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A. M. 2931. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS visi. Lord, that the kingdom was turned about and became mother, and carry their point without ever discovering his brother's.'

the malevolent intent of it. Nathan indeed put Bathsheba upon another argument, The wives of the late king, according to the customs namely, the sacredness of the king's oath, in order to pre- of the east, belonged to his successor, and were never vail with him in behalf of her son : 'Didst not thou married to any under a crowned head. 8 Abishag was swear unto thy handmaid, saying, Surely Solomon thy doubtless a beautiful woman, and, by her near relation son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my to David might have a powerful interest at court; throne ?' But at what time this promise was made, is a Adonijah might therefore hope, by this marriage, to matter of sonie dispute. The generality of interpreters strengthen his pretensions to the crown, or, at least, are of opinion, that after the death of the first child which to lay the foundation for some future attempt, upon David had by Bathsheba, he comforted her for her loss, a proper opportunity, either if Solomon should die, and gave her assurance, that, if God should give him and leave a young son, not able to contest the point another son by her, he would not fail to make him his with him, or if at any time he should happen to fall

But it is much more probable, that David did under the people's displeasure, as his father had done not make any declaration of a promise to Bathsheba, before him. until God had revealed it to him, ' that he should have This might be Adonijah's design, and Solomon aca son, distinct from what he had already, who should cordingly might have information of it: but supposing succeed him in the kingdom, and have the honour of that his brother's design was entirely innocent, yet since building him a temple ; and no sooner was Solomon his request, according to the customs then prevailing, born, but David was convinced that this was the child to was confessedly bold and presumptuous, and had in it whom the promise belonged, by Nathan's being sent to all the appearance of treason, it was none of Solomon's give him a name, denoting his being 3. beloved of the business to make any farther inquiry about it, or to inLord;' and it was at this time, most probably, that David terpret the thing in his brother's favour. It was sufficient gave his mother a promise, confirmed upon oath, that, for him that the action was in itself criminal, and of since God had so manifestly declared in favour of the dangerous consequence to the state ; for it is by their child, he, for his part, would do his utmost to facilitate actions, and not intentions, that all offenders must be tried. his succession. But, upon the whole, he did not choose Adonijah indeed, had he lived under our constitution, for himself, * neither was his declaration to Bathsheba would have had a fair hearing before conviction ; but we previous to Nathan's information, but rather the effect ought to remember, that, in the kingdoms of the east, and consequence of it.

the government was absolute, and the power of life or But even suppose there had been no divine interposi- death entirely in the prince ; so that Solomon, without tion in favour of Solomon, why might not David, who the formality of any process, could pronounce his brohad done such signal service in his reign, nominate his ther dead : and, because he conceived, that, in cases of successor ? *Several great princes in most nations have this nature, delays were dangerous, might send immeclaimed this privilege. Among the Romans, Aurelius diately, and have him despatched ; though we cannot but named Nerva, and Nerva chose 'Trajan, and so did say, that it had been more to his comnendation, had he Augustus appoint his successor. And that this was a showed more clemency, and spared his life. prerogative belonging to the crown of Israel, and what And in like manner, had he not married his Egyptian continued with it for some time after David, is evident queen, there might be less objection to his character ; for, from the story of his grandson Rehoboam, who though whatever augmentation of power he might promise hima prince of no great merit, took upon him the authority self from that alliance, '' he certainly ran the hazard of of nominating his successor, and to the prejudice of his having his religion corrupted by this unlawful mixture. eldest son, made one of his youngest king.

Others, however, have observed that as the sacred ScripFar are we from vindicating Solomon in all his actions, tures commend the beginning of Solomon's reign, in all any more than David in the matter of Uriah. His se- other respects, except the 1 people's sacrificing in high verity to his brother for a seemingly small offence looked places, which might be the rather tolerated, because like revenge, and as if he had taken the first opportunity there was no house built unto the name of the Lord in to cut him off, for his former attempt upon the kingdom; those days ;' and as they give him this character, and yet we cannot but imagine, ’ from Solomon's words he loved the Lord, and walked in all the statutes of to his mother, “Why dost thou ask Abishag for Adoni- David his father,' he would never bave done an act so jah ? Ask for him the kingdom also, for he is mine elder directly contrary to the laws of God, as marrying an brother,' that there was some farther conspiracy against idolatrous princess, had she not been first proselyted to him, though not mentioned in holy writ, whereof he had the Jewish faith. The Scripture indeed takes notice got intelligence, and wherein Joab and Abiathar were of the gods of the Moabites, Ammonites, and Sidonians, engaged ; and that he looked upon this asking Abishng in for whom Solomon, in compliance to his strange wives, marriage as the prelude to it, and the first overt act, as it built places of worship: but as there is no mention made were, of their treason. It is certain that they thought of any gods of the Egyptians, it seems very likely that to impose upon the king, as they had done upon his this princess, when she was espoused to Solomon, quitted

