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can ever be effectually abolished, would eminently favoured by Providence with have indaced the American Government natural advantages, and among the very to consent to it, when the object in ques. foremost in all the distinctions and enjoytion involves the rights and happiness of ments of civilized life, should thus, on so large a portion of our fellow-creatures. its restoration to the blessings of peace, “ That with the deepest concern we

and to the government of its legitimate find, as in the last year, vessels under sovereign, appear, in fact, to be the chief the French flag trading for slaves along agent in blasting the opening prospects of the whole extent of the coast of Africa: civilization, which even Africa had begun at home and abroad, proposals are circu- to present, and in prolonging the misery lated for Slave-Trading voyages, inviting and barbarism of that vast Continent. the smallest capitals, and tempting ad- “ That on the whole we conjure his venturers by the hopes of enormous pro- Majesty to renew his remonstrances, and fits. That the few ships of war of that to render it manifest that his interference country stationed in Africa, offer no ma- has not been a matter of form, but of terial obstructiou to the trade, nor do serious and urgent duty. That this the governors of her colonies appear to country will at least have the satisfaction be more active ; and all this while the of knowing that we have been active and French Government reprobates the traffic unwearied in making reparation to Africa in the strongest terms, and declares, that for the wrongs with which we ourselves it is using its utmost efforts for the pre- were so long chargeable, and we cannot ventiou of so great an evil. That it is doubt that we shall ultimately be able to deeply to be regretted that a government congratulate his Majesty on the success which has beea generally regarded as of his endeavours, and on his haring had eminent for its efficiency, should here a principal share in wiping away the alone find its efforts so entirely paralysed. foulest blot on the character of ChrisThat, meanwhile, we can only continue tendom." to lament that a great and gallant nation,

CORRESPONDENCE. Communications have been received from Messrs. Theophilus Browne; T. C. Holland ; Joseph Jerans ; and J. W. Pigg: Also, from F. S.; 1. B.; T. G.; S. C.; and I. B. (Sheerness).

The continuation of Discipulus has come to hand. His other proposed communi. cations will probably be acceptable.

We design for an early Number the Essay on the Principles of Criminal Law from the author of “ A New Version of sone of the Epistles of Paul.”

In our next we propose to iusert Colonel Stanhope's further Letter on the subject of a Free Press in India.

Xi's Letter shall be sent to Mr. Wellbeloved.
The Letter on Bible Societies has, we fear, miscarried.
Mancuniensis is put into the hands of the Gentlemen referred to, as is also H. W.

By an accident, the continuation of the Review of the work on “ Church Property and Church Reform" is deferred.

Letter II. from the late Rev. James Nicol was mislaid, but is recovered, and will be brought into the next Number.

We have the pleasure to announce that the Unitarian Fund Committee propose to print occasionally a paper to be stitched up with the Monthly Repository, containing a Register of their proceedings, and the most interesting articles of their Correspondence, especially the Foreign. This Register will contain more or fewer pages, according to the matter on hand. It will, we are persuaded, be very acceptable to the Subscribers at large. A letter from Mr. ADAM, the Unitarian Minister at Calcutta, (see pp. 682-690 of the present Number,) to Mr. Fox, the Secretary to the Unitariau Fund, will, we understand, be introduced into No. I. of the REGISTER,

Various Subscriptious have been received by Rev. R. Asplaud and Mr. Smallfield, for repairing the loss of the Rev. L. KIRBY, (see p. 647,) which have been remitred, according to their design.

Monthly Repository.

No. CCIV.)


[Vol. XVII.


Select Memoirs of Italian Protestant Confessors.

No. III.

Olympia Fulvia Morata.
Ε' ΣΑΠΦΩ δεκάτη μεσαων εςιν αδόντων,
Ενδεκάτη γράφετ' ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ θειοτάτη. *

