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Moselle, with a castle; divided into the old and new town, the latter of which is fortified. It was taken by the Austrians in 1792, but retaken two months after. It stands on an eminence, 36 m NNW Metz, and 160 ENE Paris.

LONS-LE-SAUNIER, a town of France, capital of the department of Jura, with an abbey of noble Bernardines, 30 m ssw Dole. Loo; see HET-LOO.


LOOE, EAST and WEST, two decayed boroughs of England, county Cornwall, separated by a creek, over which is a narrow stone bridge; supported chiefly by the pilchard fishery; market at East Looe on Saturday: 16 m w Plymouth, and 231 w by s London; P. of East 865, of West 593.

LORA, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, on the Guadalquiver, 28 m NE Seville.

LORBUS, a town of Africa, kingdom of Tunis, with a castle, and fine remains of antiquity; in a plain, fertile in corn, 150 m sw Tunis: Lg. 9.0 E, Lt. 35.35 n.

LORCA, a city of Spain, province Murcia, a bishop's see. A great quantity of barilla is produced in the vicinity, and there are potteries and saltpetre works. It is seated on an eminence, 50 m w Carthagena.

LORD-HOWE'S-GROUP, a group of islands, Australasia, in the Pacific-ocean, discovered in 1791, by captain Hunter, who descried 32 of them, some of considerable size; thickly covered with wood, chiefly cocoanut. Nine of the natives came near the ship, in a canoe, which was about 40 feet long, badly made, and had an out-rigger. They were a stout, clean, well-made people, of a dark copper colour; their hair tied in a knot on the back of the head; and they appeared as if clean shaved: Lg. 159.24 to 159.37 E, Lt. 5.30 s.

LORD-HOWE'S-ISLAND, an island of Australasia, in the Pacific-ocean, discovered in 1788, by lieutenant King, 4 m long, and very narrow: turtles abundant, as also a variety of birds. At the s end are 2 high mountains, nearly perpendicular from the sea; the southernmost named MountGower. About 14 m s is a remarkable rock, named Ball's Pyramid, which has much the appearance of a steeple at a distance: Lg. 159.0 E, Lt. 31.36 s.

LORETTO, a fortified town of Italy, States of the Church, marquisate of Ancona, and a bishop's see. The cathedral contains the Casa Santa [Holy House], in which it is pretended the Virgin Mary lived at Nazareth: according to the legend, it was carried by angels from Galilee into Dalmatia, and thence to the place where it now stands. This house or chapel is 31 feet long, 15 broad, and 18 high; the inner part very old, but cased with marble on the outside. The famous lady of Loretto, adorned with jewels,

stands upon the altar, in a niche of silver, surrounded by numerous gold and silver lamps. Great numbers go in pilgrimage to Loretto, and every pilgrim, after having performed his devotion, makes the Virgin a present; so that the treasury of this chapel is immensely rich. Such was the state of this sanctuary till violated by the French, who seized and dispersed these stores of treasure, the image of the Virgin alone remaining. The inhabitants of the town subsist principally by agriculture and gardening, and many of them are shoe-makers, tailors, and sellers of chaplets. Loretto was taken by the French in 1796, who plundered and retained it till 1799. It is seated on a mountain, near the gulf-ofVenice, 12 m SE Ancona, and 112 NE Rome; P. 6000: Lg. 13.38 E, Lt. 43.27 N.

LORETTO, a principal town of North America, California, with a harbour and fort, at the foot of a mountain, near the gulf-of-California, 90 m sw Guitivis, in Mexico. See GUITIVIS: Lg. 111.44 w, Lt. 26.12 N.

LORGUES, a town of France, department Var, on the Argens, 16 m w Frejus.

LORRAINE, an old province of France, bounded N by Luxemburg and Treves, and w by Champagne. It now forms the departments of Meuse, Moselle, Meurte, and Vosges.

LOSSIEMOUTH, a village of Scotland, county Elgin, at the mouth of the Lossie, 5 m NE Elgin, of which it is the port. The harbour will receive vessels of 80 tons, and hence much corn is exported.