the religion of her ancestors, to which these words in '1 Kings i. 13. 2 Sam. xii. 24.

the psalm, supposed to have been written upon this * 1 Chron. xxii. 9, 10. * The name was Jedidiah, 2 Sam. xii. 25. • Calmet's Commentary in locum.

Poole's Annotations on 1 Kings ii. 22. > Patrick's Commentary on 1 Kings i. 20. 62 Chron. xi. 21, 22. 9 Calmet's Commentary in locum.

10 See 1 Kings xi. ? 1 Kings ii. 22.

11 Kings iji. 2. 12 i Kings iii, 3.

12 that

A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1136. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS riii. occasion, `` Hearken, O my daughter, forget thine own disagreement at all. The author of Samuel, say they, people, and thy father's house, so shall the king have speaks of the horses ; the author of the Chronicles of the pleasure in thy beauty, for he is the Lord,' are thought stalls or stables, which, supposing every one to contain by some to be no distant allusion. However this be, it ten horses, answer the number exactly. It is observis certain, that we find Solomon nowhere reproved in able, however, that the history makes mention of chariot Scripture for this match ; ? nor can we think, that his cities, that is, cities, wherein Solomon kept chariots book of Canticles, which is supposed to be his epithala- and horsemen in several parts of his kingdom, for the mium, would have found a place in the sacred canon, security of his government, and the suppression of any had the spouse, whom it all along celebrates, been at disorder that might happen to arise ; and therefore others that time an idolatress ; though there is reason to believe have thought, that in the Chronicles the author speaks that she afterwards relapsed into her ancient religion, of those stalls which Solomon had at Jerusalem for his and contributed, as much as any, to the king's seduction, constant lifeguard, and were no more than four thousand the many great disorders that were in the latter part and; but in Kings, of all those stalls which were disof his reign.

persed up and down in the several parts of his kingdom, How far the high priest, Abiathar, was concerned in which might be forty thousand : because, upon the the plot against Solomon, the sacred history does not account of the conquests, which his father bad made on particularly inform us; but such was the reverence paid the east side of Jordan, it was necessary for Solomon to the sacerdotal character, that Solomon would have to have a stronger armament of this kind than other hardly dared to have deposed such an one from his kings before him had, in order to keep the people, that office, had not the constitution of the nation authorized would otherwise be apt to rebel, in due subjection. him so to do. The kings in the east, indeed, soon found But without any prejudice to the authority of the out ways to make themselves absolute ; but it looks as Scriptures, why may we not own, that an error has posif, at the first establishment, the king was at the head of sibly crept into the text through the negligence of some the Hebrew republic, and the high priest his subject, transcriber, who has inserted arbahim, that is, forty, inand in all civil affairs submitted to his correction; in- stead of arbah, four, and so made this large disparity somuch, that when any one abused the power of his in the number? Four thousand stalls, supposing each office to the prejudice of the commonweal, or endan- stall for a single horse, are moderate enough; but forty gering the king's person, the king might justly deprive thousand is incredible : and therefore, to proportion the him of his honours and titles, of his temporalities and horses to the chariots, & which were a thousand and four emoluments, and even of life itself. And therefore, hundred, we may suppose, with the learned author, when Abiathar, by his conspiracy, had merited all this, from whom we have borrowed this conjecture, that of whatever was dependent on the crown, as all the re- these chariots some were drawn with two, some with venues of this place, as well as the liberty of officiating three, and some with four horses. Now if the chariots in it, were dependent, Solomon might lawfully take from were drawn with a pair only, the number of Solomon's him; but the sacerdotal character, which he received chariot horses must be two thousand eight hundred; il from God, and to which he was anointed, this he could by two pair, then it must be five thousand six hundred; not alienate : and therefore we may observe, that after but the medium between these two numbers is his deprivation, and even when Zadok was in possession four thousand; and therefore it seems most likely, that of his place, he is nevertheless still mentioned - under the horses which the king kept for this use only, might the style and title of the priest.

