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If of the Eneid, and the coast from beyond | dam, and thence trickles over into the Digentla.
e mouth of the Tiber to the headland of Cir- But we must not hope
-um and the Cape of Terracina.
The site of Cicero's villa may be supposed
ther at the Grotta Ferrata, or at the Tusculum
Lucian Buonaparte.

The former was thought some years ago the tual site, as may be seen from Middleton's fe of Cicero. At present it has lost something its credit, except for the Domenichinos. Nine onks, of the Greek order, live there, and the joining villa is a Cardinal's summerhouse. The her villa, called Rufinella, is on the summit the hill above Frascati, and many rich reains of Tusculum have been found there, bedes seventy-two statues of different merit and eservation, and seven busts.

From the same eminence are seen the Sabine
Ils, embosomed in which lies the long valley
Rustica. There are several circumstances
hich tend to establish the identity of this valley
th the "Ustica" of Horace; and it seems pos-
ble that the mosaic pavement which the pea-
ats uncover by throwing up the earth of a
neyard, may belong to his villa. Rustica is
onounced short, not according to our stress
on Ustica cubantis."—It is more rational to
ink that we are wrong than that the inhabitants
this secluded valley have changed their tone in
is word. The addition of the consonant pre-
ced is nothing: yet it is necessary to be aware
at Rustica may be a modern name which the
casants may have caught from the antiquaries.
The villa, or the mosaic, is in a vineyard on
knoll covered with chesnut trees. A stream
ins down the valley, and although it is not true,
said in the guide-books, that this stream is
illed Licenza, yet there is a village on a rock
the head of the valley which is so denominat-
H, and which may have taken its name from
e Digentia. Licenza contains 700 inhabitants.
n a peak a little way beyond is Civitella, con-
aining 300. On the banks of the Anio, a little
efore you turn up into Valle Rustica, to the
ft, about an hour from the villa, is a town
alled Vico-varo, another favourable coincidence
ith the Faria of the poet. At the end of the
alley, towards the Anio, there is a bare hill,
rowned with a little town called Bardela. At
ne foot of this hill the rivulet of Licenza flows,
nd is almost absorbed in a wide sandy bed
efore it reaches the Anio. Nothing can be more
ortunate for the lines of the poet, whether in a
metaphorical or direct sense:

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus,
Quem Mandela bibit rugosus frigore pagus.
The stream is clear high up the valley, but
efore it reaches the hill of Bardela looks green
ad yellow like a sulphur rivulet.

Rocca Giovane, a ruined village in the hills,
alf an hour's walk from the vineyard where the
avement is shown, does seem to be the site of
he fane of Vacuna, and an inscription found
here tells that this temple of the Sabine victory
was repaired by Vespasian. With these helps,
nd a position corresponding exactly to every
hing which the poet has told us of his retreat,
we may feel tolerably secure of our site.

The hill which should: Lucretilis is called
Campanile, and by following up the rivulet to
he pretended Bandusia, you come to the roots
f the higher mountain Gennaro.
nough, the only spot of ploughed land in the
hole valley is on the knoll where this Bandusia


Tu frigus amabile

Fessis vomere tauris
Præbes, et pecori vago."

The peasants show another spring near the mo-
aic pavement, which they call "Oradina," and
hich flows down the bills into a tank, or mill-

"To trace the Muses upwards to their spring,"

