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That speak, while many à bough thy Prison on a false charge of having pathway strews,

meddled in the Political Affairs of that Of better destinies to earth assign'd: toretched Country. Oppression's hissing shame and broken

might, And mental manhood in its strength and I'd fain be the airy breeze light.

That wanders about at will ; 1, too, with gladness view thee, lonely

To sleep 'midst the forest trees,

Or wake the smiles of the rill, dale ! Though not my foot e'er tracks, thy

With the pendant flowers to dancesolitude;

To sit on the linnet's wingȚears, did I utter why, would drown my

In the glow-worm's light to glance

In the Echo's caves to sing. Dear recollections on thy haunt obtrude,

But mine is a prison cell, And all is drear and darksome, and the If a prison that can be gale

Where the spirits of Freedom dwell, v In melancholy whispers bows the wood: And the heart is gay and free ! Yet every falling leaf but brings me near The grave's calm sleep and heaven's eter- I laugh with pride and scorn

On the Tyrant's threats, which deem
DION. That a soul in freedom born

Can be enthrall'd by him !
Attributed to an Englishman, who roas

once seized and thrown into a French

tale ;

nal year.


MEMOIR OF DR. AIKIN. autumn of his fourteenth year, having

made choice of medicine as a profession, Jou” Aikin, M. D., &c., was born be was apprenticed to Maxwell GarthJanuary 15, 1747, at Kibworth, in Leic shore, at that time surgeon and apothecestershire; being the younger child, and

cary at. Uppingham, in Rutlandshire, but only son of J. Aikin, D.D., a Dissentiug who afterwards graduated and settled in Minister, and the master of a respectable London. The three years that he conand well-frequeuted boarding school. Till finued at Uppingham were occupied in his eleventh year, he received a domestic professional studies, and, apparently, education; but at that time his father with more than usual success, since before being appointed theological tutor in the their conclusion he was entrusted with Pissenters' Academy at Warrington, in the care of Mr. (afterwards Dr.) PultLancashire, he was admitted to the bene- ney's business at Leicester, during the fits of the more extended plan of instruc- absence

of that gentleman for a space of tion offered by that institution. In the two or three months.

In November 1764, he became a stu.

dent at the University of 'Edinburgh, The readers of the Monthly Reposi. where he spent two winters and the intory cannot have forgotten the interesting terrening summer, but, having at that “ Historical Account of the Warrington time no intention of graduating, he reAcademy,” in the VIIIth and IXth Vo- turned to England in May 1766, and, in lumes. An extended memoir of the elder September of the same year, became a Dr. Aikin will be found, VIIf. 161-172. pupil of Mr. C. White, of Manchester, at The excellent writer of these biographical sketches, in giving the name of the subject of the present memoir, (IX. 202) literature, will one day claim the willing ihus affectingly anticipates the tribute of praise of grateful biography: filial love on which the eye now rests : his “ long and varied labours, for the Late be the hour, and distant be the benefit of almost every age and class of

day.” readers, in almost erery department of


that time rapidly rising to the highest circumstance of Mr. Murphy being enrank as an operating surgeon. With Mr. gaged in a similar undertaking. It was White he continued for three entire at Warrington, also, that his most valued years, advancing in professional know. friendships were formed or consolidated ; ledge and skill, and in the esteem and with Dr. Priestley, Dr. Evfield, Mr. confidence of his master, as may be in. Wakefield and the Rev. George Walker, ferred from an “Essay on the Ligature their common counexion with the Acaof Arteries," written by him at that time, demy first brought him acquainted, while and published by Mr. White in his work the easy distance between Warrington entitled “ Cases in Surgery." After and Manchester allowed him occasional leaving Manchester he went to London, opportunities of supporting the friendand employed the winter of 1769-70 in ships previously formed by him with Mr. attending the lectures of Dr. Hunter. White, Dr. Percival, Mr. Henry and