be much about this number. Too many for the law to The truth is, there is a great deal of difference between tolerate ; ' but the king perhaps might have as little depriving a man of the dignity, and of the exercise of regard to this clause in the law, as he had to the followhis function in such a determinate place; and between ing one, which forbade him "« to multiply wives and taking from him an authority that was given him by God, concubines to himself, or greatly to multiply silver er and the profits and emoluments arising from it, which gold.' were originally the gift of the crown. The former of The only remaining difficulty, except the divine vision these Solomon could not do, and the latter it is prob- vouchsafed Solomon, which has not been mentioned, is able he was the rather incited to do, out of regard the great quantity of sacrifices which he is said to have to the prophecy of Samuel, wherein he foretold Eli, oftered on one altar only; but without recurring to ang from whom Abiathar was descended, that he would miracle for this, or without supposing that this fire

, translate the priesthood from his to another family, which originally came from heaven, was more strong and as he did in the person of Zadok, who was of the house intense than any common fire; and therefore, after the of Eleazar, even as Eli was of that of Ithamar; so that, return from the captivity the altar, as some observe, was by this means, the priesthood reverted to its ancient made larger, because there wanted this celestial flame : channel.

without any forced solution like this, we have no reason In the account which we have of Solomon's sumptuous to think, that all these sacrifices were offered in one day.

ses. manner of living, 'we read in the book of Kings, that The king, we may imagine, upon one of the great he had “ forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots;" tivals, went in procession with his nobles, to pay bis 6 but in that of Chronicles it is said that he had no more devotion at Gibeon, where the tabernacle was, and the than four ; and yet in this some will acknowledge no brazen altar which Moses had made. Each of the great

very near


! Ps. xlv. 10, 11. "Calmet's Commentary on 1 Kings iii. 1. * Calmet's Commentary on 1 Kings ii. 27. * 1 Kings iv. 4. 5 1 Kings iv. 26.

62 Chron, ix, 25,

2 Chron, ix. 25. 8 i Kings X. 26. 9 See Bochart Hieros. P. I. b. 2. c. 9.

10 Deut, xii. 16. "Le Clero's Commentary on 1 Kings iv. 20.


A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix -1 KINGS viii. festivals lasted for seven days; but Solomon might stay thing we hope for, should be constantly attended with much longer at Gibeon, until, by the daily oblations, a the homage and adoration, with the praises and acknowthousand burnt-offerings were consumed ; and at the con- ledgments of his creatures, his own dependant creatures, clusion of this course of devotion, he might offer up his is a position that will admit of no controversy; and that ardent prayer to God, for wisdom, and God, for the con- there should be some places appointed for this purpose, firmation of his faith, might appear to him in a dream that all the offices of religion may be performed with by night, and have that converse with him which the more decency, and more solemnity, is another position, Scripture takes notice of.

that seems to arise from the nature of the thing. These Sleep indeed is like a state of death to the soul, buildings we style, the houses of God;' but it is not to wherein the senses are locked up, and the understanding defend him, as Arnobius 5 speaks, from heat or cold, and will deprived of the free exercise of their functions ; from wind or rain, or tempests, that we raise such strucand yet this is no impediment to God in communicating tures, but to put ourselves in a capacity of paying our himself to mankind : for ? "God speaketh once, yea duty to him, and of nourishing in our hearts such sentitwice,' says the author of the book of Job,“ in a dream, ments of respect and reverence, of love and gratitude, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon as are due from creatures to their great Čreator. men, in slumberings upon the bed, then he openeth the In these places, God is said to be more immediately ears of men, and sealeth their instruction :' for God, no present to hear our supplications, receive our praises, doubt, has power, not only to awaken our intellectual and relieve our wants; and therefore, to make his habifaculties, but to advance them above their ordinary mea- tation commodious, David exhorts his subjects to a sure of perception, even while the body is asleep. liberal contribution, and because I have a joy,' says