OFEMIANUS. YHIS learned and accomplished and such was her progress, especially

woman was born at Ferrara, in in the acquisition of the classical lanthe year 1526. Her father, Fulvius guages, under a master who united Peregrinus Moratus, was a native of the affection of the parent with the Mantua, and esteemed one of the most skill of the accoinplished teacher, that learned men of the age. He filled in a short time she became the object the office of public lecturer on the of universal admiration. The fame of languages and polite literature in some her genius and acquirements procured of the principal cities of Italy with for her the notice and patronage of the high reputation, and superintended the Princess Renata, consort of Hercules education of two of the sons of Alfon- the Second, Duke of Ferrara. The so, Duke of Ferrara. The early indi- Duchess had a daughter, Anne d'Este, cations of superior talents, accompa- nearly of the same age, but rather nied by an unusual fondness for study,t younger, who was then pursuing her which he observed in Olympia, in- education at home under eminent masduced him to devote particular atten- ters. In order to relieve the irksometion to the cultivation of her mind; ness of solitary study, and to place

near her a companion who might in

spire her with an honourable emula“ If Sappho be called the tenth tion, Olympia was invited to become Muse, divine Olympia may be designated her associate. She accordingly took the eleventh."

† The following is her account of her up her residence at the palace, where early attachment to study; it is in the she reinained for some years, rapidly form of a dialogue between her friend La- advancing in knowledge and reputavinia and herself:

tion. Cælius Secundus Curio, who Lav. Hoc autem mihi maximam adini. was at this tine residing at Ferrara, rationem movet, qudd cùm esses puella, sharing the protection which the tamen neque hortatu muliercularum, ne- Duchess extended to the Protestant que virorum impulsis (qui clamitabant, refugees, * speaks of her learning and alia munera obediunda tibi fore, neque talents in terms of high commendavirum tibi inveniri posse, qui te doctam tion, and states that she might with quam ditem mallet) unquam a tua sen advantage be compared with any of tentia discesseris. Olymp. Ego sanè cùm etiam atque which she was thus so honourably

the females of antiquity. + The career etiam quam diligenter considerarem, nullam aliam causam reperire potui, pursuing, was suddenly suspended by quàm Ore jeta napoi speito a me his the illness of her father, which obliged studiis operam dedisse. ille mihi ingenium et hanc mentem dedit, ut studio See Mon. Repos., the present vodiscendi aded incensa fuerim, ut nemo lume, p. 91. me ab his deterrere potuerit.- Olympia + His words are—Ibi (in aulam) audiOpera, (1580, p. 45.

vimus nos eam ita Latinè declamantem, Græcè loquentem, Ciceronis Paradoxa

explicantem, ad questiones respondentem, a So printed in the editions of 1570 ut cum veterum puellarum quavis, quæ and 1580—Quære, OED META WOOO1 quidem ingenii laude excelluerit, conferri EKEITO, Dei ad pedes jacebat,

posse videntur.-Olymp. Opera, p. 97.


4 2

her to return home to assist in the du- der her own direction. After a short ties of a sick chamber. His death stay at Augsburg and the neighbourfollowed shortly after ; but the state hood, where her husband was engaged in which her family was now left professionally, they fixed their resiwould not allow of her resuming her dence at Schweinfurt, in Franconia, situation at the palace. She was the which wes Gruntler's native place. eldest of the children, and her mo- As the Duchess Renata was warmly ther being sickly and infirm, she felt attached to the cause of the Reformait to be her duty to remain with her tion, and persisted, notwithstanding to undertake the charge of their do- the opposition of the Duke, who was mestic concerns, and to educate her a zealous Catholic, in educating her brother and sisters.

