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includes things or qualities. We, accordingly, render it, "averse from what is good," or, with Wakefield, "enemies to goodness." See Titus i. 8.

nullum intermittunt tempus, quin institum opus urgeant: diversa significandi virtus in Aor. 2, quæ multum ab Aor. 1 dissidet." Hemsterhus. in Lucian. Vol. I. (Bipont,) p. 255.

2 Tim. iv. 6. "For my powers are now failing, [in the margin, I am now about to be sacrificed,] and the time of my departure is uear:" in R. V., "for I am now ready to be offered [ey yap non σπevdoμai], and the time of my departure is at hand" [epe

2 Tim. iii. 10. "Thou has followed in my steps, in doctrine," &c. [apkоLovenkas μou on didaσkang]: in R. V., "thou hast fully known my doc. trine," &c. Schleusner has, " conformasti te," &c. Castalio, "assecutus es ;" and so the Syriac. On the other hand, the P. T. is supported by Luke Ke]. The translation of Philalethes

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i. 3. We think that Philalethes gives the sense of the apostle, which Le Clerc also has well expressed, 66 vous, avez vû, en me suivant, ma manière d'enseigner."

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16. "All Scripture, divinely inspired, is profitable," &c.: in R. V., "all Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable," &c. [Tara γραφη θεοπνευτος και ωφέλιμος, κ. τ. λ.]. We would translate," is also profitable." Here we copy so much of a ́ Abp. Newcome's Note on this clause as concerns the Version of it: "some render, all Scripture given by inspiration of God is profitable, &c. So Syr., the three Arabic Versions, Vulg. Grotius, the English Bible of 1549," &c.

ib. "Virtuous discipline" [exavopowσ]: the R. V. has "correction," which we prefer. Refor mation of manners, seems intended.

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iv. 1, 2. "Before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who, when he shall appear in his kingdom hereafter, will judge the living and the dead, I charge thee preach the word:" in R. V., charge thee therefore before, &c. at his appearing and his kingdom," &c. [την επιφάνειαν αύτου, και την βασιλειαν αύτου]. Here we have chiefly to notice the needless deviation of Philalethes from the order of the original in other respects his translation is an obvious improvement. With Griesbach he omits ou eyw but, unlike Griesbach, retains του Κυρίου.

2. "Be urgent" [0]: in R. V., " be instant." We adopt the rendering by Philalethes, who agrees here with Newcome. Let us attend to the remark of a great master of the Greek tongue on the force of this verb: "Eno, me quidem judice, sine controversia valet, insta atque incumbe, ut solent spyodiwkтai, qui

varies considerably from that of his predecessors. In Castalio we read, jam jam immolandus sum," and Doddridge retains the figure expressed by R. V. The Lexicon of Schleusner is perhaps the source of the variation: in verb. σevow (No. 4), "metaphoricè: paulatim absumor. Sie bis in N. T. legitur, Phil. ii. 17; 2 Tim. iv. 6,omnes vires meæ sensim minuuntur et absumuntur." However, we cannot admit that the learned lexicographer has proved this to be the sense of the word; and we consider the present example of his skill in illustration as singularly unhappy. The authorities to which he refers, are insufficient: valuable as are his labours, they would be yet more so, were not his subdivisions extremely numerous aud refined.

-7. "I have continued faithful:" in R. V., "I have kept the faith" [TY IOTIV TETηρηкα]. Wakefield has, "I have been faithful to my engagements."

14. "Alexander the brazier:" in R. V., "Alexander the coppersmith" [6 xaλners]. Here Philalethes agrees with Worsley.

-ib. "Will render." In R. V., "reward" [aπodwn]. But Philalethes prefers the various reading, anodwoε..

20. "Erastus remained, [in R. V., " abode,"] at Corinth." The original word is EELVEV; and this Worsley translates, staid, Wakefield, stopt, Newcome, remained.

Titus i. 1, 2. "The kuowledge of religious truth, founded upon," &c.: in R. V.," the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness [EYνωσιν αληθειας της κατ' ευσεβειαν]. (η hope of" [εn' EXπidi]. We consider "knowledge" as the correct translation. See Worsley and Schleusner. The rendering " founded upon," is of the nature of a paraphrase.

Titus i. 5. "I left thee in Crete, that thou mightest set right the things that were defective, and ordain elders in every town:" in R. V., "left I thee that thou shouldest set in order [Eidiopwon] the things that are wanting [Ta λETOVτa]-every city" [nara πολιν]. "It is well known," says Doddridge, note in loc., "that every considerable town was called a city by the ancients." Philalethes' translation of this verse, taken altogether, is correct. Symonds, in loc.

