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in building, and hired counsellers signified by taking away the filthy garagainst them to frustrate their pur- ments of Joshua, and clothing him pose, all the days of Cyrus king of with change of raiment, and putting a Persia, even until the reign of Darius fair mitre on his head. king of Persia.” Ezra iv. I, 4, 5. In this vision, Zechariah is shewn “And they wrote letters of accusation “ Joshua, the high-priest," the repreto the kings of Persia against the in- sentative of the Jewish people (for habitants of Judah and Jerusalem, such the high-priests always were); both in the days of Ahasuerus and of he was "standing before the angel of Artaxerxes,” vers. 6, 7. “ So the the Lord,” as their advocate to plead work ceased until the second year of their cause : before the angel, i. e., the reign of Darius,” ver. 24. In that before the prince of Persia, for before year, however, they resumed the work him, as we learn from the history, of building the house of the Lord were the accusations preferred, and uuder the encouragement of the pro counsellers hired” to plead against phets Haggai and Zechariah the son the people of Judah, in order to frusof Iddo, who helpeil them, v. 1. Their trate their design of restoring the adversaries also renewed their oppo. Jewish church and worship. By him sition, and Tatrai, the governor of the cause was heard and by him jndg. Samaria, and Shethar-boznai, and their ment upon it was given. He was procompanions, wrote another letter of perly, therefore, the angel, or messenaccusation against them to Darius, – ger of the Lord, his servant, raised vers. 3, 6, and following. Upon this, up, anointed and sent to perform his Darius, having commanded search to purpose of delivering his people from be made in the house of the rolls, and their captivity, and restoring them to finding the decree of Cyrus, confirmed their own land. Rulers and magisit, and by a decree enforced the car. trates are in the Scriptures denomirying of it into effect by the building nated Gods, (Ps. lxxxii. 1-6, comof the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, pared with John X. 35,) and also, anand by which he compelled the adver, gels of God (comp. Ps. xcvii. with saries of Judah, Tatnai and Shethar. Heb. i. 6); and Paul says, that “ they boznai, and their companions, not are the ministers of God for good," only to desist from their opposition, Rom. xiij. 4. “And Satan," an adbut also to render the people of the versary, the representative of the adJews every possible assistance in car versaries of Judah, “standing at his rying on the work,—ch. vi. throughout. right hand;" the situation in which
Thus was this dispute terminated, accusers and witnesses were generally and thus, by the means of Cyrus and placed in law courts, at the right hand of Darius, who were his agents, in- of the accused. Satan is here, therestruments and ministers, did the Lord fore, to be considered as a legal adcffectually rebuke Satan, the adver- versary; hence the LXX. have here, sary,
and carry into effect his own dc- not Satan, but diabolos, deril, i. e. signs respecting Judah and Jerusalem. calumniator, fulse accuser. Le Clerc,
This interposition of the Lord in as quoted by Macknight, “by Satan, favour of the people of Judah and Je- in Zechariah's vision, and diabolos in rusalem, is the subject of the vision in Jude, understands Tatnai and Shethe third chapter of Zecharial; the thar-boznai, the King of Persia’s liegscenery of the vision is taken from a tenants, who opposed the restoration Court of Judicature and its proceed- of Jerusalem, and who on that acings." The vision in this chapter,” count miglit be called Satan, or the says Matt. Henry, concerns their adversary of the Jews, in the same church state, and their ecclesiastical manner that Peter was called Satan interests, and assures them that they by his Master for opposing his suffershould be put into a good posture ing at Jerusalem.” “According to again.” That Jerusalem should rise this interpretation,” says Macknight, up out of its ruins, like a brand pluck- “ Jude's meaning is, that the angel of cd out of the fire ; that the iemple Zechariali's vision brought no railing should be built, and that the Jewish accusation against the adversaries of Church, with the priesthood and the the Jewz; but reproved them with worship of God, should be restored: modesty, on account of their being
magistrates." Satan stood at his “Michael the archangel,” he says, right hand to resist him, i. e. to pre disputed with the Devil.” In the vivent his prosecuting the work in which sion of Zechariah, he is shewn Joshua, he was engaged. “And the Lord the high-priest, the representative of said unto Satan, The Lord rebuke the Jewish people, standing before the thee, O Satan; even the Lord that angel of the Lord, and Satun, (in the hath chosen Jerusalem, rebuke thee: Septuagint version, the Devil,) the reis not this a brand plucked out of the presentative of their adversaries, standfire?” Jude ascribes this saying to ing at his right hand to resist him. Michael the archangel: both are right, Jude informs us that this dispute was both mean the same thing ; because about the body of Moses ; the history, God never spake to men im inediately, of which the vision in Zechariah is a but always through some inedium or prediction, informs us that the dispute instrument, for no one ever "heard was about the building of the temple his voice at any time, or saw his shape," and the restoration of the church and and that instrument by which he worship of God, according to the inspeaks, be it what it may, is his angel stitutions of Moses, which Jude calls or messenger. It was the Lord that the body of Moses. Joshua and Satan stirred up the heart of Cyrus, and are both said to stand before the ancharged him to build him an house at gel : Satan, by letters of false accusaJerusalem, which is in Judal ;” that tion, and hired counsellers, to oppose he made proclamation for the return and resist the carrying on of that of the Jews to build the House of work, and Joshua as the advocate and the Lord, and by that proclamation representative of the Jews and their he spake and effectually rebuked and rulers, to plead their cause, and to restrained the opposition of their ad- protect them in the zealous prosecuversaries.
