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LIN-TCIN, a city of Asia, China, of the 2nd rank, in Chan-tong. Here is an octagonal tower, divided into eight stories, the walls of which are covered on the outside with porcelain. It stands on the Great canal, 187 m s Pekin: Lg. 115.31 E, Lt. 36.56 N.

LINTON, a town of England, county Cambridge, with a market on Thursday; on the side of a chalk-hill, by the Granton, 12 m SE Cambridge, and 48 N by E London.

LINTON, a town of Scotland, county Peebles, on the Lyne, 12 m NW Peebles, and 15 ssw Edinburgh; P. 1577.

LINTZ, Austria, a city, capital of province Upper Austria, with two castles, the one upon a hill, and the other below it; on the right bank of the Danube, 96m w of Vienna: here is a hall in which the states assemble, a bridge over the Danube, and an imperial woollen manufacture; also manufactures of gunpowder, leather, and looking-glasses. The French became masters of it in 1741, and again in 1800: Lg. 14.16 E, Lt. 48.21 N. LINTZ, a town and citadel of Prussia, province Cleve-Jülichberg, on the Rhine, 30 m SSE Coln, or Cologne.

LINWOOD, a village of Scotland, county Renfrew, 3 m WNW Paisley, with an extensive cotton manufacture.

LIPARI, the largest and most fertile of the Lipari-islands, in the Mediterranean, belonging to Sicily, about 15 m in circuit. It has not suffered from subterraneous fires for ages past, though it every where bears the marks of its former volcanic state. It abounds with the currant grape; cotton also grows here; and great quantities of sulphur and pumice are exported. It has a town of the same name, which is a bishop's see, and defended by a castle on a high rock of lava that rises perpendicularly from the It stands on the SE side of the island, 26 m NNE Patti, in Sicily; P. about 15,000; Lg. 15.30 E, Lt. 38.35 N.


LIPARI-ISLANDS, a cluster of islands in the Mediterranean, belonging to, and N of, Sicily. They are all of volcanic origin, were feigned to be the residence of Eolus and Vulcan, and formerly called Æolian islands. They are 12 in number, and nearly as follows in the order of their size: Lipari, Stromboli, Volcano, Salini, Felicudi, Alicudi, Panaria, Volcanello, Vacheleuse, Lisca, Dattolo, and Tila-Navi. They yield great quantities of alum, sulphur, nitre, cinnabar, pumice, &c., and produce most kinds of fruit, particularly raisins, currants, and figs. Some of their wines are much esteemed, particularly the Malvasia; P. about 20,000.

LIPETSK, a town of Russia, government Tambow, chief of district on the Voronége, 97 m w Tambow. The mineral waters

attract much company, and there are public gardens.

LIPOVETZ, a town of Russia, government Kiow, chief of district, 126 m sw Kiow.

LIPPA, a town of Austria, Hungary, with a castle, on a mountain, by the Marosh, 37 m NE Temeswar.

LIPPE-DET MOLD, a small principality of Germany, bounded on the s, w, and Nw, by Prussia, and E by Hannover and a detached portion of Hesse-Cassel; P. 73,000, chiefly Calvinists.

LIPPSTADT, a town, capital of the small county of Lippe, surrounded by Prussia. In 1632 a bloody battle was fought here between the Swedes and the Austrians, in which the king of Sweden and the Austrian general were both killed. In 1757 it was taken by the French, who kept possession of it 11 months. It has a good trade in timber for building vessels on the Rhine. It stands on the Lippe, 18 m w Paderborn: Lg. 8.28 E, Lt. 51.41 N.

LIRIA, a considerable town of Spain, province Valencia, with manufactures of linen and soap, 2 m NNW Valencia.