LOSTWITHIEL, a borough of England, county Cornwall, governed by a mayor, capital of the county, and the county memwith a market on Friday; anciently the

bers are still elected here. It stands on the Fowey, which was formerly navigable to the town, but the channel is now stopped up. Here is a woollen manufacture; and it is one of the tin coinage towns. Near it, on the edge of a hill, is Lestormel castle, formerly the residence of the dukes of Cornwall. It is 22 m NNE Truro, and 236 w by

s London.

LOT, a department of France, bordered by the departments Correze, Cantal, Aveiron, Tarn, Haute-Garonne, Lot-etGaronne, and Dordogne; it is named after the Lot. Cahors is the capital; P. 272,000. LOT-ET-GARONNE, a department of France, bordered by the departments Dordogne, Lot, Gers, Landes, and Gironde. Agen is the capital: area, 2200 square m; P. 326,000.

LOTHIAN, a district of Scotland, now divided into East, Mid, and West Lothian, or Hadingtonshire, Edinburgshire, and Linlithgowshire.

LOTZIN, a town of Prussia, province

Ost-Preussen, with a castle, on a canal that joins the Angerburg and Löwetin lakes, 78 m SE Konigsberg.

LOUBNY, a town of Russia, government Poltava, chief of district, on a mountain on the bank of the Soula, 122 m Poltava, with 4 annual fairs: the town is well-built, and has 3 churches; P. 5000: Lg. 33.22 E, Lt. 49.57 N.

LOUDEAC, a town of France, department Côtes-du-Nord, with an iron forge and a manufacture of thread, 20 m s St. Brieuc ; P. 6481.

LOUDON, a county of North America, United States, state Virginia, E district, Leesburg county-town; P. 21,938 in 1830.

LOUDUN, a town of France, department Vienne, on an eminence, 30 m Nw Poitiers, and 155 sw Paris; P. 2000.

LOUGA, a small town of Russia, government Petersbourg, chief of district, on both banks of the Louga, 87 m Petersbourg.

LOUGHBOROUGH, a town of England, county Leicester, with a market on Thursday. It has a large church with a handsome tower. The chief manufactures are wool-combing and hosiery; and it has a trade in coal, &c., by means of a canal from the Trent; situated near the Soar, 11 m N Leicester, and 109 NNW London; P. 10,800. Polling-place.

LOUGHBRICKLAND, a town of Ireland, County Down, near a small lake that abounds with speckled trout, 11 m N Newry.

LOUGHREA, a town of Ireland, county Galway, on an eminence, close to Loughrea, 20 m ESE Galway.

LOUGH-ALLEN, a lake in Ireland, county Leitrim, 10 m long by 3, near the Arigna iron-works.

LOUGH-CORRIB, a beautiful lake of Ireland, in the county of Galway, 20 m long, and in some places more than 6 broad. It is thickly studded with islands, many of which are inhabited; its navigation is impeded by latent rocks, but their positions are known by those boatmen who are continually employed in conveying goods and provisions to and from Galway. The s end is the narrowest part of the lake, and here is its outlet into Galway-bay, at the town of Galway.

LOUGH-FOYLE, in Ireland, county Donegal, a large inlet of the sea, extending to Londonderry, at which place it receives the waters of the Foyle; defended at its entrance by Green-castle on the w, and a large tower on the opposite side on Macguilligan-point.

LOUGH-NEAGH, a lake of Ireland, of a square form, 18 m long by 10, in the counties of Armagh, Down, Antrim, London

derry, and Tyrone; and is the largest in the island, but very deficient from others in picturesque effect: the shores are flat, and it contains only two islands, one near the influx of the Blackwater, and the other near the Antrim shore, called Ram-island, on which is an ancient round tower. The water and the soil on some parts of the Antrim shore are of a petrifying quality. The river Bann flows through this lake.

LOUGH-SWILLY, an inlet of the sea on the N coast of Ireland, county Donegal, 22 m long by 2, forming one of the most perfect harbours in the world, and well desituation, and having few villages on its fended by 6 fortified towers, but from its shores, is but seldom frequented.

LOUHANS, a town of France, department Saone-et-Loire, 18 m SE Chalons; P. 3200. L'ORIENT; see ORIENT.