3 A very eminent father of the Greek church, speak- he, in the house of my God, I have of mine own gold ing of the difterent kinds of dreams, has justly observed and silver, given three thousand talents of gold, even that the organs of our body, and our brain, are not un- the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of fine like the strings of a musical instrument. While the silver.' “ He indeed makes mention,” as the learned strings are screwed up to a proper pitch, they give a Hooker, with whose words I conclude this argument, harmonious sound, if touched by a skilful hand; but as has observed, of the natural conveniency that such soon as they are relaxed, they give none at all. In like kind of bounteous expenses have, since thereby we not manner, while we are awake, says he, our senses, touched only testify our cheerful affection to God, which thinks and directed by our understanding, make an agreeable nothing too dear to be bestowed about the furniture of concert ; but when once we are asleep, the instrument his service, but give testimony to the world likewise of has done sounding, unless it be, that the remembrance of his almightiness, whom we outwardly honour with the what passed when we are awake, comes and presents chiefest of outward things, as being, of all things, himitself to the mind, and so forms a dream, just as the self incomparably the greatest. To set forth the majesty strings of an instrument will for some time continue their of kings, his vicegerents here below, the most gorgeous sound, even after the hand of the artist has left them. It and rare treasures that the world can afford are procured ; is no hard matter to apply this to Solomon's dream. He and can we suppose, that God will be pleased to accept had prayed the day before with great fervency, and what the meanest of these would disdain ? In a word, desired of God the gift of wisdom. In the night-time though the true worship of God,” says he, “ be to God God appeared to him in a dream, and bid him ask what- in itself acceptable, who respects not so much in what ever he would. Solomon, having his mind still full of place, as with what affection be is served; yet manifest the desire of wisdom, asked it, and obtained it: so that it is, that the very majesty and holiness of the place the prayer or desire which he uttered in his dream, was where God is worshipped, hath, in regard of us, great but the consequence of the option he had made the day virtue, force, and efficacy, as it is a sensible help to stir before, when he was awake.

up devotion, and, in that respect, bettereth, no doubt, In a word, though we should allow that the soul of our holiest and best actions of that kind.” man, when the body is asleep, is in a state of rest and inactivity ; yet we cannot but think, that God can approach it in many different ways; can move and actuate it just as he pleases; and when he is minded to make a discovery of any thing, can set such a lively re

CHAP. III.-Of the ancient Jerusalem, and ils presentation of it before the eyes of the man's under

Temple. standing, as shall make him not doubt of the reality of the vision.

It is an opinion vulgarly received, and not without much Solomon indeed, at the consecration of the temple, probability, that Jerusalem is the same city which 'elseowns, that 46 the heaven of heavens could not contain God, where is called Salem, and whereof Melchizedek is said and much less then the house that he had built him :'but it to have been king. Not that Salem, or the city of Melwill not therefore follow, that there is no necessity for chizedek, was of equal extent with Jerusalem in after places appropriated to divine worship, nor any occasion times ; but Jerusalem was no other than the city of for making them so magnificent and sumptuous. That God, Salem, enlarged and beautified by the kings of all Israel who is the author and giver of our being, and to whom at first — David and Solomon, and after that, by the we are indebted, for every thing we have, and every succeeding kings of Judah, when the monarchy came to

be divided into two distinct kingdoms. Calmet's Commentary on 1 Kings iii. 2 Job xxxiii. 14. * Gregory de Opificio Hominis, c. 13. 4 1 Kings viii. 27. 5 Contra Gent., b. 6. 6 Eccles. Polity, b. 5.

