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narrow thoughts must not too boldly presume to being but similitudes, we cannot fully know how resolve the difficulties, which to a distinct under- far. standing of this, should be overcome ; for we
we may say of our union with must not here expect any more than a dark and Christ's human soul. Seeing souls are more ingeneral knowledge of them. What is the formal clinable to union than bodies, when we see all difference between Christ's glorified body, and vegetables to be united parts of one earth, and his flesh on earth; where Christ's glorified body yet to have each one its proper individuating is, and how far it extends; and wherein the soul form and matter, we cannot, though animals seem and the glorified body differ, seeing it is called to walk more disunited, imagine that there is no a spiritual body: these things are beyond our kind of union or conjunction of invisible souls ; present reach.
though they retain their severable substances and For what conceptions can we have of a spirit-forms. Nor yet that our bodies shall have a ual body, save that it is pure, incorruptible, in- nearer union with Christ's body, than our souls visible to mortal eyes, and fitted to the most with his soul : but the nature, manner, and meaperfect state of the soul? How near the nature of sure of it, we know not. it is to a spirit, and so to the soul, and how far
Far be it from us to think that Christ's glorithey agree or differ in substance, extensiveness, fied spiritual body, is such in forms, parts, and divisibility, or activity ; little do we know.
dimensions, as his earthly body was : that it hath Nor do we know where and how far Christ's hands, feet, brains, heart, stomach, liver, intesbody is present by extent. The sun is commonly tines, as on earth : or that it is such a compound taken for a body, and its motion, light, and heat of earth, water, and air, as here it was, and of are, by the most probable philosophy, taken to such confined extent: for then as his disciples be a real emanant part of its substance, and so and a few Jews only were present with him, and that it is essentially as extensive as those beams; all the world besides were absent, and had none that is, it at once fills all our air, and touches the of his company, so it would be in heaven. But surface of the earth ; and how much farther it it is such as not only Paul, but all true believextends we cannot tell : what difference there is ers in the world, from the creation to the end, between Christ's glorified body, and the sun, in shall be with Christ, and see his glory. Though purity, splendour, extent, or excellency of na- inequality of fitness, or degrees of holiness, will ture, little do poor mortals know. And so of the make an inequality of glory, no man can prove rest.
an inequality by local distance from Christ; or Let no man therefore cavil and say, How can if such there be, for it is beyond our reach, yet a whole world of glorified bodies be all present none in heaven are at such a distance from him with the one body of Christ, when each must as not to enjoy the felicity of his presence. possess its proper room? for as the body of the Therefore when we dispute against them solar beams, and the extensive air, are so com that hold transubstantiation, and the ubiquity of present, as that none can discern the difference Christ's body, we assuredly conclude that sense is of the places which they possess, and a world of judge, whether there be real bread and wine prebodies are present with them both, so may all our sent, or not: but it is no judge, whether Christ's bodies be with Christ's body, and that without spiritual body be present or not, no more than any real confusion.
whether an angel be present: we conclude that Besides presence with Christ, there will be Christ's body is not infinite or immense as is his such an union as we cannot now distinctly know. godhead; but what are its dimensions, limits, or A political relative union is past doubt, such as extent, and where it is absent, far be it from us subjects have in one kingdom with their king : to determine, when we cannot tell how far the but little know we how much more.