by exploring the windings of the romantic valley strange that any one should have thought Banin search of the Bandusian fountain. It seems dusia a fountain of the Digentia; Horace has not let drop a word of it; and this immortal spring has in fact been discovered in possession of the holders of many good things in Italy, the monks. Gervais and Protais near Venusia, where it was It was attached to the church of St. lucky as a late traveller in finding the occasionmost likely to be found. al pine still pendant on the poetic villa. There We shall not be so are two cypresses, which he evidently took, or is not a pine in the whole valley, but there mistook, for the tree in the ode. The truth is, that the pine is now, as it was in the days of Virgil, a garden-tree, and it was not at all likely to be found in the craggy acclivities of the valley of Rustica. them in the orchard close above his farm, immediately overshadowing his villa, not on the rocky Horace probably had one of heights at some distance from his abode. Tho tourist may have easily supposed himself to have seen this pine figured in the above cypresses, for the orange and lemon trees which throw such a bloom over his description of the royal gardens at Naples, unless they have been since displaced, were assuredly only acacias and other common garden-shrubs. The extreme disappointment experienced by choosing the Classical Tourist as a guide in Italy must be allowed to find vent in a few observations, which, it is asserted without fear of contradiction, will be confirmed by every one who has selected the same conductor through the same country. This author is in fact one of the most inaccurate, unsatisfactory writers that have in our times attained a temtrusted even when he speaks of objects which he porary reputation, and is very seldom to be must be presumed to have seen. from the simple exaggeration to the downright misstatement, are so frequent as to induce a susHis errors, picion that he had either never visited the spots described, or had trusted to the fidelity of former writers. Indeed the Classical Tour has every characteristic of a mere compilation of former notices, strung together upon a very slender thread of personal observation, and swelled out by those decorations which are so easily supplied by a systematic adoption of all the commonplaces of praise, applied to every thing and therefore signifying nothing.

cumbrous, and unsuitable, may be to the taste The style which one person thinks cloggy and of others, and such may experience some saluof the "Classical Tour." It must be said, however, tary excitement in ploughing through the periods that polish and weight are apt to beget an expectation of value. It is amongst the pains of the damned to toil up a climax with a huge round stone.

there was no such latitude allowed to that of his The tourist had the choice of his words, but sentiments. The love of virtue and of liberty, certainly adorns the pages of Mr. Eustace, and which must have distinguished the character, the gentlemanly spirit, so recommendatory either in an author or his productions, is very conspigenerous qualities are the foliage of such a percuous throughout the Classical Tour. But these formance, and may be spread about it so prominently and profusely, as to embarrass those who wish to see and find the fruit at hand. The unction of the divine, and the exhortations of the moralist, may have made this work somethey have not made it a book of travels; and thing more and better than a book of travels, but this observation applies more especially to that enticing method of instruction conveyed by the

perpetual introduction of the same Gallic Helot | ping of the copper from the cupola of St. Pe to reel and bluster before the rising generation, ter's, must be much relieved to find that sacri and terrify it into decency by the display of lege out of the power of the French, or any all the excesses of the revolution. An animosity other plunderers, the cupola being covered with against atheists and regicides in general, and lead. *) Frenchmen specifically, may be honourable, and may be useful, as a record; but that antidote should either be administered in any work rather than a tour, or, at least, should be served up apart, and not so mixed with the whole mass of information and reflexion, as to give a bitterness to every page: for who would choose to have the antipathies of any man, however just, for his travelling companions? A tourist, unless he aspires to the credit of prophecy, is not answerable for the changes which may take place in the country which he describes; but his reader may very fairly esteem all his political portraits and deductions as so much waste paper, the moment they cease to assist, and more particularly if they obstruct, his actual survey.

If the conspiring voice of otherwise rival cri tics had not given considerable currency to the Classical Tour, it would have been unnecessary to warn the reader, that, however it may ador his library, it will be of little or no service to him in his carriage; and if the judgment d those critics had hitherto been suspended m attempt would have been made to antica their decision. As it is, those who stand is relation of posterity to Mr. Eustace permitted to appeal from cotemporary and are perhaps more likely to be just in p portion as the causes of love and hatred are the farther removed. This appeal had, is measure, been made before the above remaru were written; for one of the most respectable of the Florentine publishers, who had been per suaded by the repeated inquiries of those their journey southwards, to reprint a chrup edition of the Classical Tour, was, by the can curring advice of returning travellers, inda to abandon his design, although he had already arranged his types and paper, and had struck of one or two of the first sheets.