12. "A poet of their own:" in R. V., 66 a prophet" [pons]. Mr. Wakefield's rendering is singular, "one of their own teachers." We much prefer that of Philalethes, who agrees with Newcome.

ib. "Slothful gluttons:" in R. V., "slow bellies" [yasɛpes apya.]. In proof" that yapes by itself signifies gluttons," the late Primate of Ireland refers to Wetstein.

ii. 2. "Worthy of respect, discreet" in R. V., grave, temperate” [σεμνους, σωφρονας].

5. "Domestic." in R. V., "keepers at home" [oxoupous]. There is a good reading in Griesbach's margin, οικούργους.


in religion, knowing that such a man
is perverted, and sinneth against his
own conscience" [in the margis,
"being self-condemned"].
A man
that is au heretic [alpetixo avôposer),
after the first and second admonition,
reject: knowing that he that is such,
is subverted [T Efespantai & Taroc),
and sinneth, being condemned of him-
self” [άμαρτάνει, ων αντικατακρίτες].
Alpernos av@pwños, (says Campbell,
The four Gospels, &c. Vol. I. 4to.
pp. 435, 436,) " may properly be
rendered a factious man. Wake-
field's rendering is, "a fomenter of
divisions:" and so the I. V. For the
sense of apartou see 1 Tim, iv, 7.

14. "Our friends" [of prepos]. Philalethes has, with good reason, supplied the ellipsis. Here the R. V. is literal to a fault, "let our's" &c.

James i. 4. "Let constancy have its full exercise:" in R. V., " let patience [vμon] have her perfect work" [εpyov TEXEIOY EXETW]. Most of the translators have employed the word patience: Philalethes will, perhaps appeal, nor, we think, unjustly, to Rosenmüller and Schleusner.



8. "An undecided man:
66 a double-minded [x]
Newcome translates it,

man of a divided mind."

11. The saving grace of R. V., God hath appeared to all men:" in R. V., "the grace of God that bringeth salvation, hath appeared," &c. επεφανη γαρ ή χαρις του Θεού ή σωτήριος πασιν ανθρωποις]. Wakefield, Newcome, and the F. G. Vers., place a comma after EU: "salutaire à tous les hommes."

13. "The manifestation of the glory of the Great God," &c.: in R. V., "the glorious appearing [εTIφανειαν της δόξης] of, &c. In this instance Philalethes is more literal than usual.

iii. 1. Admonish them to be submissive and obedient to magistrates and men in authority:" in R. V., "Put them in mind [roup vŋaxɛ] to be subject to principalities and powers" [apxais na εCovσias]. Thus Worsley, "governors and magistrates." It is evident that the rendering and interpretation of this clause must determine the rendering and interpretation of Eph. vi. 12, "we wrestle against principalities, against powers," "magistrates and men in authority."

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10, 11. "Reject a party man


15. "Sin, when perpetrated, is pregnaut with death:” in R. V. "when it is finished [TEREOQUIOA), bringeth forth [anxve] death." But Wakefield, still better, 66 wben ber full time is come," &c. Castalio has, peccatum porro perpetratum ;" and so Doddridge.


16, 17. "My dear brethren" [ayanTO]. The R. V. is more dignified, "beloved."


Every good gift, and every perfect benefit" [dwois-dopnua]: in R. V. the same noun is repeated,

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every good gift, and every perfect gift." Philalethes follows Newcome, and has also the sanction of Wakefield and of the F. G. Vers. ; not to mention Castalio, &c.

- 23. “A mirror” [£00%Tpp]. In R. V. "a glass." The majority of preceding translators will authorize the change.

ii. 1. "The glorious faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, so as to have respect to persons:" in R. V., "the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the

Lord of glory [την πισιν κ. τ. λ. της 8], with respect of persons" [εv po σωποληψίαις]. Wakefield says, "there can be no doubt of the propriety" of the connexion which is the basis of the rendering by Philalethes. In vindication of it, we are referred to 1 Tim. i. 11, το ευαγγέλιον της δόξης του μακαριου Θεον, in which passage, however, a doctrine, not a person, is represented. Besides, the position of the words is not the same, Ty του Κυρίου ήμων Ιησου Χριςου της δόξης. We take Rosenmüller to be correct, ITs dons ponitur pro eo." On the other hand, the alteration contended for has the countenance of not a few highly respectable translators, both ancient and modern. The I. V. retains the common rendering.

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James ii. 4. "Ye become judges who reason ill" in R. V., "judges of evil thoughts” [κριται διαλογισμών πονηρων]. Literally, of wicked reasonings," Worsley has," who reason wickedly." 10. "Whoever shall keep the whole law except offending in one point, is completely guilty:" in R. V., "whosoever," &c. and yet offend in one point [πταισει δε εν ένι] he is guilty of all" [yeyovε Tavτwy Svoxos]. This difficult passage Worsley, a very accurate translator, has rendered with much felicity, "he is under the penalty of all."