sun extends its secondary substance, or emanant that there is a wonderful corporeal continuity or beams ; nor well what locality is as to Christ's contact among the material works of God: the soul or any spirit, if to a spiritual body. more spiritual, pure, and noble, the more inclina- Their fear is vain and carnal, who are afraid tion each nature hath to union. Every plant on lest their union with Christ or one another will earth hath a union with the whole earth in which be too near; even lest thereby they lose their it lives; they are real parts of it. What natural individuality, as rivers that fall into the sea, or conjunction our bodies shall have to Christ's, and extinguished candles, whose fire is after but a what influence from it, is past our knowledge: sun-beam, or part of the common element of fire though his similitudes in John xv. and John vi. in the air ; or as the vegetative spirits, which in Eph. v. and i Cor. xii. seem to extend far, yet autumn retire from the leaves into the branches
and trunk of the tree: 1 have proved before, that yet it follows not, that therefore a separated soul our individuality, or numerical existence, ceases cannot know such objects : because it now knows not: and that no union is to be feared, were it them abstractly, because its act of ratiocination is ever so sure, which destroys not the being, or compound as to the cause, soul and body. But formal powers or action of the soul ; and that it it will then know such things intuitively, as now is the great radical disease of selfishness, and it can do itself, when the lantern is cast by. want of holy love to God and our Saviour, and Whatever many of late that have given themone another, which causes these unreasonable selves the title of ingenious, have said to the fears; even that selfishness which now makes contrary, we have little reason to think that the men so partially desirous of their own wills and sensitive faculty is not an essential, inseparable pleasure in comparison of God's, and their own power of the same soul that is intellectual, and felicity in comparison of others, and which makes that sensation ceases to separated souls, however them so easily bear God's injuries, and the suf. the modes of it may cease with their several uses ferings of a thousand others, in comparison of and organs. To feel intellectually, or to undertheir own.
But he that put a great desire of the stand, and will feelingly, we have cause to think body's preservation into the soul while it is its will be the action of separated souls; and if so, form, will abate that desire when the time of why may they not have communion with Christ's separation is come, because there is then no use body and soul as their objects in their separated for it till the resurrection : else it would be a state ? Besides that we are uncertain whether torment to the soul.
the separated soul have no vehicle or body at As we shall have union, so also communion all. Things unknown to us must not be supposed with the divine and human nature of Christ, re- true or false: some think that the sensitive soul spectively. Both as they will be the objects of is material, and as a body to the intellectual
, our soul's most noble and constant acts, and as never separated : I am not of their opinion that they will be the fountain or communicative cause make them two substances, but I cannot say, I of our receptions.
am certain that they err: some think that the We find now that our various faculties have soul is material, of a purer substance than things various objects suitable to their natures. The visible, and that the common notion of its subobjects of sense are things sensible ; and the ob- stantiality means nothing else but a pure, as they jects of imagination, things imaginable, and the call it, spiritual
, materiality: thus thought not objects of intellect, things intelligible, and the only Tertullian, but almost all the old Greek objects of the will, things amiable: the eye, that doctors of the church that write of it, and most is a nobler sense than some others, hath light for of the Latin, or very many, as I have elsewhere its object, which to other senses is none: and so showed ; and as Faustus recites them in the treaof the rest. Therefore we have cause to suppose, tise answered by Mammertus : some think that the that as far as our glorified souls, and our spiritual soul, as vegetative, is an igneous body, such as we glorified bodies will differ, so far Christ's glori. call æther or solar fire, or rather of a higher, purer fied soul and body will respectively be their kind, and that sensation and intellect are those several objects : and beholding the glory of both, formal faculties which specifically distinguish will be part of our glory.
it from inferior mere fire or æther. There were Yet is it not hence to be gathered, that the few of the old doctors that thought it not some separated soul before the resurrection shall not of these ways material ; and consequently extenhave Christ's glorified body for its object : for sive and divisible by divine power
, though not the objects of the body are also the objects of naturally, or of its own inclination, because most the soul, or to speak more properly, the objects strongly inclined to unity. If any of all these of sense are also the objects of intellect and will, uncertain opinions should prove true, the objecthough all the objects of the intellect and will tions in hand will find no place. To say nothing are not objects of sense. The separated soul of their conceit, who say, that as the spirit that can know Christ's glorified body, though our retires from the falling leaves in autumn, cou. present bodies cannot see a soul. But how tinues to animate the tree, so man's soul may much our spiritual bodies will excel in capacity do when departed, with that to which it is united, and activity these passive bodies, that have so to animate some more noble universal body: but much earth and water, we cannot tell.
as all these are the too bold cogitations of men Though now our souls are as a candle in a that had better let unknown things alone, so yet lantern, and must have extrinsic objects admitted they may be mentioned to refute that more perilby the senses before they can be understood, ous boldness which denies the soul's action
which is certain, upon, at best, uncertain rea- 1 second cause, but have either grace or glory from sons.