The writer of these notes would wish to part (like Mr. Gibbon) on good terms with the Pape and the Cardinals, but he does not think it cessary to extend the same discreet silence to their humble partisans.

Neither encomium nor accusation of any government, or governors, is meant to be here offered, but it is stated as an incontrovertible fact, that the change operated, either by the address of the late imperial system, or by the disappointment of every expectation by those who have succeeded to the Italian thrones, has been so considerable, and is so apparent, as not only to put Mr. Eustace's Antigallican philippics entirely out of date, but even to throw some suspicion upon the competency and candour of the author himself. A remarkable example may be found in the instance of Bologna, over whose papal attachments, and consequent desolation, the tourist pours forth such strains of condolence and revenge, made louder by the borrowed trumpet of Mr. Burke. Now Bologna is at this moment, and has been for some years, notorious amongst the states of Italy for its attachment to revolutionary principles, and was almost the only city which made any demonstrations in favour of the unfortunate Murat. This change may, however, have been made since Mr. Eustace visited this country; but the traveller whom he has thrilled with horror at the projected strip


That tomb which, gleaming o'er the cliff. [p. 57. | tempted in description, but those who have, will A tomb above the rocks on the promontory, by probably retain a painful remembrance of that some supposed the sepulchre of Themistocles.

singular beauty which pervades, with few e ceptions, the features of the dead, a few be after the spirit is not there." It is to be re marked in cases of violent death by gut wounds, the expression is always that of lange whatever the natural energy of the sufere character; but in death from a stab the tenance preserves its traits of feeling or ferocity, and the mind its bias, to the last.

Sultana of the Nightingale.

[p. 57.

The attachment of the nightingale to the rose is a wellknown Persian fable. If I mistake not, the "Bulbul of a thousand tales" is one of his appellations.


*) "What then will be the astonishment. rather the horror, of my reader, when form him. the French Commines turned its attention to Saint Peter's, and enployed a company of Jews to estimate and purchase the gold, silver, and broase th adorn the inside of the edifice, as well as the copper that covers the vaults and dome as the outside." The story about the Jews is positive ly denied at Rome.

Till the gay mariner's guitar. [p. 57, The guitar is the constant amusement of the Greek sailor by night: with a steady fair wind, and during a calm, it is accompanied always by the voice, and often by dancing.

Where cold Obstruction's apathy. [p. 59. "Ay, but to die and go we know not where To lie in cold obstruction."

Measure for Measure, Act. III. Sc. 1.


last look by death reveal'd. [p. 58. I trust that few of my readers have ever had an opportunity of witnessing what is here at


Slaves-nay, the bondsmen of a slave. Athens is the property of the Kislar Agathe slave of the seraglio and guardian of the war who appoints the Waywode. A pander and eunuch these are not polite, yet true appell tions—now governs the governor of Athens

In echoes of the far tophaike. "Tophaike," musquet.-The Bairam is undocr ced by the cannon at sunset; the illuminat of the Mosques, and the firing of all kinds small arms, loaded with ball, proclaim it during the night.

wift" as the hurt'd on high jerreed. [p. 59. rreed, or Djerrid, a blunted Turkish javelin, h is darted from horseback with great force precision. It is a favourite exercise of the sulmans; but I know not if it can be called nly one, since the most expert in the art the black Eunuchs of Constantinople-I think, to these, a Mamlouk at Smyrna was the t skilful that came within my observation.

He came, he went, like the Simoon. [p. 59. The blast of the desert, fatal to every thing ng, and often alluded to in eastern poetry. bless the sacred “bread and salt."

[p. 60. o partake of food, to break bread and salt h your, host, insures the safety of the guest; n though an enemy, his person from that ment is sacred.

ce his turban was cleft by the infidel's sabre. [p. 60. I need hardly observe, that Charity and Hosality are the first duties enjoined by Mahomet; d to say truth, very generally practised by disciples. The first praise that can be bewed on a chief is a panegyric on his bounty; next, on his valour.

