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measure a renewal in maturer life, of my connection with a body which I have never ceased to regard with the utmost affection and respect; because I owe to my entrance into it much of the purest and most vivid happiness of my early life, and opportunities at least of intellectual culture, for which I can only feel the more grateful, as advancing years shew me. more clearly, what benefits they may bestow, on those who have the good fortune and the industry to use them worthily.



ORIGIN of enquiries into the causes which influence the production of wealth— generation and cultivation of the branch of economical enquiry which relates to the distribution of wealth, p. i. Different success which has rewarded those who pursued the one or the other branch of enquiry-French Economists Locke_Smith— Malthus, p. iii.—Unfortuuate in his successors gloomy complexion of their doctrines-their mistakes as to rentas to population—as to the effects of a declining rate of profits-miserable practical consequences of their errors, p. vi. Contradiction of their conclusions presented by obvious facts-effect of this contradiction on the public mind-unpopularity of what is called Political Economy--injustice of vague distrust in the subject-Truth to be obtained by observation and induction -abundance of materials now open to enquirers-Causes of former failureneglect of warnings of the author of inductive philosophy-necessity of future labor and grounds of hope, p. xiv.

Object and plan of the following Work-abiding assurance of the Author that the experience of the past and present can alone afford grounds for reasoning as to the future, p. xxiv.

Rents selected to begin with-why-division of rents into Classes-Wages— funds which support laborers divided into classes-principles of population -Capital rate of profits-mass of profits-functions of capital-Taxationhistory-departments-limits.

Views taken of these subjects felt to be incomplete-yet has yielded much cheering truth-harmony between interests of proprietors and those of other classes Declining rate of profit no indication of weakness or decay, p. xxv. Population-different modes of incidence of moral and physical evil consolation which the distinction affords both to individuals and states-wholesome causes of the retardation of population-their action independent of vice-favorable on the whole to virtue-Illusive nature of the gloom which has overspread the whole subject, p. xxxiii. Practical principles remain to be established on the basis of experience—some so established here-much remains to be done-what kind of errors are most likely to impede the future progress of the subject aim and course of false philosophy-different and more difficult, but more promising, and in the result more splendid, course of the true-The Author's thanks to the University of Cambridge and the Syndics of its Press, p. xxxix.





INTRODUCTION. Limitation of the Sense in which the word Wealth is used. Division of the general subject into Rent, Wages, Profits, and the Sources of Taxation.............



SECTION 1. Rents. Origin of Rents-Division into Primary or Peasant's Rents, and Secondary, or Farmer's Rents-Their comparative extent.... 3 SECTION 2. Division of Peasant Rents into Labor-Metayer-Ryot-and Cottier Rents......




SECTION 1. Their Origin-Prevalence from Russia to the Rhine............. 17 SECTION 2. Labor or Serf Rents in Russia- Their results-Bondage of the Peasants-How compleated-Crown Peasants-Causes of their partial emancipation, and change in the form of their Rents-Their advantages Disadvantages Temper-Prospects

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SECTION 3. Labor Rents in Hungary-Former Condition of PeasantsActual Condition-Maria Theresa_Urbarium-Good effects-Imperfections Causes of these SECTION 4. Labor Rents in Poland-Their State in different divisions of Poland-In the kingdom of Poland-Stanislaus Augustus-Constitution adopted under him—Rights granted by it to Peasants—Effects of these 33 SECTION 5. Labor Rents in Livonia and Esthonia-Peculiarity of theseExperiment of which they represent the progress-Literary disquisitions on the best mode of emancipating the Peasantry encouraged by the Empress Catherine-results-Description of the conditions granted to the Livonian Peasantry....................

SECTION 6. Labor Rents in Germany-They are going through a process
of slow demolition-exemplified by the parallel case of their gradual dis-
appearance from England-Amtmen-Bauers-Hanoverian Leibeigeners
and Meyers actual condition of the Bauers-their general emancipation
from personal bondage........

SECTION 7. On some vestiges of Labor or Serf Rents westward of the
Rhine in the Scottish Highlands........