God alone. I may boldly conclude, notwithstanding such So far am I from such arrogancy, as to think objections, that Christ's divine and human na- that I shall be so near to God, as to be above ture, soul and body, shall be the felicitating ob- the need and use of Christ and his commujects of intuition and holy love to the separated nications, as that I dare not say that I shall soul before the resurrection ; and that to be with be above the need and help of other subordinate Christ is to have such communion with him, causes : as I am now lower than angels, and need and not only to be present where he is. their help, and as I am under the government of
The chief part of this communion will be that my superiors, and, as a poor weak member, am in which we are receptive, even Christ's commu- little worth in comparison of the whole body, the nications to the soul. As the infinite incompre- church of Christ, and receive continual help from hensible deity is the root or first cause of all the whole: so how far it will be thus in glory, I communication, natural, gracious, and glorious, know not; but that God will still use second to being, motion, life, rule, reason, holiness, and causes for our joy, I doubt not; and also that happiness; and the whole creation is more de- there will not be an equality; that it will be conpendent on God, than the fruit on the tree, or sistent with God's all-sufficiency to us, and our the plants on the earth, or the members on the felicity in him, that we shall for ever have use body, though yet they are not parts of the deity, for one another, and that to sit down with Abranor deified, because the communication is crea- ham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of God, tive; so God uses second causes in his commu- and to be in Abraham's bosom, and sit at Christ's nication to inferior natures. It is more than pro- right and left hand in his kingdom, and to be bable, that the human soul of Christ primarily, ruler over ten cities, and to join with the heaand his body secondarily, are the chief second venly host or choir in the joyful love and praise cause of influence and communication both of of God, and of the Lamb, and many such like, grace and glory, both to man in the body, and are not false nor useless notes and notions of our to the separated soul. As the sun is first an celestial glory. efficient communicative second cause of seeing Certainly if I be with Christ, I shall be with to the eye, and then also is the object of our all that are with Christ; even with all the heasight: so Christ is to the soul.* For as God, so venly society. Though these bodies of gross pasthe Lamb is the light and glory of the heavenly sive matter must have so much room, that the Jerusalem : in his light we shall have light. earth is little enough for all its inhabitants; and Though he give up the kingdom to the Father, those at the antipodes are almost as strange to so far as that God shall be all in all, and his crea- us as if they were in another world ; and those ture be fully restored to his favour, and there of another kingdom, another province or country, shall be need of a healing government no more, and often another parish, yea, another house, are for the recovering of lapsed souls to God; yet strangers to us, so narrow is our capacity of surely he will not cease to be our Mediator, and communion here; yet we have great cause to to be the church's head, and to be the conveying think, by many scripture expressions, that our cause of everlasting life, light, and love, to all heavenly union and communion will be nearer, his members: as now we live because he lives, and more extensive ; and that all the glorified even as the branches in the vine, and the Spirit shall know each other, or at least be far less disthat quickens, enlightens, and sanctifies us, is tant, and less strange, than now we are. As I first the Spirit of Christ before it is ours, and is said before, when I see how far the sun-beams communicated from God, by him, to us ; so will extend, how they penetrate our closest glass, it be in the state of glory; for we shall have our and puzzle them that say that all bodies are imunion and communion with him perfected and penetrable ; when I see how little they hinder not destroyed or diminished. Unless I could be the placing or presence of other creatures, and so proud as to think that I am or shall be the how intimately they mix themselves with all ; most excellent of all the creatures of God, and and seem to possess the whole region of the air, therefore nearest him, and above all others, how when yet the air seems itself to fill it, &c. I dare could I think that I am under the influence of no not think that glorified spirits, no, nor spiritual
bodies, will be such strangers to one another as * This one truth will give great light into the controversies about God's gracious operations on the soul: for when he uses second
