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Editor to the following, assertions of to a God any being who rose in their esMohummud, known to almost all Moos. timation above the level of mankind."sulmans who have the least knowledge Ibid. p. 218. of their owu religion : ' Truly the great and glorious God raised me as mercy and
Rammohun Roy finds a reason for the guidance to worlds. I was the first of prevailing belief of the Deity of Christ all Prophets in creation, and the last in
in the application of the term “God," appearance.' 'I was a Prophet when though figuratively, to Christ; but, Adam was in earth and water. I am he says, and the remark is worthy of the Lord of those that were sent by the serious consideration of TrinitaGod. This is no boast to me.' • My rians, whose whole system falls to the shadow is on the head only of my fol. ground if each of the three persons in Jowers.' • He who has seen me has seen the Trinity cannot be proved to be God!. He who has obeyed me, has truly and" by himself perfect God, obeyed God: and he who has sinned
“ with respect to the Holy Ghost, I against me, has siuned against God.' " It is, however, fortunate for Moos- single passage in the whole Scriptures,
must confess my inability to find a sulmans, that from want of familiarity in which the Spirit is addressed as and intimate connexion between the pri- God, or as a person of God, so as to mitive Mohummuddans and their contemporary Heatheus, the doctrines of afford to believers of the Trinity an Monotheism taught by Mohummud, and excuse for their profession of the Godentertained by his followers, have not head of the Holy Ghost.”—Ibid. p. been corrupted by polytheistical notions 239. of Pagans, nor have heathen modes of Of the Atonement, Rammohun Roy worship or festivals been introduced writes with peculiar clearness and among Moossulmans of Arabia and Tur. force. He contends that the sacrifice key as a part of their religion. Besides, of Christ was not literal but spiritual, metaphorical expressious having been and uses the following argument, ad very common among Oriental nations,
hoininem : Mohummuddans could not fail to understand them in their proper sense, al
“ Moreover in explaining such phrases though these expressions may throw as I am the living bread, If any man great difficulty in the way of an Euro- eat of this bread he shall live for ever, peau Commentator even of profound “The bread that I will give is my flesh, learning."-Ibid. pp. 199, 200.
* Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of
man,' and Unless ye eat his fesh and The following observations on the drink his blood, ye have no life in you, – success of Trinitarianism are sensible,
My flesh is meat indeed, and my blood
is drink indeed,'— Protestant commentaand appear to us perfectly just :
tors take upon themselves to interpret “ With respect to the final snccess of that these phrases are in allusion to the the Trinitarian party, it appears to me
manner of sacrifice, and that the eating the event naturally to have been expected. of the flesh of Jesus and drinking his For, to the people of those ages, doc- blood must be understood in a spiritual, trines that resembled the polytheistical not in a carnal sense. If these writers belief that till then prevailed, must have make so direct an encroachment upon been more acceptable than those which the literal sense of those phrases in order were diametrically opposed to such no.