SECTION 8. Summary of the effects of Serf Rents-Dependence of Wages on Rents Insufficiency of agricultural labor-Reluctance and want of skill of Peasants in Russia-Prussia-Austria-Tendency to corrupt habits of free laborers living in the midst of them anecdote of Mecklenburg leibeigeners and Prussian free laborers-Effect of insufficiency of their labor on national wealth and strength-Inefficient superintendence of agricultural labor-Russian, Prussian, Hungarian and German nobles-causes of their deficiencies as conductors of cultivation -Small numbers of the independent classes-Authority of landlords over tenants-judicial when not despotic-domainial tribunals-in Hungary-in Germany-effects of these The power and influence of the Aristocracy-Good effects of these-Exceptions-Want of popular influence in the political constitution of such countries-Circumstances which determine the amount of labor rents-different modes of increasing those rents different effects of those modes-On the changes in labor rents which are desirable-difficulties which oppose those changes-Slow processes most sure and safe-Prussian attempts at a rapid change-unsatisfactory results and prospects................................

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SECTION 1. Metayer Rents-description of where prevalent-origin. ... 73
SECTION 2. Metayers in Greece--older class of tenantry-cultivation
by rural proprietors Transition to Mortita or Metayers.....
SECTION 3. Metayers among the Romans-small proprietors-progress
of cultivation-causes of spread of tenantry-ultimate prevalence of
coloni medietarii, or Metayers-revival and spread of Metayer rents
among the barbarian occupiers of the empire......
SECTION 4. Metayer Rents in France-first effects of the barbarian occupa-
tion of Gaul-introduction of Feudal tenures and of labor rents-Serfs
or Mainmortables under Lewis the XVIth Metayers causes of their
progress and final prevalence-Terms on which they held causes of
misery-Taille-Description of their condition, and comments by
Turgot Their actual numbers and condition in France....................
SECTION 5. Metayer Rents in Italy-size of farms-condition of tenantry
-similar rents prevail in the Valteline-Vaudois-Spain-Canary
islands and exist in Afghaunisthaun..........

SECTION 6. Summary of Metayer Rents advantages of the Metayer-dis-
advantages Metayer rents may increase in two modes effects of each
mode of increase-probable effects on European nations of the progress
of changes in the Metayer system.






SECTION 1. Ryot Rents-description-origin-disastrous effects on the political institutions of countries in which they prevail................... SECTION 2. Ryot Rents in India-uncertainty of the rent-tyrannical collection effects on the cultivation of the country...

SECTION 3. Ryot Rents in Persia-Character of the Persian Government -peculiarity of the soil-necessity of irrigation-mode of effecting itconsequent necessity of fixed property in improvements State of Ryots -of Lords of Villages abuses of Government.

SECTION 4. Ryot Rents in Turkey-Origin—amount-ziamets—timars -mortitæ advantages of the Turkish system-disadvantages. SECTION 5. Ryot Rents in China little understood-Their progress different there and in the rest of Asia-Quiet and skilful government of China-Increase of population-Revenue-Other Asiatic countries in which it may be presumed ryot rents prevail .....

SECTION 6. Mixture of other rents with Ryot-Labor rents-Metayer rents-in Persia, India, Turkey...........................

SECTION 7. Summary of Ryot Rents, their direct effects not necessarily








bad their indirect and political effects disastrous-Connection of ryot rents with wages-Modes of increase different results of each............ 138



Cottier Rents-description-dependent on the possibility of paying money rent-only to be observed on a considerable scale in Ireland-Disadvantages when compared with other classes of peasant rents-Want of external restraints on a too rapid increase of numbers-Want of assistance of custom and prescription in keeping rents moderate-Want of a common interest between landlord and tenant as direct and obvious as in other classes of peasant rents-Advantages-Facilities of tenants to change their character, and assume the rank of farmers-Connection of cottier rents with wages—Modes in which cottier rents may increase -different results of each...........



Summary of Peasant Rents-Invariable connexion between peasant rents and wages-Influence on agricultural production-On the numbers of the


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