LOUISA, a county of North America, United States, stateVirginia, Louisa countytown; P. 16,151, in 1830.

LOUISA, or LowISA, a fortified town of Russia, Finland, built in 1745, on the frontier with Sweden. It has a strong garrison, convenient port, and ship-yard; also a public-school; P. 2709.

LOUISBURG, North America, capital of the island of Cape-Breton, with a citadel, and an excellent harbour, 12 m in circuit. It stands on a long strip of land, on the SE part of the island: Lg. 59.54 w, Lt. 45.57 N.

LOUISBURG, a county-town of North America, United States, state North Carolina, Franklin county, on the Tar, 39 m NNE Ralegh, and 255 Washington.

LOUISIANA, an extensive country of North America, United States (previous to 1811); estimated to be 1400 m in length by 1100 in breadth; bounded N by the 49th parallel of Lt., E by the Mississippi, s by the gulf-of-Mexico, and w by New-Spain and New-Mexico. This country was discovered. by Ferdinand de Soto, in 1541; traversed by M. de la Salle, in 1682; and settled by Louis. XIV, in the beginning of the 18th century. In 1763 it was ceded to Spain, restored to France in 1801, and by France transferred to the United States in 1803. It is now divided into Missouri territory and state, Arkansas territory, and the state of Louisiana.

LOUISIANA, one of the United States of North America, bounded N and w by the 33rd degree of N Lt., which separates it from Missouri-state, E by Mississippi-state, and s by the gulf-of-Mexico; 300 m from E to W, and 240 N to s; area about 41,000 square m, and is divided into E and w districts; the former into 22 parishes, and the latter into 10. New-Orleans is the capital.

The SE mostly included in the delta of the Mississippi; the sw, level meadows, chiefly very productive; the N and w, thick forests, with rich soil along the rivers. The chief rivers are the Pearl, which falls into lakeBorgore; the Chefundi, small, enters lakePonchartrain; the Iberville, issues from the Mississippi 21 m below Baton-Rouge, and flows into lake-Maurepas: the soil generally is very rich, producing corn, cotton, sugar, rice, sweet-potatoes, pumpkins, melons, figs, cherries, peaches, oranges, grapes, and indigo. The quantity of sugar made in 1828 is stated to be 88,878 hogsheads of 1000lbs. each. In April, 1831, a railway from NewOrleans to lake-Ponchartrain was opened, 4 m long, perfectly straight, with an ascent and descent of only 16 inches: the company are now constructing an artificial harbour and break water at the end of the railway: these works have caused a great rise in the value of the adjacent property; P. 76,556 in 1810, 153,407 in 1820, and 215,575 in 1830, of whom 109,631 are slaves.

LOUISVILLE, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, county-town, state Georgia, Jefferson county, 52 m Milledgeville, 644 Washington.-2nd,


town, state Kentucky, Jefferson county, on the Ohio, just above the rapids, but the navigation for vessels is secured by a canal which extends to below the rapids; 52 m Frankfort, and 590 Washington; P. 10,362 in 1830.

LOUKHE, a small town of Russia, government Costroma, district YourievetzPovolsky, on a river of the same name, 86 m SE Costroma, inclosed by an old earth rampart; P. 1000.

Louth, and Dee. Drogheda is the capital;
P. 125,533.

anciently considerable, but now a poor place,
LOUTH, a town of Ireland, county Louth,
18 m NNW Drogheda.

LOUTH, a corporate town of England, County Lincoln, 28 m NE Lincoln, and day and Saturday, and a manufacture of 145 N London, with a market on Wednes

blankets and carpets.

Here is a noble

Gothic-church, with a lofty spire, and a freeschool founded by Edward VI. It has a navigation, by the Lud and a canal, to the German-ocean, at Tetney-creek; P. 6927. Polling-place.

LOUTSINE, or LOUJA, a small town of Russia, government Vitebsk, chief of district, on the Louja, between 2 lakes, 190 m Vitebsk; P. 1620.

of Russia, government Volhinia, chief of LOUTSK, anciently LOUTCHESK, a town district, on the Stir, 119 m Jitomir; the houses are all wood; P. principally Jews. LOUTZK; see LUIKO.