And silver-sheathed ataghan. [p. 60. The ataghan, a long dagger worn with pistols the belt, in a metal scabbard, generally of silver; d, among the wealthier, gilt, or of gold.

An Emir by his garb of green. [p 60. Green is the privileged colour of the prophet's merous pretended descendants; with them, as re, faith (the family inheritance) is supposed supersede the necessity of good works: they e the worst of a very indifferent brood.

Ho! who art thou?-this low salam. [p. 60. Salam aleikoum! aleikoum salam! peace be ith you; be with you peace-the salutation served for the faithful:-to a Christian, “Urrula," a good journey; or saban hiresem, saban rula; good morn, good even; and sometimes, may your end be happy;" are the usual salutes.

The insect-queen of eastern spring. [p. 60. The blue-winged butterfly of Kashmeer, the Lost rare and beautiful of the species.

Or live like acorpion girt by fire. (p. 61. Alluding to the dubious suicide of the scorpion, placed for experiment by gentle philosophers. ome maintain that the position of the sting, then turned towards the head, is merely a conulsive movement; but others have actually rought in the verdict "Felo de se." The scorions are surely interested in a speedy decision Af the question; as, if once fairly established as sect-Catos, they will probably be allowed to e as long as they think proper, without being martyred for the sake of an hypothesis.

When Rhamazan's last sun was set.
[p. 61.
The cannon at sunset close the Rhamazan.
By pale Phingari's trembling light. [p. 61.
Phingari, the moon.

་ ་་་་་,

Bright as the jewel of Giamschid. [p. 61. The celebrated fabulous ruby of Sultan Giamschid, the embellisher of Istakhar; from its splendour, named Schebgerag, "the torch of Right; also, the “cup of the sun," In the first editions "Giamschid" was written as a word of three syllables, so D'Herbelot has it; but I am told Richardson reduces it to a dissyllable, and writes "Jamshid. I have left in the text the orthography of the one with the pronunciation of the other.

Though on Al-Sirat's arch I stood. (p. 61. Al-Sirat, the bridge of breadth less than the thread of a famished spider, over which the Mussulmans must skate into Paradise, to which it is the only entrance; but this is not the worst, the river beneath being hell itself, into which, as may be expected, the unskilful and tender of foot contrive to tumble with a "facilis descensus Averni, not very pleasing in prospect to the next passenger. There is a shorter cut downwards for the Jews and Christians.

And keep that portion of his creed. [p. 61. A vulgar error; the Koran allots at least a third of Paradise to well-behaved women; but by far the greater number of Mussulmans interpret the text their own way, and exclude their moieties from heaven. Being enemies to Platonics, they cannot discern "any fitness of things" in the souls of the other sex, conceiving them to be superseded by the Houris.

The young pomegranate's blossoms strew. (p. 61. An oriental simile, which may, perhaps, though fairly stolen, be deemed "plus Arabe qu'en Arabie."

Her hair in hyacinthine flow. [p. 61. Hyacinthine, in Arabic, "Sunbul," as common a thought in the eastern poets as it was among the Greeks.

The loveliest bird of Franguentan. "Franguestan," Circassia.

(p. 61.

[p. 62. "the com

Bismillah! now the peril's past. Bismillah-"In the name of God; mencement of all the chapters of the Koran but one, and of prayer and thanksgiving.

Then curl'd his very beard with ire. [p. 62. A phenomenon not uncommon with an angry Mussulman. In 1809, the Capitan Pacha's whiskers at a diplomatic audience were no less lively with indignation than a tiger-cat's, to the horror of all the dragomans; the portentous mustachios twisted, they stood erect of their own accord, and were expected every moment to change their colour, but at last condescended to subside, which probably saved more heads than they contained hairs.

Nor raised the craven cry, Amaun! "Amaun," quarter, pardon.

(p. 62.

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frequently the case, the effect is solemn and
beautiful beyond all the bells in Christendom.

