« PreviousContinue »
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
there for a considerable length of time. The public market is hardly worthy of notice. Fresh beef, &c. is brought in, by the inhabitants of the adjacent country, and is plenty and cheap. It is taken to the houses of the purchasers. The people generally raise the most of the vegetables they consume, in the village. Articles produced in the country are, in general, sold at reasonable prices; but such as are imported rate high. The citizens generally are very kind, social, and hospitable.
tions for building and farming. The country generally from the mouth of the Brassos to San Felipe de Austin, and for twenty miles above, is flatter than I could wish-not swampy-badly watered, but well calculated for cotton and sugar planting; I entertain no doubt but it is equal, if not superior, to the Louisian lands for sugar. In that portion of the country of which I have just spoken, the most of the water courses, the Big and Little Berna ds, Caney Creek, &c. are bounded on each side, for from an half to a mile, with what the settlers call Canc and Peach, the soil of which is remarkably light, productive, and easily put in cultivation, nothing having to be done but to cut away the cane and what few peach saplings are standing among it. These peach saplings, as to texture, smell, and the grain of the wood, resemble very much the peach tree which is cultivated in the United States of the North-the greatest dif ference seems to be that the Texas wild peach has only a small black berry, which, however, serves as which is situated on the Brassos river, ninety miles a fine mast for hogs. From San Filipe de Austin, from its mouth, South and West, for about thirty miles to the Colorado river, the country is an entire sandy prairie; but across the country, east and south east, and from Major William Robinson's on the Colorado, to the neighborhood of Col. John P. Coles' and Nestor Clay's, embracing Mill and Yegua Creeks, the land is good and well timbered. This neighborhood is forty-five miles above San Filipe de Austin. On the 28th of December, 1831, I went into the Yegua bottom in company with Nestor Clay, to look at his publicattle, and found the bottom thickly set with a luxu
"Having spent six days in Nacogdoches, and made an acquaintance with several intelligent and influential citizens and public officers, and having communicated to some of them the object of my visit to that country; having, also, obtained the chief information that I went in quest of, as far, at least, as it could be done without devoting more time than I could then spare, I left Nacogdoches in the afternoon of the 7th of July, and returned on foot to Louisiana, by nearly the same route that I came. I re-crossed the Sabine river in the afternoon of the 10th, having met with some detention in making further enquiries and investigations, relative to the state of the country, &c. The weather was about as warm, then, as it generally is in our middle states at the same season of the year."
riant green coat of winter grass, half leg high, and his cattle, comparatively, scarcely able to support their load of fat-Indeed, I think I have rarely, if ever, seen fatter beef produced in any market. For twenty miles East of San Filipe de Austin, the land is of the flat description I before mentioned; ut from that to Col. Coles, the country rises gradually, and breaks off into beautifully high rolling prairie and timber, occasionally interspersed with small creeks, I do not think the land quite so rich; but it is a beauaffording sufficient water to turn small mills-though
We now give some extracts from the cations of two other gentlemen, as mentioned above, relative to those parts of the Texas country further to the southwest, where Austin's and Dewitt's colonies are situated. Owing to the great length of this article, they are abbreviated as much as possible. From information derived from various sources, we have no doubt of the general correctness of their statements.tiful farming country, and the prospect is a very imThe first extract is from a communication lately inserted in a St. Louis paper, over the signature of Philander Priestly, who visited Austin's colony a few months since: and the second is from a letter written by a gentleman now residing in Texas, of the name of Byrd Lockhart, recently published in a paper at Xenia, Ohio.
Speaking of the tract of land owned by Col. Stephen F. Austin, at the mouth of the Brassos river, and the country above, Priestly remarks as follows:
"Aboat four or five miles North East of the mouth there are plenty of oysters, on Oyster Bayou, and are of tolerably good quality. On the South West side of the river, the land is good, and is held for miles along the coast and the river, by Col. Stephen F. Austin, and is called Austin's reserve. The river, at its mouth, makes a bar, which I am told is common to most of the rivers of this country; the consequence of which is, that vessels are sometimes delayed, waiting for the tide, to ensure a safe entry.Navigation for vessels drawing from five to eight feet, is easy and good for fifty or sixty miles up the Brassos, the Colorado, the La Baca, and the Guadaloupe.On the Brassos, vessels run to Marion, a newly laid off town, twelve miles by land above Brazoria, where, all goods for the upper country are deposited. From the mouth of Brassos to Brazoria, on both sides of the river, the land is generally rich and productive, and sufficiently well timbered for all farming purpo. ses; the prairies are commonly good farming lands, and the people, for the most part, both in Austin's and Dewitt's colonies, seem to prefer prairie situa
than another, as far as the eye can carry you, freposing scene-the ridges rising regularly one higher quently bedecked with Live Oaks and other evergreens. The description I have already given will apply, with equal correctness, to Dewitt's colony, only, that the land upon which Gonzales is situated and for many miles round, is rich and fertile, which is not the case with the lands adjacent to San Felipe de Austin ;-besides, the mountains come nearer to the Sea board above Dewitt's colony than Austin's. Dewitt's colony is also better watered than the other, and I am of opinion that the air is purer and more wholesome-more mill seats and water power, to carry on machinery of every description, present themselves.