LOUVIERS, a fortified town of France, department Eure, with a considerable manufacture of fine clothes, on the Eure, 10 m N Evreux, and 55 Nw Paris; P. 9900.

Louvo, a town of Asia, kingdom Siam, with a royal-palace, 50 m N Siam : Lg. 100.52 E, Lt. 14.56 N.

Seine-et-Oise, 21 m N Paris.
LOUVRES, a town of France, department

LÖWEN, a small post-town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the Neisse, 2 German m

LOUKOYANOV, a small town of Russia, by post-road SE Brieg. government Nijni - Novgorod, chief of district, 104 m s Nijni, at the junction of the Techa and Khvotchovka; about 250 houses, no trade.

LOULE, a town of Portugal, province Algarva, surrounded by antique walls, 10 m NW Faro, and 22 wsw Travira.

LOU-NGAN, a city of Asia, China, of the first rank, in Chan-si, near the source of the Tso-taung, 270 m SSW Peking: Lg. 112.34 E, Lt. 36.42 N.

LOURDE, a town of France, department Hautes-Pyrenees, with a castle on a rock, 12 m sw Tarbes; P. 2750.

LOURICAL, a town of Portugal, province Beira, 28 m s by w Coimbra.

LOUTH, a county of Ireland, province Leinster, 29 m long by 13, bounded N by Armagh and Carlingford-bay, E by the Irish-sea, w by Monaghan, and s by EastMeath, from which it is parted by the Boyne. It is the least county in Ireland, but very fertile, contains 61 parishes, and returns 2 M.P. The chief rivers are the Boyne,

LOWENBURG, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the Bober, 21 m wsw Liegnitz.

LOWENSTEIN, a town of Würtemberg, capital of a county, 2m ESE Heilbronn, and 21 NNE Stuttgart.


LOWESTOFF, or LEOSTOFF, a town of England, county Suffolk, on a cliff, the most E point of England, 10 m s Yarmouth, and 114 NE London, with a market on Wednesday. The chief trade is in the mackarel and herring fisheries; and it is much frequented for sea-bathing. Here are forts and batteries protecting ships in the road: Lg. 1.14 E, Lt. 52.32 N; P. 4238.

Lowicz, or LOVITCH, a post-town of Russia, province Poland, voevod Masovien, on the right bank of the Bzura, 11 German m wsw Warszawa, post-road to Berlin. It is clean and showy; the houses large, and stuccoed; has a handsome cathedral, 5 churches, college, and monasteries; with a square in the centre; P. 4000

LOWNDES, 3 counties, North America, United States-1st, state Georgia, Franklinville county-town; P. 2,453.-2nd, state Alabama, Lowndes county-town; P. 9,421. 3rd, state Mississippi, Columbus county town; P. 3,342 in 1830.

LowOSITZ, a town of Austria, Bohemia, district Leutmeritz. In 1756 the greater part of it was burnt in an obstinate engage ment between the Saxons and Prussians. It is seated on the Egra, 5 m wsw Leutmeritz.

LOXA, or LOJA, a town of Spain, province Granada, with Moorish castle, royal salt-work, and copper-works; seated on the side of a mountain, by the Xenil, 28 m w Granada.

LOXA, a town of South America, Quito, capital of a district, famous for producing fine jesuits bark and cochineal: carpets are manufactured here of remarkable fineness. It stands at the head of a Nw branch of the Amazon, 180 m SSE Guayaquil : Lg. 79.15 w, Lt. 3.59 s.

LOZERE, a department of France, bordered by the departments Haute-Loire, Ardeche, Gard, Aveiron, and Cantal. It is mountainous and barren. Mende is the capital area 2100 square m; P. 144,000.

LUBBEN, a post-town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, on the Spree, 50 m by post-road SE Berlin. It contains several churches, a castle, a noble hospital, and a large edifice, where the diets assemble: Lg. 13.52 E, Lt. 51.50 N.