They come their kerchiefs green they wave. [p. 63.
The following is part of a battle-song of the
Turks:-"I see-I see a dark-eyed girl of Para-
dise, and she waves a handkerchief, a kerchief
of green; and cries aloud: Come, kiss me, for I
love thee."

Beneath avenging Monkir's scythe.
Monkir and Nekir are the inquisitors of the
[p. 63.
dead, before whom the corpse undergoes a slight
noviciate and preparatory training for damnation.
If the answers are none of the clearest, he is
hauled up with a scythe and thumped down with
a red hot mace till properly seasoned, with a
variety of subsidiary probations. The office of
these angels is no sinecure; there are but two,
and the number of orthodox deceased being in a
small proportion to the remainder, their hands
are always full.

Turkish, Italian, and Engli in various conceits, epes Ih sulman. While we were ez

tiful prospect, Dervish n


antiquarian, and asked hin "Palaocastro" man: “Ne' I thought he w pillars will be useful in added other remarks, whe own belief in his troebire from Leone (a prisoner hearing. On after) of the intended atta our return mentioned, place, in the notes to Chile with the cate the horses of our party so T was at some pains to em having been in "villanous ca he described the dresses, an other circumstances, we cord: selves in a bad neighbourho a soothsayer for life, and i hearing more musquetry thes to the great refreshment of t rat, and his native mountainsBut first, on earth as Vampire sent. one trait more of this singelar The Vampire superstition is still general in offer himself as an attendant, vi 1811 a remarkably the Levant. [p. 63. came (I believe the 50th on the s Stout a Honest Tournefort tells story, which Mr. Southey, in the notes on Tha--you would have laba, quotes about these "Vroucolochas," as he leave the town for the hills to a long ed: "Well, Affendi, calls them. The Romaic term is "Vardoulacha." winter I return, perhaps you w quoth be recollect a whole family being terrified by the me."-Dervish, who was present found scream of a child, which they imagined must thing of course, and of no conser proceed from such a visitation. never mention the word without horror. I find which was true to the letterThe Greeks mean time he will join the Klep that "Broucolokas" appellation-at least is so applied to Arsenius, molested in some town, were they is an old legitimate Hellenic they come down in the winter, who, according to the Greeks, was after his well known as their exploits. death animated by the Devil. however, use the word I mention. The moderns,

To wander round lost Eblis' throne.
Eblis, the oriental Prince of Darkness.

[p. 63.

Wet with thine own best blood shall drip. [p. 64. The freshness of the face, and the wetness of the lip with blood are the never-failing signs of a Vampire. The stories told in Hungary and Greece of these foul feeders are singular, and some of them most incredibly attested."

It is as if the desert-bird. The pelican is, I believe, the bird so libelled, by the imputation of feeding her chickens with [p. 65. her blood.

have had so little effect upon the Looks not to priesthood for r it could have no hopes from the rea The monk's sermon is omitted. be sufficient to say, that it was of length (as may be perceived from t tions and uneasiness of the peniten delivered in the nasal tone of preachers.

And shining in her white symar. "Symar"-shroud.

not very

Deep in whose darkly boding ear. This superstition of a second-hearing (for I This broken tale was all we knew never met with downright second-sight in the relates was [p. 66. Of her he loved or him he slew. East) fell once under my own observation.-On few years ago the wife of Muchtar Pas The circumstance my third journey to Cape Colonna, early in 1811, plained to his father of his son's supp to which the abe as we passed through the defile that leads from delity; he asked with whom, and uncommon in Te the hamlet between Keratia and Colonna, I ob- barbarity to give in a list of the twea served Dervish Tahiri riding rather out of the somest women in Yanina. They were path, and leaning his head upon his hand, as if fastened up in sacks, and drowned th in pain. I rode up and inquired. "We are in night! One of the guards who was pres peril," he answered. "What peril? we are not formed me, that not one of the victims t now in Albania, nor in the passes to Ephesus, a cry, or showed a symptom of terrer at Messalunghi, or Lepanto; there are plenty of den a "wrench from all we know, from us, well armed, and the Choriates have not cou-love." The fate of Phrosine, the fairest rage to be thieves." "True, Affendi; but never-sacrifice, is the subject of many a Roma theless the shot is ringing in my ears."-"The Arnaut ditty.