19." Evil spirits" [Ta dapovia]: in R. V., "the devils." The only correct translation is, "the dæmons;" as in the F. G. Vers. Every thing beyond this, falls within the province of the expositor.

25. This verse Philalethes gives in a note, but does not insert in his text. Why should he suspect it of being an interpolation"?

iii. 13. "Shew his attain ments with the meekness of wisdom." The R. V. has, his works" [Ta spya autou]. Not only is this rendering literal: it possesses the further advantage of being consonant to the spirit and object of the epistle.

17. "Tractable" [Tong]: according to R. V., "easy to be entreated." Philalethes' rendering is also Wakefield's.

ib." Without indecision" [adiakρitos]. The R. V. has," without partiality." So nearly all former translators: nor can we assign the

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ART. II.-Letters on the Events which have passed in France since the Restoration in 1815. By Helen Maria Williams. 8vo. pp. 204. Baldwin and Co. 1819. Na former occasion [Vol. XI. pp. 228-232] we were compelled, by a sense of justice, to make some rather severe strictures upon Miss Williams's statements with regard to the persecution of the French Protestants. Time has justified all our remarks. The liberal party has gained the ascendancy in France; it is no longer treason to avow at Paris that the restored government, for a time under the influence of the Ultras, did abet and sanction the persecutions in the South, nor does policy require the Parisian Protestants to disavow all connexion and sympathy with the Dissenting Ministers of London, who stood forward amidst difficulty and reproach to succour the victims of intolerance; and Miss Williams herself is emboldened by the altered tone of public feeling to assume the language which so well becomes her, of an ardent friend of civil and religious liberty.

She thus describes the political state of that generation of the French who will presently form the nation

Above all, one class of the nation was found in vigorous resistance to all ultraroyalist measures; that class is composed of the whole youth of France. Among them there is no dissenting voice, no hos

tile opinion. You may still inquire in French society, what are the political sentiments of a man in advanced life; but if the person with whom you converse he young, inquiry is useless; that person is a lover of liberty. The French youth have lived only under the new order of things, and have not been taught to respect the old. They have imbibed the principles of the Revolution, without having felt its evils. Its pitiless tempest rocked their cradle and passed harmless over their heads. They are not like those who, having passed through the Revolution, are weary of the conflict, and dis. posed to leave the reformation of the world to whomever it may concern. The minds of the French youth are unsubdued by suffering, and full of the ardour of independence. They know that liberty is the prize, for [which] many of their parents have bled in the field or perished on the scaffold. But they are too well read in modern history, of which their country has been the great theatre, to seek for liberty where it is not to be found. They do not resemble that misted and insensate multitude who, in the first years of the Revolution, bad just thrown off their chains, and profaned in their ignorance the cause they revered. The present race are better taught, and will not bow the knee to false idols. They rally round the charter as their tutela divinity, whom it is their duty to obey, and their privilege to defend."-Pp. 7-9.

We are pleased with the following notice, the first that has reached us, of the recal from exile of M. POMINIER RABAUD, the brother of the illustrious and unfortunate Rabaud St. Etienne, and for several years one of the Protestant ministers at Paris. M. Rabaud was one of the Convention that sate in judgment upon Louis XVI. He gave his vote for the death of the king, but with an additional clause designed to save his life. The measure of his political offences was filled up by his signing the "Additional Act," that is, the act of allegi. ance to Buonaparte on his return from Elba. And hence, at an advanced age, and without any means of subsistence but his profession, he was banished from France.

"M. Rabaud bears a name which is never pronounced but with veneration by the Protestants of France. His exile was generally deplored; the pious had lost a model, and the poor a friend. After two years of exile, his return was solicited by one of the best defenders of Protes

tantism and of liberty in France, M. Boissy
d'Anglas, and granted by the King with
The first time our
generous alacrity
venerable pastor appeared at church, a
great part of the audience offered him a
spontaneous tribute of affectionate reve-
rence, by rising, when he entered.”—Pp.
11, 12.

The great thing gained by the French is the election of representa tives. This privilege is not equal in value to the elective franchise in England. The people only elect other electors, who, in what are called "electoral colleges," choose the actual Deputies; and in the as-semblies of the "electoral colleges" no discussion is permitted ou the merits of the respective candidates.

"The people, however, well understand the value of their right of election. They

know the price it has cost. They are not ignorant that they have paid for it with thirty years of revolution, with their tranquillity, their fortunes, their children;

they regard it, like the sacred ark, which no impious hand could touch with impunity. During the last election at Paris, a friend of mine passed a group of people, who were talking politics in the street, when one man, stepping out of the group, pointed with his hand to a placard with the names of the electors, and exclaimed, This is the Revolution.”—Pp. 31, 32.