"In the colonies, owing to the scarcity of rock from which to make lime, the people are likely to succeed in procuring a substitute, by burning a kind of clay, resembling very much our lime-this clay is found in abundance, in the bottoms of and along the margins of some of the creeks, it is quite hard and firm, and by experiment has proved to answer the purpose. Many of the prairies in both colonies, are what the inhabitants cell Hog-wallow lands, and pre. sent to the eye the richest loam I ever saw. I know not what to compare the appearance of those prairies to, better than saying, they resemble the undulating waves of a gentle sea. Most kinds of timber, common to the United States of the North, are to be found in those colonies. We have but little hickory, but the Pecan supplies its place, and is very abund. ant; there is no Poplar here, but cypress and Cedar, and on and near the mountains, Pine of good quality. Gonzales is situated on the Rio Gaudaloupe, on a prairie bluff; it is seventy miles from the mouth of the Rio Labaca, forty miles from the mountains, has
*Rock in formation.-Ed. G. U. E.
Fiat Justitia Ruat Colum.
an inexhaustible quantity of good timber convenient to it on both sides of the river. The mouth of the Labaca is the best landing place yet discovered, fr persons migrating to Dewitt's colony. Gonzales is ninety miles from San Filipe de Austin, and sixty-five or seventy from Bexar, alias San Antonio.
the country; but that operates equally on the native and the foreigner. The Catholic religion is the established religion of the Republic; yet professors of religion from other countries hold family worship, and enjoy unmolested their religious tenets.
"Salt to a considerable amount is made at Matagorda and the mouth of the Brasso river. Many of the citizens of De Witt's colony procure dirt within eight miles of Gonzales, which, after boiling down, yields one half the quantity of good Salt."
Lockhart is not quite so prolix as Priestly; but the extract from his letter, below, well be found interesting.
"As regards Agricultural pursuits, Captain Westall made and saved, last year, (1831,) 76 bales of cotton, averaging 550 pounds each, 1420 barrels of corn, and 700 bushels of sweet potatoes, with seven hands; Robert Williams raised 60 bales of cotton, also a necessary supply of corn, potatoes, &c. with 4 hands; Thomas Cayce with his own labor and that of 4 small boys, cleared 21 acres and 17 poles of land, some 5 or 6 acres having been previously opened, made 18 bales of cotton, averaging 450 lbs., "The river bottom lands on the Brassos and and I was of opinion that there still remained in the Colorado, are very nearly the same; and very exetnfield from 3 to 500 pounds per acre; he also made sive. They are covered with cane or peach, and corn, potatoes, &c. in abundance-he had 7 acres though of a reddish color, are extremely fertile. In in cotton; Doctor Benjamin Wilkins mensured a the products of cotton, sugar, corn, sweet potatoes, sweet potatoe at Munson's, its circumference was 29 and garden vegetables, they cannot be excelled. inches. Mr. Hommedieu informed me that he knew Wheat, rye, oats, flax and turnips have grown on the several farmers who had made and saved 80 bushels back lands or prairies which are not quite so rich. At of corn to the scre. While in company with Mr. about one hundred miles from the gulf or bay shore, up Royal', he shewed me a field which he held last year, those rivers, the lands are very level, thence they befrom which he gathered 50 bushels of corn per acre come a little rolling though fine for farming and stock -he planted the corn by making a hole in the ground raising, good water, &c. The Post oak timbered with the end of a handstick, and had the weeds chop- | lands are of a more thin soil but will produce good ped down once with a hoe. Mr. Royall also pointed small grain and cotton. The Guadaloupe and San out to me the field of one of his neighbors, from Marcos rivers afford lands and water for superior to which was gathered 2000 pounds of cotton per acre these described. The lands in De Witt's Colony in-it was planted and cultivated in the same way that clude the San Marcos and Guadaloupe, from San Mr. Royall planted and cultivated his corn. Mr. Antonio road to the ten border leagues from the bay Wm. Robinson last year made a successful experi- of Matagorda, a distance of nearly 120 miles. Gonment as regards the growing of Wheat-he saved 25 zales is just below the confluence of said rivers, and bushels per acre, of good sound grin. This year nearly in the centre of the Colony, on the river Guahe, Col. John P. Coles and others, are sowing more daloupe. All of the lands on those rivers are taken extensively I have not seen, at any