children in the principles which she Not long after her father's death, had herself espoused, there can be no and whilst she was thus laudably em- doubt but that Olympia must also ployed, she lost the friendship of the have embraced them whilst she resided Duchess Renata, and her intercourse at the palace. The subject of religion with the court was in consequence en- had, however, she confesses, occupied tirely broken off. She mentions this but little of her thoughts, and she event, in a letter to Curio, as one congratulates herself that by her sewhich had given her great concern, clusion from court, she was led to conand occasioned some inconvenience to sider it more attentively, and to emher family. The cause is no where brace, with a firm conviction, the docfully explained. She merely hints trines of the Reformers. After her that it was owing to the malicious de- settlement in Germany, she devoted tractions and misrepresentations of herself with great earnestness to theosome unworthy persons who had pre- logical studies, and occasionally emjudiced her benefactress against her. ployed her pen in the composition of Bút this circumstance, which at the devotional poetry in the Greek and time she regarded as a severe calamity, Latin languages, which every where she afterwards viewed as the most for- breathe a fervent spirit of piety, and tunate occurrence of her life; since it display talents of the first order. The led to a marriage connexion that was high and unmixed satisfaction which most agreeable to her feelings, and to she derived from her new principles, a-steady adherence to the doctrines of doomed her to a perpetual exile from the Reformation, to which she ascribed her native country. For, ardently as her chief happiness. Whilst she was she was attached to her mother and living in the seclusion of her family, sisters, of whom she always writes in she formed an acquaintance with An- the most affectionate terms, she would drew Gruntler, a young German, emi- listen to no overtures to return to nently skilled in the Greek and Latin their society, with the certainty of belanguages, who was then studying me. ing restrained in the public profession dicine at Ferrara, and afterwards took of her religion. She embraced, likethe degree of doctor in that faculty. wise, every opportunity to press upon Congeniality of tastes, and similarity the attention of her Italian friends the of attaininents, produced a mutual importance of the principles she had attachment, which terminated in their adopted, and to urge them to receive union. of the disinterestedness of them with a faith equally firm, and his affection for her, Olympia speaks maintain them with a constancy equalwith lively gratitude, -observing, that ly unwavering. Writing to an intineither her destitute condition, nor mate female acquaintance in Italy, sbe the frowns of the court, could restrain thus expresses herself: “ I send you him from seeking her hand. Her some of Luther's writings which, when marriage took place about two years I perused them, afforded me very high after the demise of her father, and pleasure, in order that they may comwhen she must have been twenty- fort and delight you also. Place your three years of age. She soon after. dependence upon God in these stawards removed with her husband into dies; implore him to enlighten you Germany, leaving with her mother with true religion : you will not be three marriageable sisters, and taking repulsed.” She seemed particularly with her her brother, then about eighi . anxious that Luther's works should years old, in order to educate him un- be more generally known in her native country. In a letter to Matthias Flac- Whilst Olympia was thus engaged cius Illyricus, * she urges him to un. in recommending the principles from dertake the task of translating some which she was herself deriving increasof them into the vernacular language ing satisfaction, a civil war began to for this purpose. She prefers a simi- rage with great violence throughout lar request to the celebrated Verge- Germany, which soon furnished her rius, who had recently joined the Re- with an occasion of bringing their formers, with respect to Luther's Ca- efficacy and power to the severest techism. As you have bent your test. In the contest which divided the whole heart,” she writes, “ to the heads of the different states, Schweinspread of the Church, I beg you would furt had the misfortune to fall beneath translate into Italian Luther's book, the displeasure of the stronger party, intituled the Larger Catechism, ren- and to be devoted to complete destrucdered into Latin by Vincentius Opso- tion. The Marquis of Brandenburg pæus. Of how much service it would having seized upon the town, and garbe to our Italians, especially to the risoned it with his troops, it was young, you will perceive from the quickly besieged by the army of his book itself, if you will carefully peruse opponents, Maurice, the Elector of it.” Olympia's zeal in the cause of Saxony, the Bishops of Wurtzburg the Reformation inay also be seen in and Bamberg, and other princes. an admirable letter addressed by her The siege was carried on with great to the companion of her youthful stu- vigour, the artillery playing upon the dies, the Princess Anne d'Éste, who had place day and night without intermismarried Francis of Lorrain, Duke of sion. Owing, however, to the nature Guise, celebrated in the annals of pers of the fortifications, but few lives were secution as the author of the massacre lost from the firing of the besiegers. of the Protestants at Vassey, in the But the presence of so many soldiers, South of France. Olympia first earn- pent up in a small space, produced a estly recommends to her to study the violent contagious disease, which comSacred Writings, which alone could mitted great ravages, and carried to unite her to God, and administer con- their graves nearly one-half of the solation to her under the afflictions of inhabitants. Gruntler, in attending. life. She then entreats her to look professionally upon the sick, caught with a favourable eye to those excel- the infection, but though his life was lent persons who were suffering perse- for some time despaired of, he ulticution in France on account of their mately recovered. After holding out religion, and to be their advocate with for fourteen months under these calathe King, even though she should by mitous circumstances, the Marquis such a step offend her husband, and quietly withdrew his troops, and, un, subject herself to the royal displea- der cover of the night, escaped without suret

molestation. The inhabitants now

hoped for a cessation of their miseBock has inserted this letter in his moved; but they were soon painfully

ries, as the object of attack had reHistoria Antitrinitariorum, Vol II. p. undeceived. As soon as the departure 402.