7 Gen, xiv, Is.

A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4370. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. The word Salem, in the Hebrew language, signifies , stood his royal palace likewise, and the temple of the peace : and as the city of Melchizedek, called Salem, Lord; for the temple was built upon Mount Moriah, is probably thought to be the same with Jerusalem; so which was one of the hills belonging to Mount Zion. it is certain, that Jerusalem was 2 otherwise called Jebus, Between these two mountains lay the valley of Millo, and therefore, as it preserves the name of Salem in the which formerly separated ancient Jebus from the city of latter, so it is thought to preserve the name of Jebus in David, but was afterwards filled up by David and Solothe former part of it, and to be nothing else but a com- mon, to make a communication between the two cities. pound of Jebus and Salem, which, for the better sound's But, besides this valley of Millo, we read in Scripture sake, by the change of one letter, and the omission of another, is softened into Jerusalem.

art or nature, out of a natural rock. This trench was defended Whether this city stood in the centre of the world or by a wall of great strength, erected upon its inner edge, and this no, we shall not pretend to determine, though some a wall was, in like manner, defended and beautified with strong very zealously contend for it; since it is a matter of to have been built of white marble, the lowest 60, and the highest

and square towers, at regular distances; which towers are said more material disquisition, in what tribe it may be sup- 120 cubits high, but all exactly of one level on the top, although posed to have been situated. In the conquest of the in themselves of very different heights, according to the declivity land of Canaan, and at the famous battle of Gibeon, of the ground on which they stood. The History of the Life of

King Darid, vol. 2. 3 Joshua put to death the king of Jerusalem, and, very

c The tower which went under the name of David, was situated probably, took the city, though, by some means or other upon the utmost angle of Mount Zion, and the beauty and fine not mentioned in Scripture, the Jebusites afterwards got proportion of this fabric, as well as the use that was made of it, possession, and continued their possession even till the may be fairly inferred from that famous comparison of Solomon's: days of David. In the division of the land, it was ap- whereon there hang a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty

• Thy neck is like the tower of David, built for an armony, parently one of those cities which * were given to the men,' (Cant. iv. 4.) “The tower of furnaces,' which probably tribe of Benjamin ; and yet when we read, that at had its name from the many fires that were lighted up in it at one time 5. the children of Judah could not drive out once, answered all the ends of a Pharos, or watch tower, both to the Jebusites,' and, at another, 66 that the children of land and sea. By the advantage of its situation, it could not fail

of being an excellent light-house both to the Mediterranean and Judah took and burnt Jerusalem,' one would be tempted Red sea, and was probably so contrived, as to illuminate a great to think, that it lay within the limits of that tribe. But part of the city likewise, and in that respect, was not only a

The house of the then this difference may be easily reconciled, if we will glorious ornament, but of excellent use. but consider, that as this city was built on the fron-mighty' was a palace erected by David, in honour of his wor

thies, or chieftains in war, in which they had apartments, actiers of both tribes, it is sometimes made a part of the cording to their reputation and merit in arms, were always ready one, ard sometimes of the other ; that, by Joshua's divi- at hand, for counsel or aid, as the king's atlairs required, and at sion of the country, Benjamin bad most right to it, but, leisure hours, by superintending and instructing the youth in by the right of conquest, Judah; however, when it came academy for the science of war.— The History of the Life of

their military exercises, answered all the purposes of a royu to be made the metropolis of the whole nation, it was King David, vol. 2. thought to belong to the Israelites in common, and d Dr Clarke and Mr Buckingham, who have investigated therefore was claimed by neither.

more closely than other travellers the topography of Jerusalem, The city of Jerusalem was built upon two hills, and suppose a hill on the south of that generally considered as Mount

Zion, and from which it is separated by the valley taken for that encompassed all round with mountains. It was situated of Hinnom, to be the true Zion. This hill is the one usually in a barren and stony soil; but the places adjacent were described as the mountain of Corruption, or of Offence, so called well watered, having the fountains of Gihon and Siloam, from Solomon's idolatry; and the valley which separates it from and the brook Kidron at the foot of its walls. Jebus, Josephus describes but one valley after the filling up of that ber

the supposed Zion, as that of Hinnom, or Gehinnom. But as or the ancient city which David took, was seated on a tween Acra and Moriah by the Asmoneans, namely, that of the hill towards the south ; and, on the opposite quarter, Cheesemongers, or Tyropæon, which united at the fountain of towards the north, was Mount Zion, where David built a Siloam with the valley of Jehoshaphat; and as this supposed new 6 city, and called it aster his own name, and where valley of Gehinnom is the only one which answers to that de

scription; and further, as this hill alone has the distinct outline, · Heb. vii. 2. 2 Compare Josh. xv. 8. with 1 Chron, xi. 4. stand the citadel of Zion possessed; it has certaiuly very strong

and superior elevation, which we are universally given to under* Josh. x. 23—40, and xii, 10. Josh. xviii. 28.