we are here on earth. causes, we see he operates according to their limited aptitude : and I must needs say, that it is a pleasant thought Christ's human nature, and all other second causes are limited, and operate variously and resistibly according to the recepient's capacity. I to me, and greatly helps my willingness to die, to think that I shall go to all the holy ones, both service is at an end. What should I do with a Christ, and angels, and departed blessed souls. horse when I shall need to ride or travel no more, God hath convinced me, that they are better or with a pen when I must write no more ? It than I, each singly, and therefore more amiable is but the laying by the passive receiver of my than myself; and that many are better than one, soul's operations, when the soul hath no more to and the whole than a poor sinful part, and the do upon it: as I cast by my lute, or other innew Jerusalem is the glory of the creation. God strument, when I have better employment than hath given me a love to all his holy ones as such; music to take up my time! a love to the work of love and praise, which Or at most, it is but as flowers die in the fall, they continually and perfectly perform to God; and plants in winter, when the retiring spirits and a love to the celestial Jerusalem as it is have done their work, and are indisposed to complete, and to his glory shining in them. My dwell in so cold and unmeet a habitation, as the old acquaintance with many a holy person gone season makes their former matter then to be. to Christ, doth make my thoughts of heaven the Its retirement is not its annihilation, but its takmore familiar to me. O how many of thein ing up a fitter place. could I name! It is no small encouragement to It is but a separation from a troublesome comone that is to enter upon an unseen world, to panion, and putting off a shoe that pinched me. think that he goes not an untrodden path, por Many a sad and painful hour I have had in this enters into a solitary or singular state ; but follows frail and faultering flesh; many a weary night all from the creation, to this day, that have passed and day : what cares, what fears, what griefs, and by death to endless life. Is it not an emboldening what groans, hath this body cost me ? Alas ! how consideration, to think, that I am to go no other many hours of my precious time have been spent way, nor to no other place or state, than all the to maintain it, please it, or repair it ? How conbelievers and saints have gone to before me, siderable a part of all my life hath been spent from the beginning to this time? Of this more in necessary sleep and rest? How much in afterwards.
eating, drinking, dressing, physic: and how much
in labouring, or using means to procure these Chap. III.
and other necessaries ? Many a hundred times
I have thought, that it costs me so dear to live, TO BE WITH CHRIST, IT IS NEEDFUL TO yea, to live a painful, weary life, that were it not
for the work and higher ends of life, I had little
reason to be much in love with it, or to be loth But I must be loosed or depart before I can to leave it. Had not God put into our nature thus be with Christ: and I must here consider itself a necessary, unavoidable, sensitive love of from what I must depart. How, or in what the body, and of life, as he puts into the mother, manner; and I must not refuse to know the and into every brute, a love of their young ones, worst.
how unclean, impotent, and troublesome soever, I know that I must depart from this body it for the propagation and continuance of man on self, and the life which consists in the animating earth-had God but left it to mere reason, of it. These eyes must here see no more; this without this necessary pre-engagement of our hand must move no more; these feet must walk natures, it would have been a matter of more no more ; this tongue must speak no more: as doubt and difficulty than it is, whether this life much as I have loved and over-loved this body, should be loved and desired, and no small numI must leave it to the grave. There must it lie ber would daily wish that they had never been and dissolve in darkness, as a neglected thing. born ; a wish that I have had much ado to for
This is the fruit of sin, and nature would not bear, even when I have known that it is sinful, have it so: I mean the nature of this compound and when the work and pleasure of my life have man: but what though it be so ? It is but my been such to overcome the evils of it, as few shell or tabernacle, and the clothing of my soul, have bad. and not itself. It is but an elementary composi- Yea, to depart from such a body, is but to be tion dissolved ; and earth going to earth, and removed from a very foul, uncleanly and sordid water to water, and air to air, and fire to fire, habitation. I know that the body of man and into that union which the elementary nature doth brutes is the curious, wonderful work of God, incline to.
