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measure a renewal in maturer life, of my connection with a body which I have never ceased to regard with the utmost affection and respect; because I owe to my entrance into it much of the purest and most vivid happiness of my early life, and opportunities at least of intellectual culture, for which I can only feel the more grateful, as advancing years shew me more clearly, what benefits they may bestow, on those who have the good fortune and the industry to use them




Origin of enquiries into the causes which influence the production of wealth

generation and cultivation of the branch of economical enquiry which relates to the distribution of wealth, p. i. Different success which has rewarded those who pursued the one or the other branch of enquiry-French Economists - Locke_Smith-Malthus, p. iii.- Unfortuuate in his successors-gloomy complexion of their doctrines—their mistakes—as to rentas to population—as to the effects of a declining rate of profits—miserable practical consequences of their errors, p. vi. Contradiction of their conclusions presented by obvious facts_effect of this contradiction on the public mind unpopularity of what is called Political Economy--injustice of vague distrust in the subject, Truth to be obtained by observation and induction

- abundance of materials now open to enquirers-Causes of former failureneglect of warnings of the author of inductive philosophy_necessity of

future labor—and grounds of hope, p. xiv. Object and plan of the following Work-abiding assurance of the Author that

the experience of the past and present can alone afford grounds for reasoning

as to the future, p. xxiv. Rents selected to begin with—why-division of rents into Classes--Wages

funds which support laborers divided into classes-principles of population -Capital_rate of profitsmass of profits-functions of capital— Taxation

history-departments - limits. Views taken of these subjects felt to be incomplete--yet has yielded much cheer.

ing truth-harmony between interests of proprietors and those of other classes Declining rate of profit no indication of weakness or decay, p. xxv. Population–different modes of incidence of moral and physical evil_consolation which the distinction affords both to individuals and states-wholesome causes of the retardation of population—their action independent of vice-favorable on the whole to virtue-Illusive nature of the

gloom which has overspread the whole subject, p. xxxiii. Practical principles remain to be established on the basis of experience—some

so established here-much remains to be done-- what kind of errors are most likely to impede the future progress of the subject_aim and course of false philosophy_different and more difficult, but more promising, and in the result more splendid, course of the true, The Author's thanks to the University of Cambridge and the Syndics of its Press, p. xxxix.

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Page INTRODUCTION. Limitation of the Sense in which the word Wealth is

used Division of the general subject into Rent, Wages, Profits, and

the Sources of Taxation........ SECTION 1. Rents. Origin of Rents—Division into Primary or Peasant's

Rents, and Secondary, or Farmer's Rents_Their comparative extent .... SECTION 2. Division of Peasant Rents into Labor- Metayer-Ryot—and Cottier Rents........





Section 1. Their Origin— Prevalence from Russia to the Rhine....... 17 SECTION 2. Labor or Serf Rents in Russia, Their results_Bondage of

the Peasants – How compleated— Crown Peasants_Causes of their partial emancipation, and change in the form of their Rents—Their advantages_Disadvantages_Temper-Prospects .

20 Section 3. Labor Rents in Hungary-Former Condition of Peasants

Actual Condition - Maria Theresa–Urbarium_Good effects_Imperfections Causes of these

28 SECTION 4. Labor Rents in Poland— Their State in different divisions of

Poland—In the kingdom of Poland—Stanislaus Augustus_Constitution adopted under him—Rights granted by it to Peasants

Effects of these ....

33 Section 5. Labor Rents in Livonia and Esthonia, Peculiarity of these

Experiment of which they represent the progress-Literary disquisitions on the best mode of emancipating the Peasantry encouraged by the Empress Catherine--results_Description of the conditions granted to the Livonian Peasantry.....

36 Section 6. Labor Rents in Germany— They are going through a process

of slow demolition-exemplified by the parallel case of their gradual disappearance from England—Amtmen- Bauers_Hanoverian Leibeigeners and Meyers--actual condition of the Bauers—their general emancipation from personal bondage .....

