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resign my situation, and asked him, whether he would accept of it, provided that Mr. Hibbert's consent could be obtained. He replied that he would not, from a conviction that preaching to an estate's gang would prove a useless effort. In this place I might mention another instance where the Baptists were applied to, to send out a Missionary to reside on a sugar estate for the purpose of instructing the slaves in the principles of the gospel, but they refused to do so, because they were informed that permission to teach the children to read would not be granted. My opinion, then, Mr. Editor, of the almost uselessness of Missionaries residing on estates in Jamaica is not without example.
Since writing the above, I have been able to procure the Report from which Euelpis quotes, and am, therefore, better able to judge of his statements than when I commenced my letter. In eight or ten schools, under the care of the Missionaries, in the different islands, reading, it appears, is taught; but not, as far as I can judge from the Report, to the slaves, which is the circumstance that weighs so much with me. In Jamaica, the Report states, that "there is but one regular Sunday-school;" and then it immediately explains, that "in Kingston there is a very promising class of girls formed and instructed by Mrs. Johnstone, who are not only making great improvement in reading, but many of them are also truly serious." The number of this class is thirty-six. Now, I should be obliged to Euelpis if he would ascertain whether the children are bond or free, and also what their colour is; for it is not improbable, but that some of them may be several degrees removed from the African race, and thereby entitled, if not by law, yet by courtesy, to special privileges. The Report is extremely general, whereas, on a subject like the one in question, it could not be too particular. Euelpis, however, is not aware of this, for he contents himself, and, I doubt not, the majority of your readers, with the off-hand statement, that "the children in the schools were 4,227." Now, the Report, with all its indefiniteness, admits that in the "school at Rock Sound, in Eleuthera, the numbers
are, Whites, 35; Blacks, 9-at Palmetto Point, Whites, 20; Blacks, 9:Savannah Sound, Whites, 17; Blacks, 43-Harbour Island, we have four schools; Whites and Blacks, 117. At the Cove, 20 Whites and 6 Blacks. Spanish Wells, 32 Whites and 6 Blacks." At Abaco, the "number is 67 Whites and 22 Blacks, male and female."
The Whites mentioned in the Report certainly are free, and I should conclude, that the other children taught to read are either free Browns or free Blacks. I intended to have given you an account of a visit I made to two Moravian Missionary stations just before I left the Island, but as Euelpis has thrown me off my plan, I must here conclude.
I several articles in some of the late
HAVE read with much interest
numbers of your valuable Repository, relative to that very extraordinary character and highly-gifted individual, Rammohun Roy. If you think the following extracts deserving of a place in your pages, they may perhaps serve in some degree to satisfy the public, that the Brahmin's inquiries have not terminated in Deism, as has been alleged, but in a thorough conviction of the truth of revealed religion. The tracts of Rammohun Roy's, referred to in these extracts, are an appeal to the Christian public in answer to the animadversions of a Reviewer in a periodical work, entitled, "The Friend of India," and a second Appeal, occasioned by some remarks of the same person on the principles of Rammohun Roy, as avowed in the first; both these tracts are very ably written, and in a spirit very different, I am sorry to say, from what usually charac terizes theological controversy. He seems to believe in the pre-existence of Christ, but rejects all the reputed orthodox notions, because he can find no trace of them in Scripture.