to avoid the idea of cannibalism being a tions. The idea of a God in human tenet of Christianity, why should I vot form was easy and familiar : Emperors be justified upon the same principles and and Empresses had altars raised to them on the authority of the apostle ili undereven during their lives, and after death standing by sacrifice in the language of were enrolled as divivities. Perhaps too, the apostle a virtual oblation ; that Chrissomething may justly be attributed to a tianity may not be represented as a recertain degree of pride and satisfaction ligion founded upon the horrible system in the idea, that the religion they had of human victims ?"-Final Appeal, (Calbegun to profess was dictated immedi. cutta Editiou,) pp. 44, 45. ately by the Deity himself, rather than The obvious absurdity of pressing by any subordinate agency. There had the case of the “ not been among the Heathens any class
scape-goat” into an of mankind to whom they were accuis
argument for the common doctrine of tomed to look up with that devotion atonement, is well exposed by the familiarly entertained by the Jews to
Hindoo Reformer: wards Moses and their Prophets, and « The Editor relates, (page 524,) they were consequently ready to elevate that the priest used to lay his hands on
the head of a living goat, and confess limited capacity of the human underover him all the iniquities of the children standing to judge the unsearchable things of Israel, putting them on the head of of the wisdom of God, and therefore the goat, and by the hand of a fit person denies my right, as a worm of the dust, to send it away into the wilderness as to deduce any thing from human ideas an atonement for all their sins in every inimical to his view of the Divine will, year.' He then infers from this circum. I can only say that I have for my examstance that, 'commandments like these ple, that of a fellow-worm in his owa did more than merely foretel the atone. argument to shew the necessity that the ment of Christ.' Were we to consider Almighty laboured under to have his at all the annual scape-goat as au indi. justice satisfied.”—Ibid. pp. 60, 61. cation of some other atonement for sin,
The accomplished Hindoo has been we must esieem it as a sign of Aaron's bearing the iniquities of Israel; both the too long accustomed to look through scape-goat and Aaron having alike borne sophistry in the writings of Heathens, the sius of others without sacrificing their to be imposed upon by it in those of lives : but by no means can it be sup. Christians. By a single remark he posed a sign of the atonement of Christ, levels the whole fabric of Missionary who, according to the author, bore the theology: sins of men by the sacrifice of his own life, and had therefore no resemblance to
“To this assertion of the Editor, the the scape-goat or Aaron. Exodus xxviii. blood of no mere creature could take 38: • And it shall be upon Aaron's away sin,' I add the assertion also mainforehead that Aaron may bear the ini- tained by the Editor, that “the Creator quity of the holy things which the chil. is not composed of blood and flesh,' aud dren of Israel shall hallow in all their leave to him to say, if the blood of Jesus holy gifts; and it shall be always upon it was. It is evident from the circum
was not that of a creature, whose blood his forehead that they may be accepted before the Lord.' I wonder that the
stance of the blood of a creature being Rev. Editor himself notices here that unable to take away sin and the Creator the iviquities of Israel were forgiven by having no blood, that the taking away confession over the scape-goat, without of sin can have no connexion with blood animal or human victims, and yet repre
or a bloody sacrifice, "-Ibid. p. 85. septs the circumstance of the scape.goat as a prediction of the sacrificial death of Rammohun Roy can retort smartly Christ, and insists upon the forgiveness without ill-nature, e. g. of sins being founded upon the effusion of blood."-Ibid. pp. 50, 51.
" In answer to one of the many in
sinuations made by the Editor in the The Indian convert shews continu- course of his arguments, to wit, “ If this ally, that he has weighed orthodox be Christ, what must become of the epithets and exclamations, and that he precepts of Jesus ?' (Page 576.) I most will not accept them for arguments. reluctantly put the following query in The following is a case in point : reply. If a slain lamb be God Almighty “ The Rev. Editor expresses his indig, worship, and what must become of his
or his true emblem, what must be his nation at the mode of reasouing adopted
worshipers ?"-Ibid. p. 209. by me in the passages above quoted ; saying, 'Should vot a creature, a worm The Indian Unitarian well exposes of the dust wbo cannot fully comprehend the inconsistency of the systein of the mysteries of his own being, pause “ Satisfaction” in imputing contrary before he arraign his Maker of gross attributes to the Father and the Son, injustice, and charge bim with having whom it yet supposes to be one and founded all religion on an act of palpable iniquity?' (P. 529.)
