department Charente-Inferieure, at the mouth of the Garonne, 18 m sw Saintes. It was fortified by the Huguenots, and so vigorously defended against Louis XIII in 1622, that he was obliged to withdraw his troops; but he afterwards avenged his disgrace by demolishing it so entirely that the present place is merely the suburbs of the former.

ROYSTON, a town of England, county Hertford, 14 m s Cambridge, and 37 x London, with a market on Wednesday, and a part of it extends into Cambridgeshire. Under the market-place is a kind of subterranean cript, dug out of the solid chalk, supposed to be of Saxon construction; P. 1757. Polling-place.

ROZAN, a small town of Russia, province Poland, voevod Plotsk, on a rising ground; houses very wretched; P. 350, chiefly Jews.

RUARON, a town of Wales, county Denbigh, with a market on Monday, near the Ellesmere-canal, 5 m s by w Wrexham, and 172 Nw London: in the vicinity are con siderable collieries and iron-works; P.8353.

RUATAN, OF RATTAN, an island of North America, in the bay-of-Honduras, 25 m from the coast, 30 m long by 9, and has a good harbour, called Port-royal, near the SE end: Lg. 86.50 w, Lt. 16.20 N.

RUBIERA, a town of Italy, 8 m xw Modena.

RUDELSTADT, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, principality Schweidnitz, on the Bober, 16 m w Schweidnitz, with a mine-office and copper-works.

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