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CLASSICS

AGRICULTURE.

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE.

Memoirs of the Philadelphia Agricul-

Douglas's Mathematical Tables

629
tural Society

1018
Farmer's Analysis of the Chalybcate at

BIOGRAPHY

Stow

774

Account of R. V. Pryor

680 Laplace's System of the World 881

Characters of Fox

1113 Murray's System of Chemistry

905

Ivimey's Life of Bunyan

872 Parkinson's Organic Remains, Vol. II. 708
Memoirs of James Taylor

679

Philosophical Transactions, 1808, Part

840

Memoirs of Dr. Priestley, Vol. II.

II,

611

Memoirs of Robert Carey, Earl of

- 1809, Part

Monmouth
1068 I.

754, 941

Particulars in the Character of Fox 1129 Robertson's Natural History of the

Toulmin's Life of Bourn

1136 Atmosphere

834

Smith's Grammar of Geometry 967

Spence's Essay on Logarithmic Trans- 1091

Butler's Edition of Stanley's Æschy-

cendents

lus

997 Transactions of the Royal Society of

EDUCATION.

Edinburgh, Vol. VI. Part II. 1044, 1108

Ware on the Properties of Arches. 593
Academy, or a Picture of Youth

875

Bradley's Grammatical Questions

681

MISCELLANEOUS.

Cockle's Important Studies for the Fe-
male Sex

872
Ancient Indian Literature

813

Elements of Astronomy

1155 Another Guess at Junius

968

Goldsmith's Grammar of Law

1157

Bell's Principles of Surgery, Vol. III. 651

Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses
973 Dibdin's Bibliomania

779
Mavor's Mother's Catechism

681 Daniell's Selections from Animated

Havor's Catechism of General Know-

Nature

1148

ledge

681 Ede's View of Gold and Silver Coins 684
Maror's Caiechism of Health

681 Erskine's, Lord, Speech on Cruelty to
Newton's Letters to a Relative at

Animals

1150

School

876 Ferriar's Bibliomania

866

Richardson's, Mrs., Poems for Young Florian's William Tell

779

Persons

973 Frend's Principles of Life Assurance 954

Tate's Commercial Arithmetic

1778 Hudson's Land-valuer's Assistant 1065

Whitaker's Exempla Propria

871 Innes's Sketches of Human Nature 1055

Letters from an Irish Student in Eng-

GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY.

land

965

Grant's History of Brazil

676

Lickorish's Observations

1155

Jackson's Account of Marocco
659, 764 Molitor's Indagator

972

New Picture of the Isle of Wight

1066 Molleson's Adam and Margaret

680

Playfair's System of Geography, Vol.

Newton's, Rev. John, Works

602

I and II.

785

Newton's, Rev. John, Letters and Re-

marks

HISTORY

876

of

Newton's, Rev. John, Correspondence 876

Barrington's Historic Anecdotes

1140 Philopatria's Essay on Governmeut 1066

the Union

Pulpit, by Ouesimus

863

Chatfield's Historical Review of Hin-

1073 Report on American Roads and Canals 673
dostan)

973 Sequel to the Antidote to the Miseries
Cursory View of Prussia

of Human Life

972
Neale's Letters from Portugal and

1023

Sir R. Phillips's Letter to the Livery 1061

Spain

638

Sunday Reflections

875

Rose's Observations on Fox's History

Tbirlwall's Primitiæ

958
LIST OF WORKS, WITH PRICES ANNEXED, Wakefield's Selections and Essays 1066

686, 781, 878, 975, 1071, 1162, Walker's Essays on Various Subjects 895
LITERARY INFORMATION,

Wordsworth on the Relations of Bri-
685,783, 877, 974, 1069, 1160. tain and Spain, &c.

744

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POETRY.

Zeal without Innovation

616, 850

Bland's Four Slaves of Cythera

730

Sermons.

Christian Pastor

964

Hermitage

973

Brewster's Assize Sermon at Durham 1065

Hodgson's Lady Jane Grey, and Mis??

Buchanan's Star in the East

671

cellaneous Poems

947 Carpenter's Discourse on Unitarianism 847
Smith's Rudiyar the Dane
10667 Chapman's Jubilee Sermon

1158
Howes's Translation of Persius

794
Coutts's Sermons

1103

Lash, a Satire

684 Dodd's Discourses on the Miracles

Morrice's Translation of the Iliad 776

and Parables of Christ

939

Paice's New Selection of Hymns

678

Familiar Discourses on the Creed 987

Poetical Gleanings

773 Fawcett's Sermon, for the Benefit of a

Skurry's Bidcombe Hill, and other

Sunday School

678

Poems

872 Finlayson's Sermons'

JO10

Tighe's Plauts
654 Gauntlett's "Jubilee Sermon.

1159
Wright's Horă Ionicæ

667
Grosvenor's Sermons

750

Hogg's Mountain Bard

10692 Hawkes's Sermon on Good Friday 868,

Ivimey's Jubilee Address

11:157.

THEOLOGY.
-Jay's Jubilee Sermon

1159
Belsham's Summary View of the Evi- Kingsbury's Sermon on the Question
dences of the Christian Revelation 738 of Jude

968
Cox's Jesus shewing Mercy
876 Nightingale's Sermons

874

Clarke's Edition of Fleury's Manners of Phillpott's Sermon before the Bishop

the Israelites

1065 of St. David's

Dewhirst's Essays on the Church of Plumptre's Discourses on the Amuse- 5701
Christ
1132 ments of the Stage.

1031
Dick's Lectures on some Passages of Rees's Practical Sermon's

800

the Acts, Vol. II.