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shot-not a tophaike has been fired this morn- told of a young Venetian many years a ing."-"I hear it notwithstanding-Bom-Bomas plainly as I hear your voice.""Psha." "As recited by one of the coffee-house story The story in the test is you please, Affendi; if it is written, so will it who abound in the Levant, and sing or now nearly forgotten. I heard it by a be."-I left this quick-cared predestinarian, and their narratives. rode up to Basili, his Christian compatriot, whose tions by the translator will be easily dis ears, though not at all prophetic, by no means guished from the rest by the want of Eas relished the intelligence. The additions and interp Colonna, remained some hours, and returned tained so few fragments of the original. We all arrived at imagery; and I regret that my memory has leisurely, saying a variety of brilliant things, in more languages than spoiled the building of Ba-indebted partly to D'Herbelot, and partly bel, upon the mistaken seer; Romaic, Arnaut, that most eastern, and, as Mr. Weber just For the contents of some of the notes at

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entitles it, "sublime tale," the "Caliph Vathek." I do not know from what source the author of that singular volume may have drawn his materials; some of his incidents are to be found the "Bibliothèque Orientale;" but for correctness of costume, beauty of description, and power of imagination, it far surpassce all Euro


1 Was faint o'er the gardens of Gul in her bloom. [p. 68. "Gul," the rose.

Can he smile on such deeds as his children have done? [p. 69. Souls made of fire, and children of the Sun, With whom Revenge is Virtue.

YOUNG'S Revenge.

With Mejnoun's tale, or Sadi's song. [p. 69. Mejnoun and Leila, the Romeo and Juliet of the East. Sadi, the moral poet of Persia.

Till 1, who heard the deep tambour. (p. 69. Tambour, Turkish drum, which sounds at sunrise, noon, and twilight.

He is an Arab to my sight. [p. 70. The Turks abhor the Arabs (who return the compliment a hundredfold) even more than they hate the Christians.

The mind, the Music breathing from her face.

p. 70.

This expression has met with objections. I will not refer to "Him who hath not Music in his soul," but merely request the reader to recollect, for ten seconds, the features of the woman whom he believes to be the most beautiful; and if he then does not comprehend fully what is feebly expressed in the above line, I shall be sorry for as both. For an eloquent passage in the latest work of the first female writer of this, perhaps, of any age, on the analogy (and the immediate comparison excited by that analogy) between "paintIng and music," see vol. 111. chap. 10. DE L'ALLEMAGNE. And is not this connexion still stronger with the original than the copy? with the colouring of Nature than of Art? After all, this is rather to be felt than described; still I think there are some who will understand it, at least they would have done, had they beheld the countenance whose speaking harmony suggested the idea; for this passage is not drawn from imagination but memory, that mirror which Affliction dashes to the earth, and, looking down upon the fragments, only beholds the reflection multiplied! But yet the line of Carasman. [p. 70. Carasman Oglou, or Kara Osman Oglou, is the principal landholder in Turkey; he governs Magnesia: those who, by a kind of feudal tenure, possess land on condition of service, are called Timariots: they serve as Spahis, according to the extent of territory, and bring a certain number into the field, generally cavalry.

pean imitations; and bears such marks of originality, that those who have visited the East will find some difficulty in believing it to be more than a translation. As an Eastern tale, even Rasselas must bow before it; his "Happy Valley" will not bear a comparison with the "Hall of Eblis."

And teach the messenger what fate. [p. 70. When a Pacha is sufficiently strong to resist, the single messenger, who is always the first bearer of the order for his death, is strangled instead, and sometimes five or six, one after the

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