LISBOA, or LISBON, the capital of Portugal, on the N bank of the Tejo, which It is here expands to 9 m in breadth. divided into three parts, called Alfama, Bario-Alto, and Melo; it has also 3 suburbs, Junqueira, Alcantara, and Campo-Grande, to which may be added Belem, a pleasant town immediately adjoining Lisboa on the w. It is built along the river, on 3 hills. The second hill in Lisboa, from the w, is a continuation of the first, being separated from it only by a narrow valley, and covered with crowded and narrow streets. slope of the hill on the E side brings us to the centre of the city, where the earthquake caused a general overthrow, and where a number of good streets have since been built on level ground for a considerable extent. The city is here at its greatest breadth; and in this quarter are the prin cipal squares, the public walks, and the best edifices. On the bank of the Tejo is a house, and the India-house. In front it square, containing the exchange, the customhas very handsome quays. This square is 200 yards long and 180 broad, having in its centre a colossal equestrian statue of Joseph I. Three streets lead from it perpendicularly from the river, and join the Rocio, a square of much larger dimensions, being 600 yards in length, and nearly 500 in breadth, one side of which is occupied by the celebrated inquisition. The third hill extends, with some interruptions, to the E limits of the town, and is crowned by the castle of St. George, a state prison, and

a common jail. This quarter is very old, and consists of narrow, crowded, irregular, and ill-paved streets. Lisboa contains 40 parish churches, 99 chapels, 75 convents or monasteries, and various hospitals. There are also 13 squares, great and small. The principal edifices are the patriarchal church, on an eminence at the NE of the city; the royal monastery of Belem, built in 1500; the church of St. Roque, belonging formerly to the Jesuits, and very rich; and the building in the form of a cross, called the New Church, the largest structure erected in Lisboa since the earthquake. Near the Rocio square is the public walk, an oblong garden laid out in alleys; and further to the x, one of the two theatres of Lisboa, with the square for exhibiting bull fights. But of architectural curiosities, the greatest is the aqueduct, which passes in one part through a tunnel, in another across a deep valley; it is to the N of the city, and is partly of Roman, partly of Gothic architecture; the principal arch is Gothic, of the width of 107 feet, and is accounted one of the most remarkable structures of the kind in Europe. It is of such solidity, that at the great earthquake it withstood the shock, though the key-stone sunk several inches. Lisboa was nearly destroyed by the earthquake of 1755. Many years elapsed before it recovered from this calamity; and the traces of it are still visible in many parts. Of the public institutions of Lisboa, one of the principal is the academy of sciences, founded in 1779. A geographical academy was founded in 1799; the college of nobles, founded in 1761; the royal marine academy, in 1779; the Academiareal-das-Guardas-Marinhas, in 1782; the royal academy of fortification, in 1790. Lisboa is the seat of the public offices, not only of the government, but of the church. It is well provided with public charities, and in particular with hospitals. Its commerce is very considerable, comprising all the colonial, and perhaps three-fourths of the foreign, trade of the kingdom at large. In 1807 Lisboa was occupied by a French army, but was restored to the Portuguese authorities in 1808, by the convention of Cintra. Lisboa is 313 m w by s Madrid, and 9 E of the mouth of the Tejo; P. about 300,000: Lg. 9.8.25 w, Lt. 38.42.20 N.


LISBON, NEW; see NEW-LISBON. LISBURN, a borough of Ireland, county Antrim, with considerable manufactures of damask, linen-cloth, muslin, and cambric. In 1707 it was consumed by fire, but is now the second in extent and commerce in the county. It returns 1 M.P., and is seated on the Lagan, 8 m sw Belfast.

LISKEARD, a borough of England, county Cornwall, governed by a mayor, with a market on Saturday. It returns I M.P.

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land, at the entrance of Loch-Linnhe, on the LISMORE, one of the Hebrides of Scotcoast of county Argyle. It is a fertile island, 10 m long by 2, anciently the residence of the bishop of Argyle. A great part of the cathedral remains, and the chancel is used as the parish church; P. 1790.

Waterford; a bishop's see united to WaLISMORE, a borough of Ireland, county perpendicularly from the river, is a castle, terford. On the verge of a rock, rising in which the celebrated Robert Boyle was born. The cathedral is spacious and handsome, but the town is now a small place. It stands on the Blackwater, over which is a bridge, 30 m NE Cork, and 38 wsw Waterford.

LISSA, an island in the gulf-of-Venice, on the coast of Dalmatia. Here is a fishery of pilchards and anchovies, and it produces excellent wine. It is 70 m w Ragusa.