the same being : “ There appears here a most strange “ The Editor in common with other mistake on the part of the Editor. It is Triuitarians conceives that God the Son he who seems to me to be labouring to equally with God the Father (according prove the absurdity that God, the Al- to their mode of expression) is possessed mighty and all-merciful, is capable of a of the attributes of perfection, such as palpable iniquity-determined to have mercy, justice, righteousness, truth, &c., punishment, though he leave quite un- yet he represents them so differently as punished ; inflicting the marks of his to ascribe to the Father strict justice or wrath on the innocent for the purpose of rather vengeance, and to the Son unsparing those who justly deserve the limited mercy and forgiveness, that is, weight of its terrors, If he mean to the Father, the first person of the Godobject to the rashness of applying the head, having been in wrath at the sinful
conduct of his offending creatures, found as well as their authorities. From his his mercy so resisted by justice that he general mode of reasoning I am induced could not forgive them at all, through to think, that he will sometimes be mercy, unless he satisfied his justice by obliged, in explaining a single sentence inflicting punishment upon these guilty in the Scriptures, to ascribe a part of it men ; but the Son, the second person to Jesus as a man, and another part to of the Godhead, though displeased at him in his divine nature. As for exthe sins of his offending creatures, suf- ample, Johu v. 22, 23, ' For the Father fered his mercy to overcome justice, and judgeth no man, but hath committed all by offering his own blood as an atone- judgment unto the Son ; that all men ment for their sins, he has obtained for should honour the Son, even as they them pardon without punishment; and honour the Father. He that honoureth by means of vicarious sacrifice, recon. not the Son, honoureth not the Father ciled them to the Father and satisfied who sent me.' The first part of this his justice and vengeance. If the jus- sentence hath committed all judgment tice of the Father did not permit his unto the Son,' must have been accordpardoning sinful creatures, and recon- ing to the Editor) spoken in the human ciling them to himself in compliance with nature of Jesus Christ, since the Al. his mercy, unless a vicarious sacrifice mighty in exercising his power does not was made to him for their sins; how was stand in need of another's vesting him the justice of the Son prevailed upon by with that power. The second part of his inercy to admit their pardon, and the same sentence, 'all men should hotheir reconciliation to himself, without nour the Son as they honour the Father,' any sacrifice, offered to him as an atone- must be ascribed by the Editor to Jesus ment for their sins? It is then evident, as God, he having been worthy to be that according to the system of Trini- honoured as the Father is--and the last tarians, the Son had a greater portion of part who hath sent me,' relates again mercy than the Father to oppose to his to Christ's human capacity, since it imjustice, in having his sinful creatures plies his subjection to the disposal of pardoned, without suffering them to ex- another. Is this the internal evidence perience individual punishinent. Are of Christianity on which the orthodox these the doctrines on which genuine divines lay stress ? Surely not."-Ibid. Christianity is founded ? God forbid !
pp. 289, 290. “ If the first person be acknowledged to be possessed of mercy equally with
We have room for only one further the second, and that he, through his extract from these able' defences of infinite mercy towards his creatures, sent Christian Unitarianism : it relates to the second to offer his blood as an the identity of Christian and Heathen atonement for their sins, we must then Polytheism: confess that the mode of the operation
“ The Editor denies positively the and manifestation of mercy by the first charge of admitting three Gods, though is strange and directly opposite to that he is in the practice of worshiping God adopted by the secoud, who manifested the Father, God the Son, and God the his mercy even by the sacrifice of life, Holy Ghost. I could wish to know what while the first person displayed bis mercy he would say when a Hindoo also would only at the death of the second, without deny Polytheism on the same principle; subjecting himself to any humiliation or
that if three separate persons be adınitted pain,”-Ibid. pp. 240-242.