claims to be considered as such. Every representation of Zim Josh, xv. 63. Judg. i. 8.

in Scripture implies a hill distinct from, and loftier than the a To this purpose they observe, that the sacred writers are very ground on which the lower city stood. It was the hill or citadel well acquainted with this, as appears by that passage of Ezekiel, of Jebus, the “castle” or “stronghold of Zion," which, from c. v. 5. "Thus saith the Lord God, this is Jerusalem: I have its insulated and impregnable nature, the Israelites were unable set it in the midst of the nations and countries round about her.' to take for 400 years after they had gained possession of the For what purpose he did this, the Psalmist has not been wauting lower city (2 Sam. v. 1 Chron. xi.) it was the crowning emito inform us: Out of Zion,' says he, the perfection of beauty, nence of the ridge on which the city stood; and from which the God hath shined,” (Ps. 1. 2.) Here the Almighty kept his whole was denominated after its name. (Ps. cxxxii. 13, 14.) court, and from hence he sent out his ambassadors, the prophets, But no marked division or superiority of height which can exto publish his decrees to the whole world around him, with more plain such a pre-eminence of character, and such an uncommon ease, and speedier conveyance, than could possibly be done from power of defence, as are here represented, distinguishes the hill any other region of the habitable world. From hence, as from commonly received as that of Zion. It is further to be remarked, a central point, the light of the law at first, and the gospel after that Josephus describes the city as seated on two principal hills wards shone out to the surrounding nations; and therefore we only, with one principal intervening valley, namely, that of the find Jerusalem emphatically called the city of our God, the Cheesemongers, or Tyropæon, joining the valley of Jehoshaphat mountain of his holiness, beautiful for situation, and the joy of at the fountain of Siloam, as already stated. He also expressly the whole earth,' (Ps. xlviii. 1, 2.)The History of the Life of mentions the upper city as situated on the one, and the lower King David, vol. 2.

city on the other, relative terms certainly, but of little meaning 6 This city was of a circular form, situated on a much higher when applied to the slight inclination of the unclest ground cu bill, and surrounded with a broad deep trench, hewn whether by I which the modern city, with its allotted part of Zion, stands. En



A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. of 'the house of Millo, which is said to be in the city &c., seems to denote the contrary. However this be, of David, and therefore was built either upon Mount St Jerome himself affirms, that the waters of this founZion, or some adjacent place. Let us then inquire a tain made the valley through which they ran, as watering little what this house of Millo might possibly be. the gardens and plantations that were there, very plea

Millo, considered in its etymology, is thought to be sant and delightful. deduced from a root which signifies to be full, and is The fountain of Gihon, which springs very probably therefore, in the sacred history, supposed to denote a from an adjacent hill of the same name, was on the west large capacious place, designed for public meetings, or, side of Jerusalem ; and as king Hezekiah ordered in short, a senate-house. That this was some public the upper channel of this fountain to be conveyed into edifice, I think may be inferred from the notice that is Jerusalem, that when the city was besieged, the enemy taken of it among some other of Solomon's public build- might not have the benefit of its waters ; so we need not ings, where the reason of the tax, which he levied upon his doubt, but 10 that the other spring of Siloam was, in like subjects, is said to be this, 3 • That he might build the manner, conveyed into the city, and that, for the convehouse of the Lord, and his own house, and Millo, and nience of its inhabitants, they were both, in several places, the walls of Jerusalem,' &c., for, since we find it joined distributed " into pools; though some make that of Siwith the house of the Lord, and the walls of Jerusalem,' loam to be without the walls. we cannot but suppose, that it was a building of the same The brook Kidron runs in the valley of Jehoshaphat on public nature ; and we since find farther, that “the ser- the east of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount vants of king Joash arose, and made a conspiracy, and of Olives. It has usually no great quantity of water in slew him in the house of Millo, very probably when he it, and is frequently quite dry; but, upon any sudden was come thither to debate, and consult with his princes, rains, it swells exceedingly, and runs with great impeand other chief men, the thing seems to be incontestable, tuosity. It was indeed of singular service to the ancient that this house of Millo was erected for a public senate- city, as it received its common sewers, and, upon every house, though there is some reason to imagine that it such violent flood, emptied them into the Dead Sea. was employed likewise for other purposes.