LISSA, a town of Prussia, province
Russians; but it has been rebuilt, with
In 1707 it was laid waste by the
great improvement, and carries on a great
trade. It is 50 m ssw Posen.

LISSA, a village of Prussia, province
Silesia, on the Weistriz, 6 m Nw Breslau,
where a great victory was gained by the
Prussians over the Austrians, in 1757.

Kerry, on the Fiale, 18 m NE Tralee.
LISTOWEL, a town of Ireland, county

LITCHFIELD, 2 in North America,
United States:-1st, a county, state Con-
necticut, Litchfield is the county-town;
P. 42,855.-2nd, county-town of the above,
31 m Hartford, 324 Washington; P. 4456:
both in 1830.

LITHUANIA, Russia, the former name
of a country of Europe, governed by its
grand dukes, but in 1569 united to Poland,
by 250, bounded on the s by Volhynia, w
under one elective king. It is 300 m long
by Little Poland, Polachia, Prussia, and
Samogitia, N by Courland and Russia, and
E by Russia. It now forms the 3 govern-
ments of Wilna, Grodno, and Minsk. It
is very flat, sandy, and contains numerous
marshes and bogs.

LITINE, a town of Russia, government
Podolia, chief of district, on the Stare, 115 m


LITIZ, a town of North America, United States, state Pennsylvania, Lancaster county, a settlement of the Moravians, 8 m N Lancaster, and 66 w by N Philadelphia.

LITTORALE, a district of Austria, kingdom Illyria, Dalmatia, including the towns of Trieste, Fiume, Buccari, and Porto-Re.


about 2 m long. The trade of Liverpool is general; but the principal branch is the American and West Indian trade. The African, Baltic, and Portugal commerce is also very great, as well as that of Ireland; many ships are sent to the East-Indies, and to the Greenland whale-fishery; and the coasting trade employs a great number of vessels. Its docks, both wet and dry, oc

are built here. By inland navigation, Liverpool has communication with the rivers Dee, Ribble, Ouse, Trent, Humber, Severn, and Thames. The principal manufactures are fine porcelain, earthenware, watches, and stockings; some glass, iron, soap, salt, sugar, and copperas works; many roperies, and upward of 50 breweries. Here are 7 churches, 4 Catholic chapels, numerous meet ing-houses, and a synagogue; also an elegant town-hall, a splendid exchange, a custom-house, a lyceum, an athenæum, and other institutions for literary and scientific pursuits.

LIVADIA, the whole of that portion of the kingdom of Greece lying N of the gulf-cupy above 60 acres; and many good ships of-Lepanto, divided into 4 departments, viz. Arcania-and-Etolia, Phocida-and-Locrida, Attica-and-Botia; and these are divided into numerous districts. The soil is very productive, although many parts mountainous: and its extent of sea-coasts, indented with many harbours, is highly advantageous to commerce. The principal cities and towns are-Athens, Livadia, Negropont, Lepanto, Salona, Lidoriki, Vrakhori, Talanti, Boudounitza, Zituni, Patradgik, Karpentitize, Vonitza, and Thebes. The rivers deserving of notice are the Aspro-Potamus, Fidaris, Morno, Mavro-Potamus, Hellada, and Asopa: it contains but 1 lake, called Topolias, which is in Negropont: the most western point Lg. 20.45 E, most eastern point of isle-of-Negropont Lg. 24.34 E, and extends from Lt. 37.38 to 39.7 N.

LIVADIA, a city, kingdom of Greece, Livadia, department Attica-and-Bœtia, on the side of a hill, on the site of the ancient Lebadea, and is now so called by the modern Greeks. On the top of a rock is an old castle, part of which serves as a fortress; and at the bottom is the cave of Trophonius, the last oracle that was heard to utter the decrees of fate. It contains 5 mosques and 6 Greek churches: and has a trade in wool, corn, and rice. It is 68 m Nw Athens: Lg. 23.0 E, Lt. 38.42 N.