time, at this in de d to De Witt's colonists-they are rich and season of the year, a better prospect for an abundant beautiful, the springs are fine, and for stock rais ng crop, in any portion of the United States of the North. every other country in Texas it excels. There is no A man with no one to assist him, on Oyster Bayou, cane on those rivers, and the country is free of any last year, from 10 acres of ground, deposited in a stagnant waters; and I am well assured that there is warehouse in Brazoria, 700 bushels of corn, for sale; no reason why it may not be called more healthy than he sold thirty dollars worth to his neighbors or emi-' any of the Western States of the United States of the grants, and kept enough for h's own use for the year North. From an exper ment made here in my neigh-he planted and cultivated it entirely with his hoe.borhood (this I can state,) that dry as the season "The increase of stock will appear almost incredible to any but those who visit the country and are anprised of the veracity and respectable standing of the persons from whom they derive their information.Heifers most commonly have calves at 18 months old, often at 16 months, and frequently a Cow will bring 3 calves in 2 years. Hogs increase much faster; at one year old, hogs generally weigh from 180 to 200 pounds. Neither cattle nor hogs require any feeding. It is necessary, for the purpose of keep-fortable time to do business. ing your stock gentle to go among them occasionally. Sage, Indigo, Red Pepper and Onions are the nateral and spontaneous productions of this country. The apple of the Prickly Pear dyes a beautiful red-it is tolerably plenty in the colonies; but in the interior it abounds, and the inhabitan s build sufficient fire in the cluster to burn off the prickles, after which Oxen are very fond of eating it.
"Since writing the foregoing I have seen the country on both sides of the Ro Guadaloupe, for fifty miles below Gonzales, as also that portion of Dewitt's colony which lies above Gonzales and Bexar. The lands on the South West side of the river are very handsome, for the most part, well timbered and watered. On the North East side of the river, I am not as well pleased with the appearance of the land; neither is the e so much timber and water as on the South West side, yet I think it will answer the views of farmers and stock raisers. Many persons in the United States of the North have very incorrect information as regards the Texas of the Mexican republic, and the reputation of most of the settlers of the Colonies. The colonists are a very favored people-they have all the privileges of native citizens with few very exceptions, and these exceptions embrace matters about which the Americans care little or nothing The colonists have no taxes to pay of any kind. There is a heavy duty upon articles imported into
has been there is the best Tobacco and Cotton made, that I ever have known any where. I am here on the Guadaloupe river, 72 miles from the bay, and in De Witt's Colony. I have lived on my farm four years in good health. They can raise more produce in this country than any other on earth, and get a higher market here than in any other for the same. In the summer time, after eight o'clock in the morning until evening, a sea breeze springs up that makes it a com
"In the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser, I find stated as follows:
Mr. Neil cultivated in Cotton, with 24 hands, 142 acres, and produced 146 bales, averaging 526 lbs. each.
Westall cultivated 71 acres, with 7 field hands, produced 76 bales of 540 lbs. each.
Random cultivated 50 acres, 5 field hands, and produced 50 bales of 560 lbs. each.
Munson cultivated 50 acres, 8 field hands, and produced 49 bales of 560 lbs. each.
'Besides the above products in Cotton, each planter raised a sufficient quantity of Corn, Sweet Potatoes, and other vegetables for the consumption of their respective families.'
"The lands here will produce any of the above in as great an abundance as can be found on the coast of the Mississippi or any part of the United States, and with one half of the labor, owing to the long time we have in planting each season. Vines of every kind are more productive here than in any northern climate."
Some further observations, respecting the to Mexican Colonization, &c. &c., are reserved state of the country generally, the laws relative for future numbers of this work. The superior
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
look to any thing but the real causes of the decline of slave countries, for lessons of instruction. They will open their eyes to the true state of things when the poor, the humble, and the contrite advocates of genuine republicanism obtain the majority.