The mount of Olives, which doubtless had its name In the reign of Hezekiah, when Sennacherib came from the great quantity of olive trees that grew there, was against Jerusalem with a purpose to besiege it, the king situated to the east of Jerusalem, and parted from the city took counsel with his princes, and among other things, only by the valley of Jehoshaphat, and the brook Kidron; that were thought proper for his defence, it is said, for which reason it is said to be a Sabbath-day's journey, so that he built up all the wall that was fallen, and re- that is, about a mile from it. It was on this mountain paired Millo, and made darts and shields in abundance.' that Solomon built temples to the gods of the Ammonites From whence we may infer, that this Millo was a place and of the Moabites, in complaisance to his wives, who of great consequence to the strength of Jerusalem, and were natives of these nations; and for this reason it is was very probably made to serve two purposes, that is, likewise called in Scripture, 12 " the mount of corruption,' to be both a parliament-house and an arsenal.

because such as follow vain idols are frequently said in The palace which David built for himself, to which Scripture to corrupt themselves. 13 Some indeed have was adjoined that which his son built for the king of | imagined, that this mount of corruption was a distinct Egypt's daughter, must needs have been a very magnifi-place, but the matter of fact is, that Mount Olivet had three cent structure, since he had both his workmen and summits, or was made up of three several mountains, materials sent him a from Tyre, which, at that time, sur- ranged one after another, from north to south. The midpassed all other nations in the art of building : but of dle summit was that from which our Lord ascended ; this we can give no other account, than that it stood toward the south was that whereon Solomon " set up his westward from the temple, and consisted of a large abominations ; and towards the north was the highest of square court, defended by Alankers, from one of which all, 15 which was commonly called Galilee. was the descent by stairs into the gardens, which, in Mount Calvary, which, in all appearance, had its all probability, were watered by the fountain of Siloam. name from the similitude it bore to the figure of a skull,

This fountain of Siloam, rises just under the walls of or a man's head, was to the west of the ancient JerusaJerusalem, on the east side thereof, between the city and the brook Kidron; and in all probability, was the same 92 Chron. xxxii, 30. 10 Lamy's Introduction, b. 1. c. 3. with the fountain Enrogel, or the Fuller's fountain,

11 John ix. 7.

1? 2 Kings xxiii. 13. whereof we find mention ? in Joshua, and in the books

13 Wells' Geography of the Old Testament. 2 Kings xxiii. 13.

15 See Reland's Palæst. of Samuel and the Kings. Some travellers will have it

6 Some formerly have been of opinion, that this mount was that the water of this fountain is brackish, and has not a called Calvary, because the head of the first man in the world good taste; but the prophet Isaiah, when he utters the was buried there, and that our Saviour was crucified in the same complaint of God against the Jews, 8 « forasmuch as this place; and that his blood running down upon the body of this people refuseth the waters of Shiloah, which go softly,' person, might restore him to life, and procure him the favour of

a resurrection. To support this tradition, they tell us that Noah,

having preserved Adam's body in the ark, distributed the several 2 Kings xii. 20. ? 2 Chron. xxxii, 5. * 1 Kings ix. 15. parts of it to his children, and, as a particular favour, gave the * 2 Kings xii. 20. 52 Chron. xxxii. 5. i Chron. xiv. l. skull or head to Shem, who was to be the parent of that holy * Josh. xv, 7; 2 Sam. xvii; and i Kings i. 9. * Js, viii. 6. stock, from whom the Messias was to come; and that Shem,

a This must be understood of the Old Tyre, which was situate with a spirit of foresight, buried the skull in Calvary, where he upon the continent, and where the temple of Hercules stood, of knew the Messias would be crucified. But neither the ancient whose antiquity Herodotus talks so much; and not of the New fathers nor any modern authors that mention this tradition, were Tyre, which stood upon a neighbouring island, but was not built ever persuaded of its truth; and, without any disrespect to them, until the days of Solomon.–Calmet's Dictionary under the we may look upon all this as mere fiction.--Calmet's Dictionary word.

under the word Calvary.

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