LIVERPOOL, a borough and seaport of England, county Lancaster, with a market on Wednesday and Saturday, and returns 2 M.P. In 1565 it had but one church, which had been a chapel of ease to Walton, a village 3 m off. In 1699 an act passed to make the town a distinct parish, and erect a new church; since which time it has rapidly advanced in population and trade, and is now become, with respect to commerce, the second port in the kingdom. It is seated on the right bank of the Mersey, and has an excellent harbour formed with great labour and expense; ships being admitted into noble wet docks, secured by flood-gates; but the entrace is shallow and Since the comrequires expert pilots. pletion of the duke of Bridgewater's canal, several other docks have been made, which in their construction and arrangements are superior to those of any other port in the kingdom, and form a

The places of amusement are numerous; and a most complete set of baths for sea-bathing. Among the many charitable foundations are an infirmary, a school for the blind, almshouses for the widows of mariners lost at sea, or decayed seamen, and an asylum for lunatics. Á railway has lately been made from this place to Manchester, a distance of 31 m, by which the daily intercourse with that place has been quadrupled. Passengers have frequently been conveyed from Liverpool to Manchester in 50 minutes. The cost of this railway is stated to exceed 1,200,000l. Liverpool is 48 m s Lancaster, and 202 Nw London; P. 165,175: Lg. 3.0 W, Lt. 53.22 N. Polling-place.

LIVERPOOL, a town of North America, Nova-Scotia, in Queen county, at the mouth of the Liverpool, and the head of a bay, which affords good anchorage for large ships. At the entrance of the bay lies Coffin-island, on which is a lighthouse. The houses are chiefly of wood. It is 70 m sw Halifax: Lg. 64.40 w, Lt. 44.4 N.

LIVINGSTONE, 3 in North America, United States:-1st, a county, state NewYork, Geneseo county-town ; P. 27,719 :— 2nd, a state, Kentucky, Salem county-town; P. 6607.-3rd, a town, state New-York, Columbia county; P. 2087: all in 1830.

LIVNY, a town of Russia, government Orel, chief of district, on the Desna, 85 m SE Orel.

LIVONIA, a government of Russia, former name Riga. Confirmed to Russia by Sweden, at the peace of Nystadt in 1721. i Bounded N by Reval, or Esthonia, E by i lake-Tchoudskoe-Ozero, or Peipus, which separates it from the government of Petersburgh and Pscow, s by Vitebsk and Cour.

total of dock-room of 111 acres; the quay

space extends to the length of about 8 m; and the river-wall exclusive of openings is

vided into 5 districts, each named after its chief town, viz. Riga, Venden, Derpt, Per

nau, and Arensburg; chief rivers, WestDvina, Ewst, Aa, Fellin, which falls into the gulf-of-Riga, and Embakh, falling into lake-Peipus or Peipouss: extent about 250 m from N to s, and 150 from E to w. It contains several lakes and extensive forests: of the former, the largest is named Virty or Virtz-Yerve, above 23 m long N to s, and from 3 to 9 wide, and its waters are connected with those of lake-Peipus by the Embakh. The soil is so productive in corn, that it may be regarded as the granary of Europe. Its manufactures are glass, paper, hats, leather, and corn-brandy; its exports, flax, hemp, honey, wax, leather, hides, and potash; P. 579,291. Capital Riga.


LIZARD-POINT, a peninsula and cape of England, on the s coast of county-Cornwall, the most southern point of land in England. On it are 2 lighthouses: Lg. 5.11.17 w, Lt. 49.57.55 N.

LLANARTH, a town of Wales, county Cardigan, with a market on Tuesday, 15 m ENE Cardigan, and 223 w by N London; P. 499.

LLANBEDER, a corporate town of Wales, county Cardigan, with a market on Saturday, and a considerable traffic in horses, cattle, hogs, salted butter, and tanned and raw hides. It it seated on the Tyvy, over which is an ancient bridge into Carmarthenshire, 29 m E Cardigan, and 204 w by N London. It participates with Cardigan in returning 1 M.P; P. 1317. Pollingplace.

LLANDAFF, a city of Wales, county Glamorgan, now very small and no market. The cathedral is partly in ruins, but serves for the parish church. It is seated on the Taff, 2 m WNW Cardiff, and 162 w London; P. 1299.

