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It does not take place till the second advent of our Lord ...... 42 The application of this vision to the times of Constantine, is strained and unpatural

ib. Recapitulation of the contents of the first six seats

44 They give an epitome of the history of the church, from our

Lord's ascension till the establishment of his kingdom ... ib. The prophecies of Daniel in like manner, open with a general

epitome of what is afterwards revealed more in detail ........ ib. Further arguments for the preceding interpretation of these seals 45 That interpretation contrasted with the theory of Mede, and Bishop Newton

46 Scriptural view of the great and solemn importance of the Apocalyptic prophecies ...

ib. Remarks on the interpretation of the first four seals by the above

writers, and Bishop Newton's view of the third seal stated.... ib. It is unworthy of the solemn and important nature of the prophecy 47 Archdeacon Woodhouse's view of that seal, commends itself with the native force of beauty and of truth.....




Archdeacon Woodhouse's explanation of the silence in heaven at

the opening of the seventh seal, as indicative of a new series of prophecies, adopted.....

49 Şeven angels are seen, to whom are given seven trumpets

ib. The seventh seal coinprehends the whole of the trumpets...... ib. The trumpets are cotemporaneous with the first six seals, and

relate to the great revolutions in the Roman empire, till it is

destroyed to make way for the kingdom of the Son of Man.... 50 An angel offers incense, be casts fire on the earth, and there follows an earthquake .........

51 Incense signifies the prayers of saints .

ib. Fire is a syinbol of the influences of the Spirit, and also of the wrath of God......

ib. In this passage it is used in the last of these senses, and denotes wrath descending on the Roman empire

58 The effects which follow, denote a political convulsion in that empire, and a revolution

53 These events occur before the sounding of any of the trumpets.. ib. Argument hence deduced that the above revolution was that which took place in the time of Constantine....

ib. The above erpretation is new-Argument in confirmation of it


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ib. 55

ib. 59



That which takes place under these trumpets, is the partial de

struction of a symbolical universe Archdeacon Woodhouse refers these trumpets wholly to spiritual

objects— Reasons why this cannot be the true interpretation.. Some interpreters refer them partly to the fortunes of the

Roman empire, and partly to the church
They apply the third trumpet in particular to the corruption of

the waters of life
Reasons against this application
Arguments to show that these trumpets cannot be referred partly

to the church and partly to secular objects But must apply exclusively to secular objects Accordingly the first four trumpets are applied by the great body

of interpreters to the overthrow of the Western empire by the

Goths and Vandals—this interpretation adopted...
Brief history of the fulfilment of these trumpets-- In the year 376

the Visigoths are transported across the Danube, and admitted

into the Roman empire ...
They rebel and ravage the provinces, defeat and slay the emperor

Valens ...
After this battle the Goths never quitted the empire ..
The first trumpet appears to have sounded at the above Gothic

irruption- Remarks on the symbols of that trumpet
The second period of the Gothic invasions commenced on the

death of the great Theodosius...
Alaric invades Greece
Italy invaded by Alaric and Radagaisus
Rome taken and sacked ...
Gaul invaded by the Suevi, &c.
Spain entered and desolated by the same barbarians.
The Roman provinces of Africa subdued by Genseric
The second period of the Gothic invasions was the fulfilment of

the second trumpet ...
The third period of the irruptions of the northern nations com-

menced when Attila invaded the eastern empire
Gaul invaded by Attila-and Italy ...
These invasions were the fulfilment of the third trumpet..
The sounding of the fourth trumpet
Rome taken by Genseric
The imperial government subverted in the person of Augustulus

by Odoacer, who is elected king of Italy

ib. 60



61 ib. 62 ib. 63



64 65 65 66 ib.




Remarks in confirmation of the foregoing interpretation of the

first four trumpels One circumstance in these trumpets bas perplexed interpreters,

viz. that under each trumpet only a third part of the object is

destroyed ......
Bishop Newton's explanation of this circumstance is unsatis-

Mr. Bicheno's solution stated and rejected
Observations with a view to remove this difficulty.
Conclusion of the subject of the first four trumpets .
Remarks to illustrate the justness of the proportions observed by

the Holy Spirit in the different symbols....



