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and is generally the form used when any one reasserts something before stated, the truth of which was denied by somebody else, as in the expressions, "I saw the Queen yesterday-You did not-I did see her," this is called the emphatic form, and is compounded of the infinitive mood; of the verb itself, and a part of the verb to do, which is conjugated as follows:
The rules for the formation of the remaining parts of this verb are the same as those already given for other verbs. It may be remarked, however, that this emphatic form of the verb is found ouly in the present and past tenses of the indicative mood, and sometimes, though rarely, in the imperative mood. The rule for the formation thereof is as follows:-Take the infinitive mood of the verb which is being conjugated, and the same part of the verb to do, as that in which the given verb is to be expressed, and the result will be the required expression. Thus, to find the imperfect emphatic of the verb to love, take love, the infinitive thereof, and the imperfect indicative of the verb to do, which is, I did, and their combination produces, I did love.
Every transitive can be changed into a passive verb, or a verb in the passive form or voice, as it is sometimes called. An intransitive verb cannot properly be so changed. "John reads his book," may be converted, without any alteration whatever in the idea to be conveyed, into the expression, "His book is read by John." The rule for converting the transitive into the passive verb will show the reason why the intransitive verb
is incapable of conversion, and may be thus generally stated, viz., Take the object of the transitive verb, and make it the subject of the passive; change the verb itself from the active to the same part, as far as mood and tense, in the passive voice, and change the subject of the active verb into the objective case introduced by the words by, with, &c., &c., denoting agency; the intransitive verb having no object, is necessarily inconvertible.
In the rule given, it was said, the active verb is to be changed into the same part of the passive, as far as mood and tense; the number and person in both instances are not necessarily the same; in the expression," John reads his book," John is the subject in the active form; and book will be the subject, according to the rule in the passive form. In this case the number and person of the verb in both sentences will be necessarily the same. If the expression, however, were books instead of book, the subject of the passive form would be books, and the verb, therefore, should be plural, whereas the subject of the active form would still be singular.
In the conversion from one form to the other, all the adjuncts, or modifying clauses and expressions, remain unchanged. In the sentence, "I have already mentioned, as a proof of the existence of an original alphabet in the country, before the introduction of that of the Romans, the characteristic obstinacy with which they adhered to their own limited number of letters," I is the subject, have mentioned, the verb transitive, and obstinacy the object. These are the only parts to be operated on in the conversion of the sentence, which, in the passive form, will read thus: "The characteristic obstinacy with which they adhered, &c. &c., has been already mentioned by me, as a proof," &c. &c.
The rule for the formation of the passive verb is simple, and is thus generally stated: To find a required part of a passive verb, take the perfect participle of the verb itself, and that part of the verb to be, in which the required verb is to be expressed, and the result will be the required expression. Thus to find the pluperfect potential of the verb to love, take the perfect participle of the verb, which is loved, and the pluperfect potential of the verb to be, which
is, I might have been, and their combination will furnish, "I might have been loved," the part required. The union, therefore, of the verb to be, and the perfect participle, form the passive verb; whilst the union of to be with the present participle, forms an active verb in the progressive form.
For the formation of the passive verb, it is absolutely essential to know the perfect participle thereof; and as this is, in many instances, different in the irregular verb from the past tense, it is necessary that the student of the English language should make himself acquainted with the perfect participles of such irregular verbs as are in frequent
use. To say, The exercise was began," is improper, began being the past tense of the verb to begin. The verb to be is never united with the past tense, but only with the perfect participle, which, in the case of the verb to begin, is begun; the expression, therefore, should be, "The exercise was begun." Very many gross blunders in speaking and writing are continually made, from either a total ignorance or neglect of this principle. A list of the conjugation of irregular verbs is subjoined.
A regular verb is one that forms its past tense and past participle by adding d or ed to the present; as Love, loved, loved.
An irregular verb is one that does not form both its past tense and past participle by adding d or ed to the present; as,