LLANDDEWI-BREFI, a village of Wales, County Cardigan, on the s bank of the Brefi, 7 m NE Llanbeder. It is famous for the synod held here in 519, where St. David preached against the Pelagian heresy; it has a spacious church; P. 2461.

LLANDILO-FAWR, a town of Wales, county Carmarthen, on the side of a hill, by the Towy, 15 m E Carmarthen, and 202 w by N London, with a market on Saturday, and a manufacture of flannel. Near it is the picturesque remain of Dynevor castle, celebrated as the habitation of the native princes of Wales; P. 5149. Polling-place.

LLANDOVERY, a town of Wales, county Carmarthen, with a market on Saturday. Here are the remains of a castle, on an insulated rock, without any thing of a rocky nature near it, or any rising ground. It is seated near the Towy, 26 m ENE Carmarthen, and 188 w by N London; P. 1766.

LLANDYSSUL, a town of Wales, county Cardigan, with a market on Thursday; situated on the Tyvy, 15 m ESE Cardigan, and 225 NNW London; P. 2724. Pollingplace.

LLANELLY, a town of Wales, county Carmarthen, with a market on Thursday, and a trade in coal and tinned iron plates; seated on the Burry, a creek of the Bristol channel, 16 m SSE Carmarthen, and 222 w by N London; P. 7646. Polling-place.



MEDD, a town of Wales, in the isle of Anglesey, with a market on Wednesday, 15 m NW Beaumaris, and 268 Nw London; P. 57.

LLANFAIR, a town of Wales, county Montgomery: participates in returning 1 M.P. for Carmarthen; with a market on Saturday; seated on the Vyrnwy, 12 m Nw Montgomery, and 180 London; P. 2687. Polling-place.

LLANFYLLIN, a corporate town of Wales, County Montgomery, with a market on Thursday; seated in a flat, among hills, near the Cane, 16 m N by w Montgomery, and 185 NW London; P. 1836.

LLANGADOC, a town of Wales, county Carmarthen, with a market on Thursday, 18 m ENE Carmarthen, and 190 w by N London; P. 2476.

LLANGEFNI, a village of Wales, Anglesea, 12 m WNW Bangor; P. of parish 1753, participates in returning 1 M.P. for Beau maris. Polling-place.

LLANGOLLEN, a town of Wales, county Denbigh, on the Dee, over which is an ancient bridge, 11 m ssw Wrexham, and 190 NW London, with a market on Saturday. Near it are the remains of Castle-Dinas, formerly a strong place; and about 2 m distant is Valle-Crucis, an abbey, one of the finest pieces of antiquity in Wales; P. 4498. Polling-place.

LLANIDLOES, a town of Wales, county Montgomery; participates in returning 1 M.P. for Montgomery. It has a market on Saturday, and is seated on the Severn, 18 m sw Montgomery, and 188 WNW London; P. 4189.

LLANOS, a province of South America, Columbia. Its limits not exactly defined, nor the interior well known, bút consists of immense plains, some of them extending more than 400 m, and on which numerous herds of cattle are fed. Several fine streams flow from the Andes on the w through these plains to the Orinoco, and are the means of transporting the products to Guyana and Caraccas. The chief place is St. Juan-delos-Llanos.

LLANRWST, a town of Wales, county Denbigh, with a market on Tuesday. It is

the centre of the business of the vale of Conway, over which is a bridge into Carnarvonshire, 15 m wsw Denbigh, and 225 NW London; P. 3601. Polling-place.

LLANSAWELL, a village of Wales, county Carmarthen. Polling-place.

LLANSTEPHAN, a village of Wales, County Carmarthen, 10 m ssw Carmarthen, near the mouth of the Towy; noted for the remains of its castle on the summit of a bold hill, whose base is washed by the sea; P. 1274.

LLANTRISSAINT, a corporate town of Wales, county Glamorgan, with a market on Friday. It had a castle, which is nearly destroyed. It is 12 m Nw Cardiff, and 180 w London; P. 2789.


LLANYMYNECH, a village of England, county Salop, 5 m s by w Oswestry, on the Virnwy, and borders of Montgomeryshire. It is noted for excellent lime, the produce of a neighbouring hill; P. 887.