to make one God, and those that adore The fanciful hypothesis of two na
them bc esteemed as worshipers of one tures in Christ is laid bare in the fol. God, what objection could be advanced lowing remarks of Rammohun Roy:
justly to the oneness of three hundred
and thirty-three million of persons in the “ The Editor says that the expression Deity, and to their worship in different of Jesus to Mary, John xx. 17, “Go to emblems ? For, oneness of three or of my brethren and say unto them, I as- thirty millions of separate persons is cend uulo my Father and your father, equally impossible, according to human and to my God and your God, was experience, and equally supportable by merely in his human nature. I wish the mystery alone."-Ibid. pp. 301, 302. Editor had furnished us with a list, enumerating those espressions that Jesus
In perusing these volumes we have Christ inade in his human capacity, and experienced great pleasure at seeing another shewing such declarations as he this Hindoo scholar familiar with our made in his divine nature, with autho- best biblical critics. He frequently rities for the distinction. I might have quotes by name, Cappe, Newcome, in that case attentively cxamined them Macknight, Doddridge, Whitby and others. Citing the “ Improved Ver- already established from Scripture, in a sion,” he says, (Final Appeal, p. 297,) preceding part of this discourse. From “ for which the Christian world is in- this we must at once perceive the incondebted to its eminently learned au- sistency of maintaining his supreme, nnthors.” And having occasion to refer derived and independent Deity, as well
as the propriety of those numerous scripto Locke, he characterizes hiin as
tural expressions which describe him as “ one of the greatest men that ever
the only-begotten Son of God, the firstlived.”—Ibid. p. 80.
born of erery creature, the beginning of Mr. Adam, the author of the Ser- the creation of God; and the just ground mon which stands third on our list, is of that superiority to every other order a native of North Britain, who was of beings which is uniformly claimed for sent out to India by the Baptist Mis- him in the New Testament. He is as sionary Society. Having become an far below the unoriginate Jehorah as the Unitarian through the instrumentality
derivation of his nature can place bimof Rammohun Roy, whom he had and he is as far above erery other existhoped to bring over to Trinitarianism,
ence as the immediateness of that deri.
vation can raise him. Such, then, is he has seceded from his former connexion, and become the minister of originally by the immediate power of
Jesus :-he first and only being created the first Unitarian congregation in God-the first and only being begotten Bengal. His abandonment of the sys. in the womb of a virgin by the immetem of his former patrons has exposed diate power of God-and ilic first and him to bitter reproach, but we are only being raised from death to life by authorized to say that his old, no less the immediate power of God.”—Pp. 22, than his new, religious associates hold 23. his moral character and talents in high The reader of this passage will respect.
judge of the propriety of Mr. Ivimey's Some incidental expressions in Ram- denunciation of Mr. Adam in a newsmohun Roy's works lead us to .con- paper as a Socinian, and his vindicaclude that he at first adopted, if he tion of the terin as applied to this does not still hold, the Arian hypo- gentleman on the ground of his dethesis: of this hypothesis the “Claims claring “that Jesus Christ was a mere of Jesus" is an avowed defence. The
man, and that he had no existence argument of the sermon is summed before he was born of the virgin.” up in the following observations on
We do not agree with Mr. Adam the nature of Christ, as the Son of in his Arianism, but we revere his God :
love of truth, admire his ingenuous« Thus we find that whether the title ness, respect his talents, and hope for is applied to Adam or to Jesus to the much good to India from his enlightformer in reference to his creation, or to ened zeal. the latter in reference to his conception Since we began this article we have in the womb of Mary, and his resurrec. tion from the dead, there is one idea Rammohun Roy to a friend at Liver
received the copy of a letter from common to all those uses, and on account of which it seems in every instance pool, lately come to hand. The inte to have been applied—the idea of the resting writer expresses great satisfaccommunication of existence by the power tion in the marks of regard which have of God immediately exerted, without the been shewn him by the English Uni. intervention, as far as we are told or tarians, whom he assures of his warmare able to perceive, of any inferior est esteem. He sends copies of the agent. It is necessary to take only one
Final Appeal to several of the Unitastep further—to apply this principle of rian ministers in this country. He interpretation in another single instance, acknowledges with gratitude the reand we shall then possess a consistent ceipt of several of our publications, view of all its uses, together with a scriptural and definite notion of the ori
and especially of the “ Improved Verginal nature of the person of Christ. He sion;" the advantages that he has is directly and immediately derived from derived from these, he says, it is imGod his father, without the intervention possible for him fully to estimate; of any other agent, whereas all other and he expresses the hope of being beings have been mediately and indirectly benefited by future favours of the derived from God, i. e. through the instrumentality of Jesus Christ, as has been • See Mon, Repos. XVII, 685.