tion of the work. From the preceding investigation
Michael in Jude refers the matter we learn, that the Michael of Jude is to God, imploring his interposition in the angel of Zechariah ; and that this favour of the Jews, and his vengeance Michael was the prince of Daniel, who against their adversaries, saying, “ The was then in Babylon, and who stood Lord rebuke thee.” The ungel (in up for, and was the deliverer of his Zechariah's vision), or the Lord, by his people. Now no other prince but Cy- angel, is represented as pronouncing rus could be Daniel's prince at that the same sentence against the advertime, nor can the restoration of the sary, saying, “The Lord rebuke thee, Jews from their captivity in Babylon O Satan, even the Lord that hath chobe ascribed to any other.
sen Jerusalem, rebuke thee :” and we It inay be proper to observe here, learn from the history that they were that Cyrus is the first instance which effectually rebuked and restrained from we have on record of God's raising further opposition by the confirmaup, anointing and sending a Heathen tion of the decree of Cyrus, and by a prince to be the deliverer of his peo- decree of Darius to carry it into effect, ple. See Isa. xlv. 1–4, 13. He was, by which the Jews obtained a comtherefore, in the most strict and pro- plete victory over their adversaries, per sense of the term, the angel or and were enabled to finish the work of messenger of Jehovah ; and being the building the temple and of establishfirst or chief of the Pagan princes, ing the worship of God in Jerusalem. the Divine Being was pleased so to
It only remains now to point out employ; and being styled by Daniel, the analogy there is between the con“ Michael, one of the chief princes,'
tention of Michael and the Devil, inenor as it is in the margin, the first of tioned by Jude, and Michael's war the princes, Jude, writing in Greek, with the dragon, mentioned ch. xii. of naturally denominates him Michael the Revelation. In both cases the the archangel, i. e. the first or chief corubatants were the same, for the messenger of God.
dragon is expressly called, “The old We learn further, that the Devil Serpent, the Devil and Satan.” In of Jude is the Satan or adversary of the forıner, the contention was, wheZecharials. Jude refers to a conten, ther Judaism should be re-established tion between Michael and the Devil. in Judah and Jer usalem, or whether
they should remain under the power Michael and his angels fought against of the idolatry and superstition of the the dragon: and the dragon fought nations by which they had been con- and his angels.” The result of this quered and enslaved. 'Michael in this war, we are told, was, that “the dracontest, who espoused the cause of gon prevailed not, neither was their Judaism and fought in the defence of place found any more in heaven,"--cast the Jews and of Judaism, was Cyrus, out of the heaven of power and domia Pagan prince, raised up of God for nion, and cast into the earth, among that very purpose. The combatants the common people, where the ancient on the other side, called the Devil, idolatry continued to prevail, till by the were the powers who were engaged in successors of Constantine it was finally supporting the reigning superstition abolished, and Christianity became and idolatry. In this contest Michael, firmly established, and which has coni. e., Cyrus, obtains the victory, the tinued to be the professed religion of adversaries of the Jews and of their the ten kingdoms into which the Westreligion are defeated, and Judaism is ern Roman Empire was divided, unto triumphant.