His professional education being now other residents of that town. His accompleted, he settled in Chester as a quaintance at Liverpool included Dr. surgeon, but remained in that city little Currie, Mr. Rathbone, Mr. Roscoe, the more than a year, being induced to re- Rev. J. Yates, and many other cultivated move in November 1771, to Warrington, and estimable characters; and his excelwhere his parents continued to reside, lent and confidential friend Dr. Haygarth, and where his prospects of success were oue of the few who survive him, at that less obstructed by competition. Here he time resided at Chester, and professional continued till 1784, and here all his chil- or other incidents now and then brought dren were born, his marriage having about a meeting. taken place tlie year after his removal. - The dissolution of the Academy, which

His first work, entitled “Observations took place not long after the death of on the External Use of Preparations of his father in 1780, and the inadequate Lead," was published at Chester, and encouragement offered to the practice of this was succeeded, during his residence surgery, as distinct from pharmacy, deat Warrington, by three other profes. ternined him to take a physician's desional works, viz. “ Thoughts on Hos- gree. For this purpose, in the summer pitals,” “ Biographical Memoirs of Me- of 1784, he proceeded to Leyden and dicine in Great Britain to the time of there graduated, his former residence at Harvey," and a very enlarged edition of Edinburgh, during two sessions, being “ Lewis's Materia Medica." His ap- not sufficient to entitle him to an examipointment as Lecturer on Chemistry and nation for a degree. On his return from Physiology at the Academy, induced him the Continent, he removed with his fato print a “ Sketch of the Animal Eco- mily to Yarmouth, iu Norfolk, and early nomy,” and “ Heads of Chemistry,” for in the succeeding year took up his resithe use of his classes, and a translation dence in London. Scarcely, however, of Beaumé's Manual of Chemistry. had he settled himself in his new situa

The intervals of his professional la. tion, before he received an invitation bours were assiduously devoted to elegant from the inhabitants of Yarmouth aud Literature and to Natural History, sources its vicinity to resuine his professional to him at all times of exquisite delight, duties at that place. Although his stay and in after years beguiling the languor there had little exceeded a year in duraof sickness and soothing many an hour tion, yet such had been the effect proof anxiety. The “ Essays on Song-writ. duced by the few opportunities afforded ing,” “Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose," him of exercising his professional skill, consisting of the joint contributions of combined with his scientific and literary his sister, Mrs. Barbauld, and himself, acquirements, and his amiable and culti“ An Essay on the Application of Natural vated manners, that the invitation was History to Poetry," « An Essay on the quite unanimous. He accordingly rePlan and Character of Thomson's Sea- turned to Yarmouth, not more than two sons,” and “ The Calendar of Nature,” months after he had quitted it, well were all published during this period, pleased in having been spared the anxious and evince at the same time the elegancé uncertainty of an attempt to establish of his taste and the activity of his mind. himself in the Metropolis. His correct knowledge also of the Latin The three principal bodies of men in language was shewn in his translation of Yarmouth and its vicinity, at that time, Tacitus's Treatise on the Manners of the were the Corporation, the Dissenters, and Germans, and his 'Life of Agricola, being the Clergy of the Established Charch. specimens of a projected translation of The two former, inhabiting the town, and the entire works of that historian, which not upon very cordial terms with each was afterwards abandoned, to the loss other, were chiefly devoted to commercial probably of the English scholar, from the pursuits. The clergy, liberally educated,

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and capable of appreciating Dr. Aikiu's lence of party credulity and party injus. acquirements, formed the most agreeable tice, was yet made to suffer severely for part of his society, and the principal ac- his political principles. Dr. Girdlestone quaintances that he here made were was encouraged to settle at Yarmouth, among them. For some time circum. and Dr. Aikin escaped from the impeadstances went on favourably; he enjoyed ing bitterness of a personal controversy, the moderate emoluments of his profes. by removing to London in March 1792. sion without rivalry; he instituted a lite- During his residence at Yarmouth, Dr. rary society; and in his library, and in A. published (besides the pan phlets althe bosom of his family, he sought aud ready mentioned) an excellent system of found those gratifications, the dearest to English geography, called “ England Dehis heart.