and not to be despised, nor injuriously dishonIt is but an instrument laid by when all its oured, but admired and well used: but yet it is work is done, and a servant dismissed when his a wonder to our reason, that so noble a spirit
should be so meanly housed: we may call it the body? What else is the bait of ambition,
our vile body,' as the apostle doth. It is made covetousness, and sensuality, but the interest and up of the airy, watery and earthly parts of our pleasure of this flesh ? What takes up the thoughts daily food, influenced and actuated by the fiery and care which we would lay out upon things part, as the instrument of the soul. The greater spiritual and heavenly, but this body and its part of the same food, which, with great cost, | life? What pleasures be they that steal away pomp, and pleasure, is first upon our tables, and men's hearts from the heavenly pleasures of faith, then in our mouths to-day, is to-morrow a lothe- hope, and love, but the pleasures of this flesh ? some excrement, and cast out into the draught, This draws us to sin : this hinders us from and in that the sight and smell of that annoy us not, our duty. This body hath its interest which which yesterday was the sumptuous fruit of our must be minded, and its ordinate appetite which abundance, and the glory of that which is called must be pleased; or else what murmurings and great house-keeping, and the pleasure of our eyes disquiet must we expect ? Were it not for bodily and taste.
interest, and its temptations, how much more Yet more: to depart from such a body, is but innocently and holily might I live? I should to be loosed from the bondage of corruption, and have nothing to care for, but to please God, and from a clog and prison of the soul. I say not to be pleased in him, were it not for the care of that God put a pre-existent soul into this prison this bodily life. What employment should my penally, for former faults: I must say no more will and love have, but to delight in God, and than I can prove, or than I know: but that body love him and his interest, were it not for the which was an apt serpent to innocent man's soul, love of the body, and its concerns ? By this the is become as a prison to him now: what alter- mind is darkened, and the thoughts diverted : ation sin made upon the nature of the body, as by this our wills are perverted and corrupted, whether it be more terrene and gross than else it and by loving things corporeal, contract a would have been, I have no reason to assert : of strangeness and aversion from things spiritual: earth or dust it was at first, and to dust it is sen- by this, heart and time are alienated from God; tenced to return. But no doubt but it hath its our guilt is increased, and our heavenly desire part in that dispositive deprivation which is the and hopes destroyed ; life made unholy and unfruit of sin. We find that the soul, as sensitive, comfortable, and death made terrible, God and is so imprisoned or shut up in flesh, that some- our souls separated, and life eternal set by, and times it is more than one door that must be in danger of being utterly lost. I know that it opened before the object and the faculty can is the sinful soul that is in all this the chief meet : in the eye indeed, the soul seems to have cause and agent: but what is it but bodily ina window to look out at, and to be almost itself terest that is its temptation, bait, and end? What visible to others : yet there are many interposing but the body, its life, and pleasure, is the chief, tunicles, and a suffusion or winking can make objective, alluring cause of all this sin and misery? the clearest sight to be as useless for the time Shall I take such a body to be better than heaas if it were none: if sense be thus shut up from ven, or be loth to be loosed from so troublesome its object, no wonder if reason also be under dif- a yoke-fellow, or to be separated from so burficulties from corporeal impediments; and if the densome and dangerous a companion ? soul that is yoked with such a body can go no Object. But I know this habitation, but the 'faster than its heavy pace.
next I know not; I have long been acquainted Yet further : to depart from such a body, is but with this body, and this world, but the next I to be separated from an accidental enemy, and am unacquainted with. one of our greatest and most hurtful enemies : Answ. If you know it, you know all that of though still we say, that it is not by any default it which I have mentioned before ; you know it in the work of our Creator, but by the effects of to be a burden and snare: I am sure I know by sin, that it is such : what could Satan, or any long experience, that this flesh hath been a painother enemy of our souls, have done against us ful lodging to my soul, and this world as a tuwithout our flesh ? What is it but the interest multuous ocean, or like the uncertain and stormy of this body, that stands in competition against region of the air. Well he deserves bondage, the interest of our souls and God? What else pain, and enmity, who will love them because he do the profane sell their heavenly inheritance is acquainted with them and is loth to leave them for, as Esau his birthright ? No man loves evil, because he hath had them long, and is afraid as evil, but as some way a real or seeming good ? of being well because he hath been long sick. What good is it but that which seems good for Do you not know the next and better babita