this day. The other instance to which we The casting out of the dragon renow refer, is that of the war between moved the obstacle to the appearance Michael and the dragon. This dra- of the man of sin, the son of perdition, gon having seven heads, and ten horns, of which Paul speaks, representing an and seven crowns upon his heads, and enormous corrupting power in the who is called “ The old Serpent, the Church of God. This appeared to Devil and Satan,” we are expressly John under the figure of a beast ristold represents the old Roman Em- ing out of the sea, and to shew that pire under its Pagan form, and so it is it means the same cmpire prefigured generally interpreted. The matter of by the dragon under another forin, dispute then in this war was, whether that of Christian, it is also that empire should continue in its scribed, like the dragon, as having present ecclesiastical form, or whether seren heads and ten horns," and as it should cease to be Pagan and be having crowns, not upon his heads come Christian. The Roman Einpire like the dragon, but upon his horns, bewas founded in Paganism; and to de cause under the beast the empire was stroy that, was to overturn the empire divided into ten kingdoms. And itself. The conversion of Constantine upon his heads the name of blaspheto the Christian faith, represented by my.” The alliance between the Church the woman clothed with the sun, and the State, formed by Constantine, bringing forth a man child who was led to the corruption, debasement and to rule all nations ; that is, all the na- prostitution of Christianity to the vitions which composed the Roman em- lest of purposes ; so that her appearpire ; his profession and open avowal ance is described as that of a woman of Christianity, would naturally rouse sitting upon a scarlet-coloured least, the Pagan princes of the empire and full of names of blusphemy, arrayed the interested priests of the temples in purple and scarlet colour, and of idolatry to defend the reigning su decked with gold and precious stones perstition, the religion of their fore- and pearls, having a golden cup in her fathers and of the empire. This pro- hand full of abomination and filthiness duced a
“ war in heaven," as it is of her fornication, and upon her forecalled, that is, among the higher head a name written, Mystery, Babypowers of the state. In this war, lon the Great, the Mother of Harlots Constantine, a Heathen prince, the and Abominations of the Earth: and Michael of the prophecy, the first, the drunken with the blood of the saints, chief, the head of the princes of the and with the blood of the martyrs of empire, erects the standard of the Jesus. * cross, to an appearance of which in The war between Michael and the the clouds he ascribed his conversion Devil, predicted by Zechariah, and to Christianity, and under this stand. that between Michael and the dragon ard he comes forward as its champion against all the Pagan powers of the empire. “There was war in heaven;
* Res. xvii. 3–6.
in the Revelation of John, forin two proper and illegal, and to return our remarkable eras in the history of the thanks to the parties injured, for their world, in which the Divine Being was lenity in refraining from further propleased to interpose by open war for ceedings. the destruction of idolatry, and for the establishment of a religion emanating from himself, not by the instru. Obituary, and Biographical Nutices mentality of Jewish or Christian, but of Individual Members of the Faof Heathen princes. And may we not
milies of Howell and Rogers. expect, from the signs of the times
Dec. 4, 1822. and the language of prophecy, that
T may gratify some of the best
feelings, and tend to promote some raise up from among the princes of highly valuable interests, if a few cirthis world, a Michael, who shall effec- cumstances are recorded in the pages tually inake war with, and utterly of the Monthly Repository, concerning overthrow, the existing antichristian the family from which the late Rev. powers, and introduce and set up his William Howell * descended, and own everlasting kingdom of righte- another to which, by affinity and ousness and peace ?
worth, he was intimately allied. JOHN MARSOM. His father bore the same name, and
filled the same office. This gentleman Queen Street, Cheapside, with the Rev. Samuel Clark, + in the
was more than twelve years co-pastor Sir, Nov. 29, 1822.
congregation of the Old MeetingY desire of the Committee of House at Birmingham; in which cha
Deputies, I send you inclosed a racter he was called to the painful copy of an apology which has been in- task of delivering the address at the serted in the public papers, made by funeral of his colleague ; a composiCharles K’ing, George Haddon, James tion that he afterwards published, and Pitt, and Joseph Sherlock, four of that reflects great credit on his sensithe defendants a prosecution which bility and judgment. Of the elder the Committee had taken up under Mr. Howell's hearers, few, if any, are their direction, for disturbing a con now living. Some of his pupils, howgregation at Totton, near Southamp- ever, survive: and they recollect with ton, and for which the defendants suf-esteem and gratitude his conscientious fered a conviction by default; and I regard to the duties of a preceptor. am also desired to request you will It was at Winson Green, in the immemake such use thereof as you may diate neighbourhood of Birmingham,
that he conducted his very large and JOHN WEBSTER,
well-governed school. Not long beSecretary. fore his death be retired to the enjoyDissENTERS.