lineated," which has passed through seThe time for trying the spirits of men veral editions, a volume of Poems, and a was, however, drawing near. The Dis- “ View of the Character and public Ser. senters having been repulsed in a former vices of J. Howard, Esq." No personi endeavour to obtain from the Legislature was, perhaps, so well qualified to estithe repeal of the Corporation and Test mate the moral worth aud public serActs, mustered all their strength for a vices of this illustrious individual as Dr. new attempt; vainly trusting that thcir Aikin, both on account of his sound and great acknowledged inferiority in num, unprejudiced judgment and his personal bers, wealth and influence, might be sup- intimacy with Mr. Howard, in conseplied by strength of argument, and by an quence of which, the notes and observaappeal to the equity of their countrymen. tions collected by Mr. H., during his vaDr. Aikin, although not agreeing in reli. rious journeys, had always been placed gious opinions with any class of Dissenfe in the hands of Dr. A. for arrangement ers, felt strongly the iniquity of excluding and correction. from civil duties and offices all those who Although the connexions of Dr. Aikin were not members of the Church of En. in London, by family and acquaintance, gland. Too honest ever to disguise his were considerable, yet he never obtained real sentiments, although sincerely re- much professional employment; being gretting and reprobating the intempe- little fitted, by temper or habit, to enrance of each party, he published two gage in the incessant struggle necessary pamphlets on the occasion, the one“ the to success : he, therefore, the more wil. Spirit of the Church and of the Consti- lingly followed the bent of his dispositution compared;" the other, “ An Ad- tion, and occupied himself chiefly in litedress to the Dissidents of England on rary pursuits. The first work which he their late Defeat."

published, after leaving Yarmouth, was Immediately on the heels of the Test the two first volumes of “ Evenings at Act controversy, and while the feelings Home.” To these, though not to the of the nation were agitated by that event, succeeding ones, Mrs. Barbauld contrioccurred the French Revolution, which buted several pieces : the third volume for a time opened an impassable gulf of appeared in 1793, the fourth in 1794, separation between parties. already ex- and the two last in 1795. The work beasperated. The declaration made by the came immediately very popular and still National Assembly in favour of the per. continues so; offering a copious and safect equality of civil rights among the ried store of anjusement and instruction members of every political community, to the young, and, by its good sense and naturally conciliated the good-will of sound morality, commanding the approthose who had been contending without bation of parents. To those acquaiuted success for this very object; while the with its author, it possesses an additional merciless and undistiuguishing coufisca. interest as being highly characteristic of tion of church property, and the atrocious him, exhibiting not only his various massacre of the priests which soon fol- knowledge, but representing his opinions lowed, gave the alarm, as might well be on a rariety of topics, expected, to the English clergy, and very The most important and interesting naturally induced them to attribute simi- work, however, of which Dr. A. was the lar intentions of violence aud injustice to author, is his “ Letters from a Father to their political adversaries. . Dr. Aikin had a Son on various Topics relative to Litedecidedly taken his part first as a Dis- rature and the Conduct of Life :" the senter, and subsequently as a friend to first volume was published in 1793, the the French Revolution, on its first break- second was written in 1798 and 1799. ing out ; and although he never belonged The subjects embraced by these Letters to any political club, pot choosing to sub- are very numerous; critical, scientific, mit his own reason and sense of equity and discussing sone of the most importto be orerborne by the clamour and vio- ant questious of morals and of general

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politics. The candid, equitable and in- was engaged during his residence at dependent spirit which pervades the Stoke Newington. While the infirmities whole, renders them extremely valuable, of age pressed with only a light liand, not only as materials for thought and the greater part of erery day was devoted rules of moral conduct, but as examples to writing or reading. Painful and tryof the temper with which subjects of ing was the period when the decay of sach high importance ought to be treated. the mind, in consequence of a paralytic