LUBEC, a small territory, free city, and seaport, lately the see of a bishop, who was a prince of the empire, bounded N by a detached part of Oldenburg, E by Mecklenburg, and sw by Denmark, on the Trave, 14 m from the Baltic, and 35 NE Hamburg; was the head of the famous Hanseatic league formed here in 1164, and the most commercial city of the north, but it now has lost great part of its trade. The doors of the houses are so large as to admit carriages into the hall, which frequently serves for a coach-house. The townhouse is a superb structure, and has several towers; there is also a fine council-house and an exchange. There are four large churches, beside the cathedral, in which are some fine paintings of the earliest age, a curious ancient clock, and a prodigiously large organ. There were formerly 4 convents; that of St. John has still some protestant girls, under the government of an abbess-that of St. Mary is turned into a hospital-that of St. Ann is made a house of correction, and that of St. Catherine is now a handsome college; P. 41,000. No Jews are permitted to reside in the city, but they have a village at 2 m distance: Lg. 10.6 E, Lt. 53.51 N.

LUBEC, an island of Asia, Indian-ocean, near the island of Madura: Lg. 112.22 E, Lt. 5.50 s.

LUBEN, a post-town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the Kalterbach, 3 German m N Liegnitz, 8 German m by post-road Nw by w Breslau, post-road to Berlin; P. 2350.

LUBIME, a town of Russia, government Iaroslav, chief of district, on the Obnora and Outcha, 65 m NE Iaroslav; 4 churches, 341 houses, 100 shops, 2 tanneries, and 2 annual fairs: Lg. 41.23 E, Lt. 58.06 N.

LUBZ, a town of grand-duchy of Mecklenburg, on the Elde, 20 m s Güstrow.

LUBLIN, a voevode, Russia, province Poland, formerly a county of Austrian Poland, containing P. 29,700, ceded to the grand-duchy of Warszawa in 1809, and reunited to the kingdom, now province, of Poland in 1814; chief city Lublin; the other towns are, Klem, Doubenka, Lentchno, Loubartoff, Zamosch, and Jozesow.

LUBLIN, a city of Russia, province Poland, voevode Lublin, on the Byztizna, 83 m SE Warszawa: an academy, a handsome synagogue and citadel, 3 annual fairs, each lasting a month, well attended by foreigners; principal articles of trade linencloth, corn, and Hungarian wines: a bishop's see; P. 10,000.

Luc, a town of France, department Var, 25 m NE Toulon; P. 3580.

Luc, a town of France, department Drome, on the Drome, 34 m SE Valence.

LUCANAS, a town of South America, Peru, diocese of Guamanga, which gives name to a district, containing rich silver mines, and feeding great droves of cattle, near one of the head branches of the Apurimac, 80 m s Guamanga: Lg. 74.3 w, Lt. 14.30 s.


LUCCA, a duchy of Italy (lately a republic), on the E coast of the gulph-of-Genova, 19 m NNE Livourno, 40 m long by 16; mountainous, but produces plenty of cattle, wine, oil, silk, wool, and chesnuts; the oil, in particular, is held in high esteem; erected into a duchy in 1815, and given as an indemnity to the infanta of Spain, MariaLouisa.

LUCCA, in Italy, capital of duchy Lucca, an archbishop's see, nearly 3 m in circuit, surrounded by a rampart planted with lofty trees. The state palace is a large building, and includes the arsenal: considerable manufactures of oil, paper, silk, and gold and silver stuffs; entered by the French in 1796, evacuated in 1799, and re-enterd in 1800: in a fruitful plain, near the Serchio, 10 m NE Pisa, 37 m w Florence; P. 18,000; Lg. 10.35 E, Lt. 43.50 N.

LUCE, a spacious bay s coast of Scotland,

County Wigton, lying E of the promontory called the Mull-of-Galloway. The Luce enters its NE extremity at the town of Glenluce.

LUCENA, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, 36 m SSE Cordova, and 42 WNW Granada.

LUCERA, a city of Italy, Naples, capital of Capitanata; a bishop's see: small but populous; manufacture of cloth, 75 m NE Naples Lg. 15.34 E, Lt. 41.28 N.

LUCERNE, a canton of Switzerland, 30 m long by 20, bounded N by Argau, E by Zug, Schweitz, and Underwalden, and s and w by Bern; air mild, and soil uncommonly fertile. Freedom and openness of manners characterise the inhabitants, who are RomanCatholics; P. 105,600.