The sign and seal of French liberty is the impotence of the priesthood, of which Miss Williams gives an amusing proof:

"The carnival of 1817 was succeeded

by an incident that spread a general gaiety over the first days of Lent This was a Mandement, or Pastoral Letter, of the Grand Vicaires of Paris, the first episcopal authority in the interregnum of the archbishoprick, addressed to the faithful, and affixed as usual, at that season, to the walls of all the churches of the capital. It was in general, in the accustomed forms, prescribing abstinence, granting permission to eat eggs, &c-but it contained one prohibition of a novel description. A bookseller had just published a compact edition of Voltaire for more general use; and against this publication the Mandement hurled all its thanders. The Pari. sians have long had sufficient reason to be serious, but their natural disposition is to be gay; they were glad of an occasion for mirth, and never was a Mandement before the cause of so much pleasantry. It furnished the subject of epigrams, the burden of songs; every body felt the ordinary

disposition to do what was forbidden; and such was the increased demand for Voltaire, that seven new editions were published and sold rapidly. These were followed by new editions of Rousseau, and other French classics, who now again descended from their shelves, and became for a moment the order of the day."-Pp. 105, 106.

The ancient ardour of the French

for literature has given way to zeal for politics.

"Such is the present avidity for political intelligence, that Paris is filled with reading-rooms, which are crowded from morning till night, with old and young, all alike eager to seize upon some new pamphlet, and obtain information of what is passing. At the Athenée, a long established literary institution, nothing attracts so brilliant a crowd of both sexes as the discussion of some political question by M. Benjamin Constant, with that analyzing precision, and that persuasive eloquence of which he has so eminently the secret." -P. 108.

According to Miss Williams, the French are no longer irreligious:


"It is a pleasure to relate that, although enlightened persons in France give no quarter to superstition, a general respect for religion now prevails in this country. No glory can any longer be acquired by the miserable boast of infidelity. In the first years of the Revolution, those deplorable doctrines were so prevalent, that they had descended even to the vulgar. Il faut une religion pour le peuple, said a cobbler to a friend. At present the sneer of irreligion is as distant from the tone of good company, as it is from the principles of right reason. The infidel now bears his gloomy system as well as he can, in silence, and no longer obtrudes his incredulity on others; on those who, perhaps, in the bitterness of adversity, lean for their sole support on a creed that tells them of pity that partakes-of mercy that consoles, misfortune; and of goodness that will remember virtue."-Pp. 115, 116.

But with this respect for religion, there is little disposition in the French people to bigotry: they are said to view the missions of the priests with indignation. Of these Miss Williams says,

"Catholic missionaries are sent by nobody knows whom, to wander, nobody knows why, over France, with pilgrimfeet, and preach the dogmata of the Catholic faith, as if they were as little known on the banks of the Garonne as of the Mississippi. They plant great iron crosses

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in the principal squares or streets of the towns or villages where they pass, and on which they engrave figures of hearts, inscribing on each heart the name of one of the faithful."-—P. 116.

In a Supplementary Letter, Miss Williams vindicates the French Protestants from some charges which she understands have been preferred against them in England, and particularly by a reverend gentleman of the name of Raffles. From the vagueness and pompousness of the defence we can scarcely collect the nature of the Sabbath-breaking ap


pears, however, to be one of the of fences in question; and in treating this, Miss Williams breaks out into oratorical exclamations which mean nothing, instead of replying that the foreign Protestants do not hold the same notions as the English Nonconformists of the sanctity of the Sabbath, or rather the first day of the week.

One fact stated by our author (p. 195) shews the intimate connexion between civil and religious liberty. When attempts were lately made by the Ultras to violate the Charter in respect of the law of elections, persecuting movements were made at Nismes. On that occasion, the ardour of the bigots in the town was cooled by an intimation from the Protestant

peasants of the Cevennes, that if one drop of Protestant blood were spilt, the mountains would descend, and "it would be woe to the Catholics." Happily (as Miss Williams concludes, pp. 197, 198), the peasants were not compelled to fulfil their menace, the Charter triumphed in the Chamber of Deputies, and the Protestants at Nismes are in safety.

ART. III.-The Duties of Christians

towards Deists: A Sermon, preached at the Unitarian Chapel, Parliament Court, Artillery Lane, Bishopsgate Street, on Sunday, October 24, 1819, on occasion of the recent Prosecution of Mr. Carlile, for the Republication of Paine's Age of Reason. By W. J. Fox. 8vo. pp. 1s. 6d.


Tnishment of opinions appears to

HE argument against the pu

us unanswerable. There can, in fact, be no liberty of inquiry, if there be not liberty for the avowal of the result

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