In 1796, he accepted an offer made to attack, began to precede that of the bohim by Mr. Phillips, of undertaking the dily frame, when the memory became editorship of a periodical work at that less and less capable of recalling the past, time projected by him. This work, the and the iutellect of receiving the impress “Monthly Magazine,” was accordingly of the present. One ray, however, still superiotended by Dr. Aikin from its enlightened the gloom, and, when all becommencement; and the numerous pa- sides was dark, conjugal love still conpers furnished by the Editor and his nected him with the external world. He friends, as well as the general spirit in died December 7, 1822, haviug nearly which the Magazine was conducted, con- completed his 75th year: tributed greatly to establish it in the pub. Dr. Aikin was endowed by nature with lic favour. The connexion of Dr. A. a good constitution, and this origłual adwith this work was, in May 1806, ab. vautage he was always careful to preserre ruptly and unceremoniously dissolved by by strict temperance avd abundant exerthe proprietor, from dissatisfaction with cise : to this was added an intellect of an award in a dispute in which he was great activity in acquiring and facility in one of the parties and Dr. Aikin one of communicating ideas, and a temper calm, the arbitrators.

well-regulated and cheerful, though far In the same year in which the Monthly from sanguine. Hence he possessed in a Magazine was commenced," Dr. Aikin, very eminent degree the inestimable blesin conjunction with his dear friend, Dr. sing of a sound mind in a sound body. The Enfield, agreed with Messrs. Kearsley and abstractions of mathematical investigaHamilton to undertake a general biogra- tion, and the minute dissection of almost phical dictionary, to be comprised in evanescent ideas which characterizes the about ten quarto volumes. He did not metaphysician, either were not adapted engage rashly in so serious an occupa- to his faculties, or did not agree with his tion. From his long unreserved inti. taste, which was strongly attracted to the macy with Dr. Enfield, he felt assured useful in morals, in politics, and in the that he possessed a co-adjutor of similar general conduct of life, and to the agreeviews with himself and of indefatigable able, the harmonious, the elegant in ivdastry, and he anticipated great satis- objects of amusemeut. Hence his stores faction in the execution of the work. of knowledge were all producible in the His own health, however, began to be intercourse of society, and thus gave him impaired in 1797 by residence in London, a wide range of subjects for conversation : and his indisposition rapidly increasing these were communicated in simple and and assuming a very serious aspect, easy, though tiowing, language, and reguobliged him in the ensuing year to quit lated by a goodness of temper, a decothe Metropolis. He retired for some rum and practical politeness, not often months to Dorking, in Surrey, and in the equalled, never exceeded. The ruling pure air of that delightfal valley, aided principle of his conduct in great as in by gentle horse-exercise and an unusually small affairs, was equity; that equity, five summer, made some progress to which is best expressed by the Christian wards recovery. In the winter he took maxim of doing to others as we would a house at Sioke Newington, in which wish others to do to us. Kind, generous, henceforth he coutinued to reside. In compassionate to all with whom he was the mean time, he had lost by death his connected, either by ties of kindred and friend and co-adjutor in this great work, acquaintance, or in the exercise of his the first volume of which was published profession, he had no personal enemies; in the Spring of 1799. Some time and the attachment of his friends was in elapsed before a successor to Dr. Enfield proportion to their intimacy with him, could be found, and then commercial for there was nothing in his moral characdifficulties on the part of the bookseller ter (using the expression in its widest interposed, materially impeding the suc- extent, which required to be managed, cess of the work by retarding its regular to be kept out of view, to be glossed progress, so that the tenth and last

Fare thee well, revered and bevolume was not published till 1815.

loved, till we meet in the eternal world! It is not necessary farther to detail the

AR. AIKIN. literary occupations in which Dr. Aikiu


1822, Nov. 27, EDWARD ALEXANDER, distinctions. Devotion was his delight, M. D., of Danett's Hall, near Leicester, studying the Scriptures his dearest emafter a series of intense and protracted ployment, and his