+ This advice, it would seem, was not of the Marquis was ascertained, the lost upon the young Duchess, for a few besieging troops entered the town as years subsequently she interceded with if it had been taken by storm, and Catherine of Medicis on behalf of the Protestants of France, whom she was then persecuting with infuriated zeal. who did not refrain from tears, and to “ Anne d'Este," writes Thuanus, (ad have advised Catherine of her own accord Ano. 1560,) “the wife of the Duke of to give orders to desist from putting inGuise, a woman of a mild temper, and nocent people to death, if she wished who, from her infancy, had been brought well to the King and to the kingdom." up at Ferrara by her mother Renata, in At a subsequent period, however, the the doctrines which were then under per. Duchess of Guise took part against the secution, for which purpose she had given Protestants. This change in her princiher for a companion, Olympia Morata; ples and conduct is ascribed with great a lady of distinguished merit aud learn. probability to the assassination of her ing, is said to have been the only person husband by Poltrot.

after a general pillage, set it on fire. who might escape in that direction The house, together with the whole from the conflagration of Schweinproperty, of Gruntler and Olympia, furt. Here they were detained capfell a prey to the conflagration, and tives in anxious suspense between they themselves narrowly escaped hope and fear, until an answer arrived with their lives. Whilst flying through to a letter which they had addressed the streets, amidst the burning bouses, to the Bishop, when they were left to in search of an asylum, and intending pursue their journey. They now proto throw themselves for shelter into ceeded, without further molestation, some church, a soldier, to whom they to Heidelberg, where they were very were unknown, recommended_them honourably received by some of the instantly to quit the place. Fortu- Protestant nobility, who for some nately they followed his advice : for time hospitably entertained thein at many of those who had retired to the their mansions, and liberally adminischurches were suffocated by the smoke, tered to their various wants. As soon which entered in volumes from the as the necessary arrangements could surrounding ruins. Scarcely, how- be made, they fixed their residence at ever, had they reached the gates, when Heidelberg, Gruntler having obtained, they were seized by some soldiers who through the Elector Palatine, Fredewere in pursuit of plunder, who strip- ric the Second, the appointment of ped them of their clothes, and left Professor of Medicine in the UniverOlympia no other covering besides her sity of that city. under linen. Gruntler was taken pri- The severe bodily fatigues and soner, but soou obtained his libera- the acute mental sufferings which tion. In the forlorn and destitute Olympia had endured from the condition to which they were now re- commencement of the troubles at duced, without money and without Schweinfurt, gradually undermined clothes, they felt it difficult to deter- her constitution, and wasted her mine what course to pursue. They strength. The fever which she had resolved at length to attempt to reach caught during her flight, when she Hamelburg, a small town distant was exposed without covering to the from Schweinfurt about three Ger- inclemency of the weather, retained man miles.

Olympia gives a very its hold upon her frame, notwithstandaffecting description of herself when ing the medical skill of her husband, she arrived at this place. “I appear- and the kind attentions of the friends ed,” she says, “to be the queen of whom she had found at Heidelberg; beggars. I entered the town with my and, within a year, brought her to a feet naked, my hair loose and dishevel- premature grave. In her last very led, and my clothes in rags ; and even affecting letter to her friend Cælius these I should not have had, if a wo- Secundus Curio, whom she seems man had not lent them to me.” The always to have regarded with the feel. fatigues of this journey, added to the ings of a daughter, she thus expresses distress and anxiety attending it, herself: “As for me, my Cælius, be brought on a fever, from which she assured that all hope of longer life is never afterwards wholly recovered. vanished; for as to medicine, of which

As the inhabitants of Hamelburg I have taken a great deal, there is had been forbidden to afford shelter to none that brings me relief. Every any of the fugitives from Schweinfurt, day, nay, alınost every hour, those they were only allowed a short time about me expect nothing but my deto recruit themselves and procure parture; and, indeed, I know not necessaries : at the end of four whether this may not be the last letdays, notwithstanding Olympia's in- ter you will receive from me. Fare. disposition, they were compelled to well, most excellent Cælius, and if depart. At the next small town they my death be announced to you, do not reached, which was in the territory of grieve ; for I know that I shall then be one of the bishops, they were made living : I desire to die and be with prisoners by the commanding officer, Christ.” As she had anticipated, the who informed them that his orders account of her death immediately folfrom his Christian and merciful mas- lowed her own letter. The intelliter were, to put to death all persons gence was communicated to Cælius

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