advantages offered in that republic, over all the her will, by "acts," relative to the abolition of places yet proposed, as an asylum for the per-slavery. But slavites and popularity-hunters secuted people of color in these states, will be adverted to. The healthiness of the country and the congeniality of the climate; the conve. nience and comparatively small expense of emigrating thither; and the facility for extending agricultural and commercial enterprise, will also claim attention. And, what is still vastly more important, the opportunities it will give the philanthropists of the present generation TO MAKE
EXPERIMENTS RELATIVE TO THE VALUE OF FREE
BBITISH SLAVERY IN THE WEST INDIES.- -The following may serve as a hint to "certain" persons, in a "certain' quarter of the United States, who have been feloniously looking for British aid certain" contingency. The prosperity of the British West India islands have been nullified by various acts of the The best managed
LABOR, IN PRODUCING SUGAR, COTTON, RICE, &c.,
estates hardly yield an interest of two
British House of Lords, May 24.The lord chancellor presented an immense petition from Glasgow against the continuation of colonial slavery-a petition signed by 135,000 persons. The Earl of Harewood supported that part of the prayer of this petition which called for an inquiry into the state of the West Indies. Lord Suffield presented several petitions, also against colonial slavery; his lordship declaring that to subject our fellow creatures to a state of slavery was a crime in the sight of heaven, and that its existence in our colonies was a foul blot on the English name.His lordship also intimated that he should
EMANCIPATION IN THE BRITISH COLONIES. The great "mountain" of Christendom has, within half a century, been frequently "in labour," and produced many a philanthropic "MOUSE." In England, however, its throes are now greater than ever; and something more important may, ere long, be expected. An American paper, of a recent date, in noticing the news from Europe, &c. has the following article. The first paragraph contains an error, that should not be overlooked-name-resist any proposition for inquiring into the state of the slaves, when there was ly: "The prosperity of the British West India so loud a voice against the very existIslands has been nullified by various acts of ence of slavery. the mother country." The writer should have looked back to the despotisms of olden time, before making this declaration. He might then have learned, that the oppressors of their species have, themselves, generally "nullified" their own prosperity, without the intervention of a "mother country." We have heard much of mismanagement, depreciation of property, and mortgaging of lands, in the British West India Colonies, before the parent State expressed
In the Commons, after the presentation of a good many petitions on the subject, Mr. F. Buxton brought forward his motion, respecting colonial slavery. Since he gave his notice, he said he had altered the terms of his motion; they now were declaring, "that it is the duty of the British legislature to put an end to the existence of slavery throughout the dominions of Great Britain ;" and
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
WHEELING, Virginia, that made those durable
impressions on his mind relative to the horrors of the slave system, which have induced him to devote himself to the cause of Universal Eman
then moving-"that a select committee place where his youthful eye first caught a view be appointed to consider and report up- of the "cursed whip" and the "hellish manaon the safest and speediest mode of ef- || cle"-where he first saw the slaves in chains, fecting the extinction of slavery through-forced along like brutes to the southern markets out the British colonies." The honor for human flesh and blood! Then did his young able member earnestly pressed the mo- heart bound within his bosom, and his heated tion on the house, as a crisis had arrived blood boil in his veins, on seeing droves of a when something must be done, and as dozen or twenty ragged men, chained together the increase of mortality in the West In- and driven through the streets, bare-headed and dia colonies showed the destructive char- || bare-footed, in mud and snow, by the remorseless acter of the system. Mr. Macauly sup-« SOUL SELLERS," with horsewhips and bludported the motion on the like ground.geons in their hands!! It was the frequent Sir R. Peel and other members resisted repetition of such scenes as these, in the town of it; contending that it was most inconvenient to call on the House to furnish an abstract proposition. The motion occupied the whole of the evening, the chancellor of the exchequer not resisting the demand for inquiry, but it will be observed that his lordship proposed an abandonment to the motion. Sir F. Burdett expressed the hope that an arrangement might be come to as to the different motions, so that the necessity of a division might be avoided. Mr. Buxton afterwards proposed an amendment, upon his own motion, to the effect that the committee be instructed to inquire into the question of compensation, but without detriment to the emancipation of the slaves. A committee, after a division, was agreed to; but, at the suggestion of the chancellor of the exchequer, the nomination of its members was postponed. [The committee has since been appointed.]
MEMORIAL FROM WESTERN VIRGINIA.