LUCERNE, in Switzerland, capital of canton Lucerne, divided into 2 parts by a branch of the Reuss, which here issues from lake-Lucerne: no manufactures of consequence, and little commerce, the merchants being principally engaged in the commission business upon goods passing between Italy and Germany, over Mount St. Gothard and the Waldstadter-see. In the cathedral is an organ of an extraordinary size; the centre pipe is 40 feet long. The bridges that skirt the town, round the edge of the lake, are the fashionable walks of the place; being covered at the top, and open at the sides, they afford a constant view of the romantic country: 30 m sw Zurich, 35 m E Bern.-See WALDSTADTER-SEE.

LUCERNA, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, in a valley of its name, 15 m sw Turin.

LUCHOW, a town of Hannover, province Lüneburg, on the Jetz, 11 m s by E Danneberg.

LUCKAW, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg. The inhabitants, many of whom are Vandals, subsist by brewing and handicraft businesses; in a swampy country, on the rivulet Geila, 10 m sw Lübben; Lg. 14.5 E, Lt. 51.52 N.

LUCKENWALD, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, on the Nute, 23 m s Potsdam.

LUCKIPOOR, a city of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal; coarse cotton goods: on a small river that flows w to the Megna, 60 m s by E Dacca.

LUCKNOW, a city of Asia, Hindostan, capital of Oude: the chief palace of the nabob stands on a high bank near the Goomty; the palaces of the nabob, the great mosques, and some religious sepulchres, display considerable splendour; the houses of the merchants are of brick, lofty, and strong; others are chiefly mud-walls, covered with thatch, many entirely of mats and bamboos,

thatched with leaves or straw. The streets where the lower classes reside are crooked and narrow; offensive in the dry season with dust, and in the rainy season with mire; 110 m NNW Allahabad; P. about 300,000 in 1800: Lg. 80.55 E, Lt. 26.51 N.

LUCKO, or LOUTZK, a town of Russia, province Poland, government Volhynia, chief of district, and a bishop's see, with a citadel, built of wood. In 1752 the greater part of it was destroyed by fire: 120 m Jitomar, 175 SE Warszawa.

LUCKPUT-BUNDER, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Cutch, on the borders of Sinde, from which it is separated by a salt creek named the Lonee, 90 m NNW Mandavie, 110 m s by E Hydrabad: Lg. 68.56 E, Lt. 23.47 N.

Luco, a town of Italy, Naples, in Abruzzo-Citra, w bank of lake-Celano, 9 m ssw Celano.

LUÇON, a town of France, department Vendée, in a morass, 17 m x Rochelle, 50 s Nantes.

LUCONIA, or LUZON, Asia, chief of the Philippine-islands, Pacific-ocean, 350 m long by 140, beside a peninsula of very irregular breadth, that projects 140 m at the SE angle, divided into provinces, most of them subject to the Spaniards; the principal are Ilocos, Carmarinas, Paracale, Cagayan, and Balayan, and there are several othersPangasinan, Bahi, Balacan, &c. It is not so hot as might have been expected, being well watered by lakes and rivers, and the periodical rains, which inundate the plains; several volcanos in the mountains, and a variety of hot springs: produce wax, cotton, silk, wild cinnamon, sulphur, cocoanuts, rice, gold, copper, horses, buffalos, and game. Philip II of Spain formed a scheme of planting a colony in the Philip pine-islands, which had been neglected since the discovery of them by Magalaes, or Magellan, in 1521. Manila, in this island, was the station chosen for the capital of the new establishment; hence an active commercial intercourse began with the Chinese, a considerable number of whom settled here under the Spanish protection: these supplied the colony so amply with the valuable productions and manufactures of Asia, as enabled it to open a trade with America, by a direct course of navigation, more than one-third of the circumference of the globe: this trade, at first, was carried on with Calao, on the coast of Peru, but it was afterwards removed to Acapulco, on the coast of New-Spain. From this port formerly sailed two large ships, or galleons, annually, one at a time, at stated periods, but latterly smaller vessels are used. The ships were permitted to carry out silver to the amount of 500,000 crowns, in return

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