40 SECTION 7. On some vestiges of Labor or Serf Rents westward of the Rhine-in the Scottish Highlands......


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SECTION 8. Summary of the effects of Serf Rents-Dependence of W'ages

on Rents_Insufficiency of agricultural labor—Reluctance and want of
skill of Peasants in Russia_Prussia-Austria— Tendency to corrupt
habits of free laborers living in the midst of them-anecdote of Meck.
lenburg leibeigeners and Prussian free laborers_Effect of insufficiency
of their labor on national wealth and strength-Inefficient superin-
tendence of agricultural labor—Russian, Prussian, Hungarian and
German nobles_causes of their deficiencies as conductors of cultivation
-Small numbers of the independent classes Authority of landlords
over tenants judicial when not despotic-domainial tribunals-- in
Hungary—in Germany_effects of these— The power and influence of
the Aristocracy—Good effects of these—Exceptions_Want of po-
pular influence in the political constitution of such countries_Cir-
cumstances which determine the amount of labor rents- different
modes of increasing those rents—different effects of those modes On 62
the changes in labor rents which are desirable—difficulties which oppose
those changes_Slow processes most sure and safe-Prussian attempts
at a rapid change—unsatisfactory results and prospects........


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Section 1. Metayer Rents_description of-where prevalent-origin ... 73
Section 2. Metayers in Greece_older class of tenantry—cultivation
by rural proprietors, Transition to Mortitæ or Metayers......

75 Section 3. Metayers among the Romans_small proprietors-progress

of cultivation—causes of spread of tenantry_ultimate prevalence of coloni medietarii, or Metayers—revival and spread of Metayer rents among the barbarian occupiers of the empire ....

83 SECTION 4. Metayer Rents in France—first effects of the barbarian occupa

tion of Gaul_introduction of Feudal tenures and of labor rents_Serfs or Mainmortables under Lewis the XVIth— Metayers_causes of their progress and final prevalence – Terms on which they held causes of misery—Taille-Description of their condition, and comments by Turgot_Their actual numbers and condition in France ........

87 Section 5. Metayer Rents in Italy—size of farms_condition of tenantry

-similar rents prevail in the Valteline Vaudois-Spain-Canary islands and exist in Afghaunisthaun........


SECTION 6. Summary of Metayer Rents_advantages of the Metayer-dis

advantages_Metayer rents may increase in two modes_effects of each mode of increase probable effects on European nations of the progress of changes in the Metayer system






Section 1. Ryot Rents_description-origin_disastrous effects on the political institutions of countries in which they prevail......

109 SECTION 2. Ryot Rents in India uncertainty of the rent-tyrannical collection_effects on the cultivation of the country....

113 SECTION 3. Ryot Rents in Persia—Character of the Persian Government

-peculiarity of the soil—necessity of irrigation-mode of effecting it consequent necessity of fixed property in improvements State of Ryots -of Lords of Villages abuses of Government

119 SECTION 4. Ryot Rents in Turkey-Origin—amount—ziamets_timars

--mortitæ—advantages of the Turkish system_disadvantages.. 127 Section 5. Ryot Rents in China little understood— Their progress

different there and in the rest of Asia—Quiet and skilful government of China—Increase of population—Revenue_Other Asiatic countries in which it may be presumed ryot rents prevail

132 Section 6. Mixture of other rents with Ryot-Labor rents. Metayer rents—in Persia, India, Turkey ..........

136 SECTION 7. Summary of Ryot Rents, their direct effects not necessarily

bad—their indirect and political effects disastrous_Connection of ryot
rents with wages_Modes of increase different results of each............ 138

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Cottier Rents—description-dependent on the possibility of paying money

rent-only to be observed on a considerable scale in Ireland_Disadvantages when compared with other classes of peasant rents—Want of external restraints on a too rapid increase of numbers_Want of assistance of custom and prescription in keeping rents moderate_Want of a common interest between landlord and tenant as direct and obvious as in other classes of peasant rents-Advantages_Facilities of tenants to change their character, and assume the rank of farmers-Connection of cottier rents with wages--Modes in which cottier rents may increase -different results of each.....




Summary of Peasant Rents_ Invariable connexion between peasant rents and

wages_Influence on agricultural production_On the numbers of the

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