We stated, in the Addenda to the last volume of this work, that a Memorial to the Legislature of Virginia, urging the immediate adoption of measures for the abolition of slavery in that state, (or at least in the western part thereof,) had been published in the " Wheeling Gazette;" and we also promised the insertion of it in this number. It is with the greatest pleasure that we now redeem the pledge thus given. The Memorial will be found at the close of this article, and, no doubt, be read with deep and lively interest by every true friend of the cause of Emancipation into whose hands it may fall. It has been circulated, pretty generally, through the state, and will be numerously signed. The editor of the Genius of Universal Emancipation feels the most sincere gratification in reviewing the proceedings of the citizens of Wheeling, in this case; and he truly congratulates them upon the occasion. He takes the greater interest in the matter, as that was the
cipation. During an apprenticeship with a respectable mechanic of that place, he was, by these and other means, made acquainted with the cruelties and the despotism of slavery, as tolerated in this land; and he made a solemn vow to Almighty God, that, if favored with health and strength, he would break at least one link of that ponderous chain of oppression, when he should become a man. He has already lived to witness an important change in public sentiment. The banner of African emancipation has been reared on that very spot, then trodden by the victims of insatiate rapine, and crimsoned with their life-current through the agency of the blood-extorting lash. Thousands are flocking to this glorious standard, in other places,— and thousands will flock to it there. Go on! philanthropists of Wheeling-be valiant in this pacific and holy warfare; hold up the Christian ensign to your brethren afar ;-and the "old dominion" will, ere long, be purified from the sin and the abomination of slavery. Your cause is second to none for justice and sacred importance; and, applying the language of your own great statesman (the sage and patriot Jefferson) to your opponents, be assured "the Almighty has no attribute that can take side with them in such a contest." Persevere, with undaunted firmness, and you cannot possibly fail of eventual success.
From the Wheeling Gazette, of Aug. 25th, 1832. MEMORIAL TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
Your memorialists have heard with surprise that an objection has been made to any attempt to discuss the question of abolition, on the ground that it is calcu
slaves. This objection carries its own refutation on its face; for if insurrections are so much to be dreaded, and so easily excited, it is conclusive proof that slavery ought immediately to be abolished. If the danger of insurrections is so great, does it not become prudent, wise, and brave men, to meet and overcome it at once, rather than wait till the disproportionate increase between the slaves and the whites, shall render the result of such a contest doubtful. Are the people of Virginia such dastards and inhuman monsters, that they will shrink from present danger, in order to defer it to a future time, that it may fall with ten-fold violence upon the heads of their posterity? Heaven forbid that they should ever subject themselves to such disgrace and infamy.
sire to promote the prosperity of this, and every thing they hold dear upon their native state, and to protect them-earth. selves and their posterity from every evil against which human wisdom can provide-beg leave respectfully to call the attention of your honorable body to a subject deeply interesting to the commu-lated to excite insurrections among the nity, and requiring your immediate and serious consideration. Your memorialists are fully aware of the extreme sensibility of many of their fellow citizens upon all questions concerning our slave population, and that by expressing their opinions in favor of abolition, they will subject themselves to severe animadversion, and a gross misconstruction of their motives. But they would feel that they were undeserving the privileges they enjoy, and unworthy of the name of freemen, if any consideration short of utter ruin and annihilation, could deter them from an unreserved avowal of their sentiments in support of a measure, in the success of which every humane, gencrous, noble, and patriotic feeling of their hearts is deeply enlisted. Whilst, however, they are resolved to exercise the rights which belong to them as citizens of this commonwealth without restraint or reserve, they will not be unmindful of the respect which is due to you as the representatives of the people; nor are they disposed to trample on the rights, to disregard the interests and wishes, or even to contemn the prejudices of the rest of their fellow citizens. They will neither suffer their own privileges to be curtailed, nor infringe upon the rights of
Such objections your memorialists regard as extremely frivolous, and they feel assured that they can have no weight with persons capable of much reflection. And they deem it unnecessary to notice many other objections of the same character which have been urged against the public investigation of the question of slavery. They therefore proceed to state some of the reasons why they wish to see the great work of abolition immediately commenced-of which the most prominent are the following.
Acting in pursuance of this determination, they will not stop to consider, nor Slavery is in itself unjust, and conwill they be so forgetful of what is due to themselves, as to attempt to refute by of republican government which asserts trary to that great fundamental principle argument, the absurd opinion which has been expressed, (probably without reflec-and independent"-an axiom which no "that all men are by nature equally free tion,) that the people of Western Virgi-intelligent and moral people will ever be nia have no right to agitate the question of abolition, because they have fewer disposed to forget, and which they cannot conscientiously disregard. slaves than the people east of the Blue Ridge. Neither will they enter into any discussion as to the rights which they, in common with the rest of their fellow citizens, have, to express their sentiments freely and without reserve upon all questions which may, directly or indirectly, affect the prosperity and welfare of the commonwealth. That is a right not to be questioned, and which they will not suffer to be controlled or withheld from them, without a sacrifice of their lives,
It cannot exist except in violation of the golden rule which prescribes "that
we should do unto others as we would have others do unto us"—a rule of action worthy of its divine origin, aud which will never cease to be held in the highest veneration, as long as the principles of justice aud humanity shall continue to influence the conduct of men.
It has an obvious and irresistible tendency to destroy the virtue and morality