he is not only master of almost every Eastern language, (including Hebrew,) but is, I may safely say, a perfect master of the English, so far as idiom goes; his pronunciation only is defective. I found him asked one evening by the friend I was living with to meet us at dinner time -in a family party, that we might see him at his ease. He talked freely of the politics of Europe, and especially of England; he seemed perfectly to understand our whole system of parliaments, &c. &c. Talking of some regulations in this country, which appeared oppressive to the natives, especially of their not being eligible to posts of rank in our service, he said readily it was certainly a hardship, but allowed that the majority were not fit for it. That the few who were could not complain when they saw our own fellow-subjects in Ireland similarly excluded, and suffering, in his opinion, more than the natives of India, because we had left the natives their own priests and their own religion, unfettered with any contributions to uphold ours, while the Irish were obliged to pay for priests they did not respect, and had a religion they did not follow, settled on them. Whether you will accord Rammohun all he says on this head or not, you will allow it shews no little information and research for a man like him. Some of the Missionaries attacked his little books in rather a severe style, which led him to write a small pamphlet in reply. It is a perfectly Christian pamphlet, in which he acknowledges himself a convert from conviction, to the general tenets of our Bible. He could not, he says, subscribe to the Trinitarian doctrine, because, he says, he finds no authority for it in Scripture. He argues the matter very fairly, and quotes with great ease and fluency the passages of both the Old and New Testament, explaining some maltranslations of Hebrew, which Trinitarians sometimes urge in their favour. On the whole, I wish I could send you the pamphlets of both parties: if I can I will; and I think you would find in Rammohun Roy not an unable and not an uneloquent Christian in his expression, though, perhaps, you may not agree with him in all he says. In the pamphlet he says, in one place, (or else he said so to us in conversation,) that the Rev. Missionary had forgotten that he (the Missionary) was supporting a doctrine which he no
doubt believed, but which it was possible
education than from self-conviction. He
true. He had started in search of argument to defend his own, which finding untenable, he was now in search of truth, but would not lend his conviction to any tenets not supported by clear proof. Second Extract from another Correspondent, dated April 11, 1822.
Tell, that I dispatched to my brother's address, a new work of Rammohun Roy's, which he presented to me, with many acknowledgments for my attention in sending that book of Southwood Smith's on the Divine Government
You would be amused to see the Mistheir own opinions to a mob of the lowest sionaries here preaching, and laying down cast of natives: out of perhaps a meeting of 200, you will see certainly half that number with their back to the preacher smoking their hukah, while the other half are either talking to one another, or if they are giving any attention, apparently don't from their looks comprehend the subject; were they to confine themselves to reading the Bible to them, they would have many more attentive hearers.
Unitarianism in Calcutta.—Mr.
(From the Baltimore "Unitarian Miscellany," for June, 1822.)
Y recent intelligence from Calcutta, it appears that Mr. Adam, one of the Baptist Missionaries in that place, has become converted to the Unitarian faith. This gentleman is a native of Scotland, and by the advice of Dr. Stuart, of Edinburgh, he was induced to go to India as a Missionary. The following extract from a letter is published in the Christian Register. It was written by a gentleman lately returned to this country from Calcutta, and contains interesting information on this subject. The Sermon alluded to was preached by Mr. Adam.
"By the last arrival from Calcutta," says the writer, "I received the accompanying sermon, which, as you will perceive, was delivered before a Unitarian congregation in Calcutta. It was occasioned by the first establishment of this Society, and pronounced at its first meeting.
The Christian Register is a weekly paper published at Boston, " to inculcate the principles of a rational faith." ED. Mon, Repos.
"When in Calcutta, it was my good fortune to enjoy an intimate intercourse with the author. He was sent to India as a Baptist Missionary, by the Society in London, and had, subsequently to his arrival, proved himself to be judicious, well-informed and pious. About six months prior to my departure, he engaged with Rainmohun Roy, as an instructor in the Greek and Latin languages; but being at the same time employed with him and another gentleman of the same mission, in preparing a translation of the New Testament into the Bengalee, the subject of his conversation with Rammohun Roy alone, was most frequently one which had been suggest ed or discussed at other Meetings.
"In consequence of these conversations, the instructor was led to doubt, to examine, and at length, to renounce his previous opinions; and on the occasion above-named, he made his first public confession of the change which had taken place in his belief.
"The Society is not regularly organized, nor have they a proper place of worship; but Mr. Adam intended to appeal to the benevolence of the public for aid in erecting a chapel.
"It would give me pleasure to be able to state, that this difference of opinion had not affected his standing in the good opinion of his brethren of the mission and the public; but in this, as in almost every other instance, a difference in religious opinion has succeeded in destroying Christian charity.
"A letter from a friend, himself a Missionary and a Trinitarian, speaks in the highest terms of Mr. Adam, acknowledging that in his view, he appears to be as pious and as sincere as at any former period of their acquaint
In an advertisement prefixed to the sermon mentioned above, the speaks the following language, which is equally creditable to his independence, his goodness of heart and Christian temper.