, hope rested ou the sufferings, which were borne with exem- mercies of God in Christ. Perhaps, Dr. "plary fortitude and resignation. As the A. did not entirely agree with any deno. particulars of his distressing case cannot mination of Christians; but serious reproperly be detailed here, it will be suffi- flection and patient investigation led him cieut to remark, that his disorder, which to a full conviction of the truth of the had long been making insidious ap- leading tenets of Unitarianism, and from proaches, first manifested itself in June the time of his settling in the vicinity of 1810, and soon began to wear a formida- Leicester, he joined the congregation as. ble aspect. A state of peculiarly painful sembling at the “Great Meeting" in that and complicated disease gradually en- town. In politics, he embraced the libesued, clouded all the bright prospects ral side of the questiou, and was always which his successful inedical career had the firm and strenuous advocate of civil opened to his view, and compelled himn and religious freedom. “Every project to relinquish the practical part of an oc. for the benefit of his country, and the cupation to which he was exceediugly advancement of knowledge, liberty aud devoted and admirably adapted. The truth obtained his zealous support." few intervals Dr. A. was permitted to eu His judgment of those who differed from joy of comparative ease from agonizing him

was uniformly candid and generous, pain, were usually passed in reading, ine- and never did he retain the slightest maditation and domestic society. Theology levolent or unkind sentiment against aud Medicine were the subjects to which persons from whom he had experienced he principally directed his attention. On undeserved or injurious treatment.--The these he had, for many years, read much, subject of this brief, imperfect outline, and thought still more. His purity of was the younger son of the lale John character from early life, his extraordi- Alexander, M. D. of Halifax, was born nary moral worth, as well as knowledge Nov. 25th, 1767, and received his classiand skill in his profession, have rarely cal education at Hipperholm School, been equalled. Nor was his ardent and which then was, and still is under the vigorous mind satisfied with the exercise superintendance of the Rev. Richard Hudof his medical fuuctions' only. Rising son, who, for more than half a century, above every selfish cousideration, he car has officiated as afternoon lecturer at the ried into his practice the most exalted parish church in Halifax. Dr. A. .pos. Christian virtues. He was not merely sessed the advantage of being well initi. the able physiciau, but the sympathizing ated in the various branches of his pro. friend and comforter of his patients. He fession, during his early youth. At the listened to their wants and sorrows, was usual period, he went to London to par. prompt to aid them by his advice, to sue his anatomical studies, and there bepour in the balm of consolation, or to came a pupil of the late Sir Wm. Blizard. relieve their necessities, as their respec- Having accomplished his object in the tive situations and circumstances might Metropolis, he repaired to Edinburgh, require. la the performance of his pro- and finally took his degree at Leyden, fessional duties he was strictly conscien- with the highest honour, in October tious. No “respect of persous" did he 1791. In the year 1793, he married his shew; the rich and the poor partnok im- first cousin, Ellen, the eldest daughter partially of his care and assiduity. To and co-heiress of the late Samuel Waterthe latter his services were gratuitous, house, Esq., of Halifax, one of the Jusand likewise, io a considerable degree, tices of the Peace for the West-Riding of to others, who could not, without diffi- the County of York, and a Deputy-Lieu. culty, afford to make him a suitable re- tenant for the same district. Dr. A. fixed muneratiou. His bountiful hand was at Stafford, and was directly appointed ever open to the claims of the indigent physician to the County Infirmary. He and the oppressed, and in all the rela- removed into the neighbourhood of Leitious of life, the same ardour, the same cester, October 1797, where he continued uprightness and integrity, the same un- to reside till his deeply-lamented death. wearied activity distinguished his con- All who knew him must regret him, and duct. A remarkable sweetness of dispo- to his immediate friends his loss is irre. sition, and strong intellectual powers, parable. were, in him, combined with uncommon

singleness of heart.” His ruling principle was love to God, displayed in a warm and disinterested love of man,

* See Leicester Chronicle, Nov. 30. wholly free from party spirit and narrow

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