LLAUGHARN; see LAUGHARNE. LOANDA, a town of Africa, Congo, capital of Angola, with a fort belonging to the Portuguese, and a bishop's see. It stands on the Atlantic, and has a good harbour formed by the island of Loanda, 18 m in length, lying a little off the coast. The town is large and handsome, considering the country, containing 3000 houses, built of stone, and covered with tiles. Beside these are a vast number of huts made of straw and earth. The chief traffic is in slaves. It is 260 m ssw St. Salvador: Lg. 13.15 E, Lt. 8.40 s.

LOANGO, a kingdom of Africa, Congo, bounded N by Gabon, E and s by Congo Proper, and w by the Atlantic. The land is so fruitful that it yields three crops of millet in a year; and there are great numbers of palm-trees, from which oil and wine are made. The people are black, well-made, mild, and tractable, but naturally indolent. The women cultivate the ground, sow, and get in the harvest.

LOANGO, Africa, the capital of the kingdom of Loango, at the mouth of the Quilla, in a bay that affords good anchorage. The streets are wide, and lined with palm-trees, bananas, and bacavas. The houses are oblong, and have only a ground floor; separated from each other, and fenced round with a hedge of palm-twigs, canes, or bulrushes. In the centre is a large square, fronting the royal palace, which forms another square, a mile and a half in compass, surrounded by a palisade and stately palm trees. The principal trade consists in elephant teeth, palm-oil, copper, tin, lead, iron, and slaves. It is 230 m wNw St. Salvador: Lg. 11.45 E, Lt. 4.15 s.

LÖBAU, or LOEBAU, a town of Prussia, province West-Preussen, with a castle,

where the bishop of Culm resides, 58 m E by N Culm.

LÖBAU, a town of Saxony, with a trade in gray, striped, and white linens, 15 m w Görlitz.

LOBENSTEIN, a town of the principality of Reuse-Greitz, with a castle. Great quantities of cloth, stuffs and yarn, are made here. It is 22 m NNE Culmbach.

LOBOA, a town of Spain, province Estramadura, on the Guardiana, 22 m E Badajoz.

LOCARNO, a town of Switzerland, canton Tesin, capital of district. It contains 3 convents, and a small Franciscan monastery, on a rock overhanging the valley, and commanding a view of lake-Magiore. It was formerly situated on the lake, and had a port capable of receiving large barks; but is now at the distance of a quarter of a mile, owing to the accumulation of sand brought down by the torrent Magia. It is 9 m sw Bellinzona, and 56 N by w Milan : Lg. 8.51 E, Lt. 46.10 N.

LOCH-A, Scotland, county Agyle, 30 m long.

LOCH-ERIBOL, Scotland, an arm of the sea, on the N coast of county Sutherland, capable of affording a safe retreat to the largest vessels. It receives several streams, particularly that which flows from lochHope; and much kelp is made on its


LOCH-ERICHT, a lake of Scotland, in the counties of Inverness and Perth. It is 24 m long by half a mile, surrounded by lofty mountains and rugged cliffs, and its banks covered with heath and a few straggling birches and alders. Its outlet at the extremity, is the Ericht, which flows into lochRannock.

LOCH-FYNE, Scotland, an inlet of the Atlantic, county Argyle, nearly 40 m long. It receives and returns a tide on each side of the isle-of-Arran, which is opposite its It is indented with bays; and in the herring season is the resort of numerous fishing vessels.


LOCH-LEVEN, an arm of the sea, Scotland. See LOCH-LINNHE.

LOCH-LINNHE, an arm of the sea, on the w coast of Scotland, which separates at its northern parts the counties of Argyle and Inverness. It extends NE from the sound-of-Mull to fort-William, where it takes a westerly direction, and acquires the name of loch-Eil. Another branch, in an easterly direction, is called loch-Leven. This lake is bounded on each side by lofty hills. The island of Lismore lies at its entrance, and the Caledonian-canal commences at its N extremity.

LOCH-LOCHY, a lake of Scotland, in the sw part of county Inverness, 12 m long by 1, and 70 fathoms deep. From the NW the waters of loch-Arkek descend into this lake,

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