'He would respectfully suggest to those who differ from him, that the exercise of Christian charity even towards such as himself is not forbid den, that hatred even of enemies is not enjoined, and that fierce declarations of eternal vengeance proceeding from the mouth of a human being,
are neither honourable to him that makes them, nor convincing to those against whom they are directed. Firmly to believe, boldly to avow and zealously to propagate what is believed to be the truth of God, the author conceives is perfectly consistent with the most unfeigned charity and meekness towards those from whom he differs; and he is the more confirmed in this, from recollecting how conscientious he himself formerly was in the belief of the Supreme Deity of Jesus Christ -a doctrine which he is now satisfied has no foundation in Scripture."
The sermon is taken up in explaining the author's views of the offices, person and character of Christ. We cannot but look upon this discourse as portending much good to the cause of pure Christianity in India. Should a Unitarian Society be established in Calcutta, it will at least afford an opportunity of ascertaining whether the simple truths of the gospel, as believed by Unitarians, may not be introduced to the natives with better hopes of success, than the dogmas of orthodoxy; which, in the space of twenty years, have scarcely secured one unwavering convert. In this point of view, an institution of this sort, rising up at Calcutta, ought to be regarded with more than common interest by all Unitarians.
Toleration in New-York.
[As the subject of the BlasphemyLaw in the United States of America has been brought into discussion in the present Volume, pp. 224, 585 and 690, we think it right to insert the following paper, which we confess surprises us, from the Baltimore "Unitarian Miscellany" for January, 1822.]
trial before the Recorder in the city of New York, we find that the learned judge, "in his charge to the jury, instructed them, that although by the constitution every man in the country had a right to entertain any religious opinion, and all sects had free toleration in their respective modes of worship; though the Unitarian, Jew, Mahometan and Pagan remained here free from persecution, yet it was contrary to the principles of the common law for any
man to revile the religion generally prevailing here, or its author; or to impeach or call in question the attributes of the Deity. “While, on the one hand," the learned judge continues, "we say to Unitarians, Jews, Mahometans and Pagan, Enjoy your own religious notions free from restraint, so on the other we say, and such is the language of the law, Revile not the religion which we profess, or its author." As a reason for this language of the law, he goes on to say, that "it is from religion that oaths in court derive their efficacy; and to undermine the religious opinions of men would deprive us of the security we place upon oaths in judicial proceedings and others, and would finally operate to the subversion of civil so ciety.".
The words witnessed against the defendant were sufficiently blasphemous, but the learned judge said, consider ing the testimony adduced on his behalf-“ the testimony of his good character, and his peculiar religious opinion, it was hardly possible that he could have uttered the words laid in the indictment."
Of his peculiar religious opinion, it appeared in evidence that the defendant had often been heard to express his "conviction of the truth of the doctrine of universal salvation." It is only necessary to add in the history of the case, that he was acquitted.
The reporter, at the head of the article alluded to, lays it down as the law, probably from the decisions of the learned judge in the case, that where it appeared that blasphemous words "were uttered in the course of an intemperate political dispute, by one who belonged to a church and frequented it, who had a sense of religious obligation, and otherwise sustained a fair character, it was held that he was not guilty. It is wonderful that it was not also given as a reason, why a man uttering blasphemous words should not be held guilty of blasphemy, that he was a man of good education, and moreover belonged to the prevailing political party. I will not undertake to say how far the part the defendant took in the political dis
*New York City Hall Reporter, Vol. IV. p. 40.
pute which gave occasion to the blas phemous words in question, mitigated his crime in the eyes of the learned judge and intelligent jury; but I am at a loss to conceive in what manner "a sense of religious obligation," or "belonging to a church," could absolve from the consequences of such a crime in a civil, any more than in a moral point of view.