830 Scott's Six Sermons

774

Evans's Letter on General Redemption 970 Simeon's University Sermon,

Hawkins's Commientary on St. John's, Strange's Sermons on Various Subjects 961

Epistles

846 Thomas's Sermon on the Mystery of

Jerningham's Alexandrian School 676 the Seven Stars

Jones's Illustrations of the Gospels 719 Watkins's Jubilee Sermon

1159

Jones's Lectures on the Figurative Wellwood's Funeral Sermon, for Dr. A.

Language of the Scriptures

7771 Hunter,

777

New whole Duty of Prayer

1067 Williams's Fast Sermon

680

Remarks on Faber's Dissertation 1156

Scripture Lessons

1154

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.

Serious Adinonition to a Professed A Dane's Excursions in England 1130

Christian

683

Lewis and Clarke's Travels,

105%

Smitli's Lecture s on the Nature and Macdonald's Travels through Den-

End of the Sacred Office

670 mark

1057

Spiritual Magazine

1154

Peron's Voyage of Discovery. to Aus-

Wickes's Perlege si vis

tralasia

9771

Wickes's Accipe si vis

776

Valentia's, Lord, Voyages and. Tra-

\Vix's Scriptural lilustrations of the

vels

689, 811, 915

39 Articles

1065

76

THE

ECLECTIC REVIEW,

For JULY, 1809.

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Ar. I. A Treatise of the Properties of Arches and their Abutment l'iers : containing Propositions for describing geometrically the Catenaria,

and the Extradosses of all Curves, so that their several Parts and their Piers may equilibrate ; also, concerning Bridges, and the Flying Buttresses of Cathedrals. To which are added, in Illustration, Sections of Trinity Church, Ely; King's College Chapel, Cambridge; Westminster Abbey; Salisbury, Ely, Lincoln, York, and Peterborough Cathedrals. By Samuel Ware, Architect. Royal 8vo. pp. xii. 62. 19 folding

Plates. Price 108. 6d. J. Taylor ; Longman and Co. 1809. It would be a very entertaining and instructive einploy

ment, for a man of leisure, with the requisite acquirements, to trace the progress of arch building and its gradual modifications, from its first rude origin to the present time. Arches are observed in the most ancient buildings of Greece, such as the temple of the Sun at Athens, and that of Apollo, at Didymas: but these arches were not intended as roofs to any apartment, or as part of the ornamental design; they were concealed in the walls, covering drains' or other necessary openings ; nor have we found any real arches, such, we mean, as were meant to be seen while they were constructed for

purposes of utility, in any monuments of ancient Persia. No trace of an arch is to be seen in the ruins of ancient Egypt; there are, it is true, in the Pyramids, two galleries whose roofs consist of many pieces; but it is manifest from the construction that the builder had no notion of the nature of an arch; they can no more be called arched-vaultings, than many of the Egyptian wide rooms which are covered with a single block of stone. The Greeks appear intitled to the honour of the invention, so far at least as relates to bridges and aqueducts. The arched dome seems to have had its origin in Etruria. This kind of dome, it is conjectured, arose from its fitness for the accommodation of augurs, whose business it was to observe the flight of birds. Their stations for this purpose were templa, so called a templando, 'on the summits of hills.' To shelter an augur from the weather, and at the

Vol. V,

Yy

same time allow him a full prospect of the country around him, no building was so proper as a dome set on columns. In the later monuments and coins of Italy and Rome, it is common to find the Etruscan dome and the Grecian temple combined: the celebrated Pantheon was of this form, even in its most ancient state. The arch is very frequent in the magnificent buildings of Rome, after the Roman conquests, such aš the Coliseum, the Dioclesian baths, and the triumphal arches; where elegance of form was manifestly an object of attention. It will be seen that our opinion does not coincide with that of M. Dutens respecting the very early origin of the scientific construction of the arch: indeed, we conceive, that his citations, numerous as they are, cannot produce conviction in any mind accustomed to estimate the value of evidence.

But this kind of inquiry, however interesting, cannot be pursued here. Mr. Ware, by directing bis attention to the theory of arches, naturally calls ours thither : and, as it is a subject which but seldom exercises the talents of either our mathematicians of our architects, we shall perhaps be excused by the general reader, if, for the sake of our scientific friends, we indulge in a short disquisition on the present occasion.

The simplest possible case of a covering to an edifice, that of a block of stone placed horizontally upon the top of two parallel vertical walls, gives little scope for the investigations of theorists. Let but the block hang over sufficiently and equally on the exterior side of each wall; and no weight, short of that which would crush the wall or the block, would by its vertical pressure on the middle of the roof endanger the structure. 'But, instead of a single block, suppose there were two equal ones which are to be set in a sloping direction from the top of each wall, and to meet in an angle or edge in the midway between the two walls : then it is evident, that some care will be requisite in the adjustment of the magnitude and weight of the blocks, their angle of inclination to the horizon, &c. that the lateral pressure, or thrust, should not be sufficient to force out the walls from their vertical position, and thus overset the whole. Conceive the sloping blocks separated by a horizontal block placed between them, so as to operate upon all below like a wedge, and the condition of equilibrium will again be changed. And if a fourth block be interposed, so as to give the whole the shape of what is now called å kirb roof, those conditions will of course receive ano, ther alteration. Let other blocks or stones be conceived su. perposed in a variety of ways; ---so, for example, as make the structure assume the shape of a polygon or a curve beneath, while it has a horizontal right line above; and the conditions of equilibrium will become still more complex. Nost

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