ment of the competency which he had Disturbance of a Place of Worship. days were passed at West Bromwich,
most honourably earned. His last We, the undersigned, having been in Staffordshire, where he expired indicted for disturbing the congrega- Feb. 5, 1776, at the age of 62, and in tion of Protestant Dissenters at Tot- the churchyard of which parish he was ton, near Southampton, on the even- interred. ing of Sunday the 1st of April, 1821, Great justice has been rendered to being aware that our conduct was in- his son's character, by an article aldefensible, did suffer a conviction to ready inserted in this work. Mr. go against us by default, thereby sub- William Howell received his academijecting ourselves to the penaltics of cal education, in part, at Warrington.I 401. But the prosecutors having, on our application, consented to waive
* Mon. Repos. XVII. 510. insisting on the judgment of the Court
+ For a memoir of this most excellent against us, on condition of our mak- person, see the Mon. Repos. I. 617, &c.; ing a public apology; we, therefore, he is mentioned in Dr. Priestley's Mehereby desire to express our concern moirs, 8vo. I. pp. 18, 22. for having acted in a manner so im Mon. Repos. IX. 203, 323.
Among his numerous good qnalities, a leading and exemplary meinber of a hospitable temper was not the least the Society Meeting in Carr's Lane, engaging. Nothing could be more Birmingham; zealous for what he friendly and cordial than his reception deemed the purity of Christian faith, of those visitors at Swansea, who were but equally zealous for the mainteeither previously known by him or re nance of practical religion. At the cominended to his attentions.
age of 70, and on July 20, 1811, he A sister of this individual was the paid the debt of nature. first wife of Mr. Phipson, surgeon, Mr. Samuel Rogers, his younger who resided for many years in Lon- brother, also married a danghter of don; himself a senior member of a Mr. Howell, of Winson Green. Thus family long and honourably associated the two families were cemeated to with Protestant Dissenting congrega- each other still more closely. It is tions in the town of Birmingham. This not easy to represent in adequate lanlady died March 29, 1787.
guage the hospitality and affection Mr. Fletcher, a respectable manila which marked the characters of Mr. facturer of that place, married ano. and Mrs. Samuel Rogers. In the hapther sister. He was father, by a for- piness of their numerous relatives and mer marriage, of the Rev.J. Fletcher, * friends, they uniforınly took the warmwho having been educated first at Da- est interest. Their house, the abode ventry, and, after soine interval, at of piety and order, was frequently vi. Hackney, was suildenly removed from sited by Dissenting ministers of their the world, by an apoplectic seizure, in own connexion, and of other denomithe midst of high proinise and expec- nations in Birmingham, the vicinity, tations. Let a companion of the stu- and from a distance. Like the late dies of this young minister be permit- William Hunt, Esq., * of the Brades, ted to speak of his excellent talents, Mr. S. Rogers experienced more than principles and feelings, and of his dis- usual pleasure in the company of such tinguished industry and ardour. His guests; and like that highly valuable memory was uncommonly retentive; man, he was “the Gaius t of his making approaches to that of Dr. neighbourhood.” Throughout the Furncaux. † He could recollect with midland and eastern districts of the admirable exactness, not merely the kingdoin he was well known and much substance, but the arrangement and esteemed, as the punctual and upright the language of any long discourse or tradesman. He expired June 25, speech, to which his attention had 1820, within six inonths after the been particularly given. The death of death of his consort, † and little more Mr. John Fletcher took place June than a month before that of his sis27, 1794 ; that of his mother-in-law, ter. $ (oncc Miss Sarah Howell,) Jan. 28, Mrs. Mary Rogers, to whose de1804.
cease a reference has just been made, Her sister, Mary Howell, was the maintained, through a life extended former wife of Mr. Joseph Rogers, rather beyond the usual limit, a most the second son of a very estimable fa- consistent and well-proportioned, a mily in Birminghain, in the manufac- most truly respectable and engaging tures and trade of which he was long character. A sound judgment, a cor. engaged, together with some of his rect taste, the purest affections and relations. His apprenticeship. had principles, aided by long experience, been served at Kettering, in North- and adorned by perfect kindness of amptonshire, where he was accustom- temper and propriety of manners, ened to join in religious worship with abled her not only to be irreproachathe Independent congregation : hence, ble and exemplary in her personal deprobably, he gained an attachment to portment, but to become the wise and the creed and discipline of that dero- faithful adviser of those around her; mination of Nonconformists. He was some of whom, now filling with ho
* Mon. Repos. XVII. 286. + Letters to Blackstone, Pref. to 2vd ed. vi. vii.
* Mon. Repos. IV. 53.