My principal object, however, is not to question the correctness of the decision or the law in this case, but to warn our friends of the First Congregational Society in New York, who may not have seen the Report, of the dangerous ground on which they stand. It is not to be regretted, that, not belonging to any Christian church, they may not blaspheme, in the usual sense of the word, with impunity in this world, and we presume they do not expect, as the defendant in the present case, an unconditional acquittal in the next. But let them beware of calling Jesus Christ, in the language of Peter, "a man approved of God," for "in the language of the law," this would be blasphemy; it would be "to revile the author of the religion generally prevailing" in New York, which considers Christ, and commands us to worship him, as God. They must not call in question the underived existence, the almighty power, the eternity of Jesus Christ, since, by the same standard, this would be to impeach the attributes of the Deity himself. If they do not believe, they must not teach any thing in contradiction to the doctrine of universal salvation, of the Thirty-nine Articles, or the Assembly's Larger or Shorter Catechism, or other symbols of Christian churches in this land of religious light and liberty, for this would be to "operate to the subversion of civil society." And let them no longer blame the angry polemic, or the bigoted professor, who denies them the name of Christians, since they are, even from the bench of justice, in the very metropolis of our country, the seat of religion, of learning, and the arts, ranked with unbelievers, and assigned only a precedence in the enumeration with Jews, Mahometans and Pagans.
"Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame.”—Pore.
ART. I.-Remarks upon the Consumption of Public Wealth by the Clergy, &c.
(Continued from p. 625.) UNGARY contains about
sects, living harmoniously together under the regulations established by the Emperor Joseph II., who laboured most laudably and, as the event in some parts of his dominions has prove ed, successfully, to eradicate intole rance and banish discord. The sects of Hungary are the Catholics, Latin and Greek, estimated at 4,750,000; the Greek Church at 1,150,000; Calvinists at 1,050,000: the Lutherans at 650,000; the Unitarians at 46,000; other sects and Jews at 200,000.-In the Latin Catholic Church of Hungary appears one of the greatest instances, on the Continent of Europe, of the abuse of Church property: e. g. to about 4,000,000 of hearers there are 5,469 clergymen, including three archbishops, 18 bishops, 16 titular bishops, and 274 prebendaries and canons. The Church revenues are 320,000l., being 80,000l. per million of hearers of this, the archbishops and bishops receive 96,000/., and the prebendaries and canons, 58,000l., leaving only 170,214. (or little more than half the amount) for 5,158 working clergy, whose incomes average 331. per annum. The explanation of this disproportion in the distribution of the ecclesiastical revenue is, that the richest benefices are considered as a provision for the junior members of the great Hungarian families.-The Calvinistic Church of Hungary has 1,384 clergymen to 1,050,000 of hear ers: the income of this church is little more than 60,000l. per annum., being an average of 441. to each minister. The Lutherans are more economical in their ecclesiastical arrangements, having only 456 clergymen for 650,000 hearers, the highest clerical stipend being 801., the average 557., and the expense being at the rate of 40,000. per million of hearers.-Of the finances of the other sects, the particu
The estimate of expenditure on the clergy in the United States of America must be in a great measure conjectural. The author sets down the hearers at 9,600,000, of whom he reckons that there are 1,600,000 people of colour and blacks, and the clergy at 8,000, with a total income of 560,000l., i. e. about 701. for each, which is at the rate of 60,000l. per million of people. The United States have no established church, and yet religion is popular and fashionable. We are told by this author that an assessment on every man for some place of worship to be named by himself, was enforced for some time in a few States, but the clergy joined in getting the law repealed, for it was found that in the States which left the contribution free, places of worship and clergymen were more liberally supported than in the others.
In Italy we should expect to find the clergy most richly endowed, but here the French Revolution extended its anti-priestly influence, and national sales have been made of church-property. Our fleets protected, for a time, the lands of the church in Sicily, but since the peace, these, being the choicest in the island, and nearly one-fourth of the whole, have been guaranteed to the holders of the Sicifian loan of 1821. The hearers in all Italy are estimated at 19,391,200, and the clergy at 20,400, including pope, 46 cardinals, 38 archbishops, 62 bishops, 853 other dignitaries, and 19,400 working clergymen. The ecclesiastical income is rated at 776,000l., being 40,000l. per million of hearers. The tithe is a fortieth, and is taken in kind: a prosecution by a clergyman for tithe is nearly unknown. There are no pluralities, and residence is strictly enforced. The lowest regular