same kind. He informs his correspon- the knowledge which he has hitherto atdent that the Unitarian brethren at tained is as nothing in comparison with Calcutta have not yet succeeded in the vast unknown. It is said of one of getting an eligible piece of ground for the early reformers, that when he lay the erection of a chapel," but look upon his death-bed, if any present were confidently forward to this object. discoursing upon some of those imporAnd he concludes with saying, that agitated the Christian world, he would
tant theological questions which then he feels a strong wish to visit Europe raise himself up in his bed, and would and the other quarters of the globe in call to them to speak out, for that he the ensuing year; with a view, amongst should die with more comfort if he could other satisfactions, to a personal ac- learn some new truth before his deparquaintance with the Unitarians of ture. And a late vencrable and learned Europe.
prelate, who was an inquirer after truth
all his days, did not distinctly discern the Art. IV.-Two Sermons : the First, complete evidence of the simple humanity on the Love of Truth, including a
of Jesus Christ till he had passed his seSummary of the Lectures delivered ventieth year.”—P. 20. at Essex Street Chapel; the Se- The second Sermon is an inquiry into cond, on the Benefits arising from the useful purposes answered by error Theological Controversy : preached and controversy, and into the duties in Essex - Street Chapel, November, which the present unsettled state of 1822. Introductory to the Course things imposes upon the sincere proof Lectures for the Season. By fessors of ihe Christian doctrine. Unthe Rev. Thomas Belsham. Svo. der the former branch of the inquiry, pp. 52. Hunter. 1823.
Mr. Belsham shews that controversies MR R. BELSHAM gives in the have confirmed the evidence of Chris
first of these Sermons a “Sum- tianity, that they present a just crimary of his Lectures,” of the subjects terion for the discovery of truth, that of which the following is a list : Evi- they give birth to many of the subdences of the Jewish and Christian limest virtues, that they are some of Revelation. Inquiry into Inspiration. the most powerful stimulants and State of the text of New Testament. guards to personal and social virtue, Doctrines of Divine Revelation: Per- and that they will eventually terminate son of Christ : Holy Spirit : Atone- in the discovery of truth, and in the ment: Original Sin : Election : Grace: prevalence of general unanimity and Perseverance. Constitution of a Chris- universal peace. The duties of the tian Church, under which head is dis- Christian in these circumstances are cussed the question of the support of pointed out, viz. Submission to the the Christian Religion by the Civil will and wisdoin of God, acquiescence Power. Positive Institutions. Nature in the divided state of the church, and Foundation of Virtue and Moral steadiness at the post of duty, and Obligation. Phenomena of the Hu- triumph in the prospect of the ultiinan Mind. Natural Arguments in mate reign of truth and goodness. favour of a Future Life. On all these With great discrimination the preacher interesting topics the preacher states indulges much fervour of spirit. The the arguments in his usual perspicu- most marked feature of this discourse ous manner, and delivers his last is confidence in divine truth. The thoughts. The summary is a syllabus glowing descriptions and animated apof theology, and will be useful to the peals which abound in it, cannot fail inquirer, and particularly to the lec- of interesting the reader's best affecturer. In conclusion, some reflections tions. are made upon the subject of truth, On the benefits resulting from Perwhich are both instructive and en- secution Mr. Belsham says, couraging. We extract one passage : «« The advocate for truth is sometimes
“ The sincere lover of truth will never required to endure persecution of various cease to inquire, as long as the powers kinds, and in various shapes. And time of intellect and investigation remain : for the little which he knows, inspires a thirst after further information ; and he *“ Chytræus of Rostock, who died is conscious, that, however successful the A. D. 1600, aged 70.–See Fuller's Lives result of his inquiries may have been, all and Deaths of Modern Divines."