70 73



75 ib. ib. 76


ib, ib. 79

In chap. viii. 13. is a denunciation of a triple woe to the inhabitants

of the earth, from the voices of the three remaining trumpets
The purposes of this denunciation...
It is followed by the sounding of the fifth angel
The symbols of this vision belong to things spiritual
The star is an apostate Christian bishop, and he is the agent in

opening the pit of the abyss.....
The smoke of the pit is a symbol of false doctrines and ignorance

which overspread the Christian church, during the fifth and

sixth centuries
Description of these false doctrines.
How the sun and air were darkened by the symbolical smoke ..
The fallen star, or apostate bishop who opened the pit, was the

Pope, or bishop of Rome....
The symbolical locusts decote an invading army
These locusts come out of the pit of the abyss, or hell itself, the

smoke is only the medium of their ascent
The whole hieroglyphical description, applies to the rise of the

Mahometan religion and power, and the language of Gibbon

quoted to illustrate this...... Gross darkness of Christendom favoured the imposture of Ma

The locusts were not to hurt the grass, but only those men which

had not the seal of God......
They had not power to kill, but only to torment men.
Other particulars respecting them
Remarks on the period of five months, during which they tor-

ment men

81 82




84 ib. 85


Their king

86 Reasons for rejecting the interpretation of the smoke from the

abyss, which refers it to the false religion of Mahummud .... ib. Inference from the right interpretation of that symbol, that the fallen star can be no other than the pope



A voice from the four horns of the golden allar, commands the

sixth angel to loose the four angels bound in the Euphrates 89 Remarks on the golden altar, and the voice from the altar...... ib. This trumpet relates to the overthrow of the Eastern empire by the Turks

ib. Mede and others think the four angels denote four sultanies

united under the Ottoman empire, but this opinion appears erroneous .

90 Another explanation of the four angels suggested

91 But it is not satisfactory- A better one proposed

ib. The Euphrates is a symbol of the Turkish nation which was long

restrained from overrunning the Eastern empire, but at length was to be the instrument of its overthrow..

ib. The power of the Turks is symbolized by the four angels

92 Observations upon

the symbolical import of the number “ four” ib. Remarks on the expression, “ an hour, a day, and a month, and " a year”

93 The slaughter of the third part of the men, denotes the subversion of the Eastern empire

94 Remarks on the prophetical description of the armies of the Euphratean angels .....

ib. Concluding reinark on the interpretation which has been given of the six first trumpets..





After the sounding of the sixth trumpet, a prophetic intimation

is given, with a peculiar reference to the Latin church......... 97 A mighty angel descends from heaven with a little book having been opened .....

ib. This angel is our Lord

ib. Reference to a passage in Daniel, and inference from it, that our Lord's descent belongs to the time of the end

99 Meaning of the time of the end ascertained


Reason of the various circumstances which accompany and follow our Lord's descent ....

100 His crying with a loud voice explained, and the seven thunders. ib. Meaning of the expression, that there should be time no longer 101 The apostle commanded to take the little book and eat it

ib. Inquiry into what is intended by the little book

102 It is not a codicil or supplementary prophecy, but a part of the

sealed book, and we may conclude that it is the seventh seal.. 103 What is intended by the apostle eating the book .

104 Why the book was sweet in his mouth, but bitter in his belly... ib.



The apostle commanded to measure the temple

105 An analysis of the spiritual meaning of the different compartments of the temple.......

ib. The holy of holies is a type of heaven, and of the millennial

church, when the tabernacle of God shall be with men ..... ih. The holy place is a type of the spiritual invisible church of Christ on earth

106 The altar of burnt offerings, and the sacrifices offered on it, are symbols of the sacrifice of Christ .....

107 The outer court denotes the visible professing church of God.... 108 Inquiry as to which of the compartments of the temple is measured by the apostle....

ib. It could not be the holy of holies, but it is the holy place, with the interior court, and altar of burnt offerings

ib. Meaning of this measurement ......

109 What is intended by leaving out the court without the temple...

ib. The two witnesses

ib. The true spiritual church is here signified by three different em

blems, two witnesses, two candlesticks, aud two olive trees ... ib. The meaning of this symbolical description.....

110 What is intended by fire proceeding out of the mouth of the witnesses ...

111 And by their shutting heaven and turning waters into blood ib. The beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit, makes war with

them and kills them—After three days and a half they rise and ascend into heaven

112 Argument to show that the death and resurrection of the witnesses must be already past

113 This part of the prophecy was accomplished in the events which followed the dissolution of the Smalcaldic league


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