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But if the Trumpets are to be all homogeneal, let us have recourse to one of them, whose character and interpretation are placed beyond dispute; in the application of which, all interpreters must agree: and then let us bring the prophecies under the other Trumpets to that settled standard.

The seventh Trumpet! what does it announce? Most clearly, the victory obtained by Christ and His Church, not over the Roman Empire, but over the powers of Hell, and of Antichrist, and a corrupt world; over the Dragon, the Beast, the false Prophet, and in process of time (for the seventh Trumpet continues to the end), over Death and Hell; “ for he must reign “till he hath put all things under his feet.” If then, under the seventh Trumpet, the warfare of the Christian Church be so clearly represented (and in this all writers are agreed), what are we to think of the six ? How must they be interpreted, so as to appear homogeneal? Are they to be accounted, with Mede and his followers, the successive shocks, by which the Roman Empire fell under the Goths and Vandals ? Homogeneity forbids. They must, therefore, be supposed to contain the warfare of the Christian Church. And this warfare may be successful under the seventh and last trumpet, when it had been unsuccessful before, yet the homogeneity be consistently preserved. For, the question is not concerning the success, but concerning the warfare. And the Trumpets may be deemed homogeneal, if they all represent the same warfare (viz. of the powers of Hell, and of the Antichristian world, against the Church of Christ), whatever may be the event; and whether it be carried on by the violence and persecution of open enemies, or by heresies and corrupt doctrines ; for heresy, which leads to apostacy, is a most dangerous assault upon the Church.


The irruption of the barbarous nations of the North, upon the declining Empire, is of great importance in civil history. It occasioned a signal revolution in power and property, and produced wonderful effects on the manners, customs, and laws of Europe. But although it took crowns from kings, and property from rich laymen, and overwhelmed multitudes in slavery, its disastrous influence was small, or of no permanency, on the Christian Church. That Church had already degenerated, through ignorance and corrupt worship; but it retained its property, and power, and the number of its subjects: nay, it greatly increased all these ; for the conquering nations forsook their pagan creed for the religion of the conquered *.

* Mosheim, Cent. vi. part i.-Gibbon narrates the number of the barbarous nations which had become Christian before the age of Charlemagne; and remarks that the Christians were then in possession of all the fertile lands of Europe, which had been seized by these warriors. (Decline of the Roman Empire, ch. xxxvii. p. 532, 4to.)



Denunciation of the Three Woes.

CHAP. viii. ver. 13.



13 Και είδον, και ήκεσα

αιτε ivos

2 Ο αγέλα 3 σελωμένα εν μεσορανήμαλι, λέγονls. φωνή μεγάλη Ούαι,

13 And I beheld, and I
heard one

S eagle?

&ai, dai rois nalor xăon ini rñs gns,

angel Alying in the space between heaven and earth, saying, with a loud voice, “ Woe! 66 woe! woe! to those

13 And I beheld, and

heard an angel Aying. through the midst of heaven, saying, with a loud voice, Wo,, wo, wo to the inhabiters of the earth, by reason of the other voices of

εκ των λοιπών φω-
κων της σάλπιγο.
των τριών αγγέλων
των μελλόνιων σαλ.

the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to sound.

" who dwell upon the
“ earth, from the re-

maining voices of
" the trumpet of the
" three angels, who are

yet to sound !"

Ver. 13. And I beheld, and I heard one

{angel) flying ; &c.] Griesbach has admitted the word det! (eagle) into the text, and seems to produce powerful authorities for the admission. But the received reading, Asyen8 (angel) seems also supported by

good authorities; and internal evidence will appear X decisive in its favour. The two words have resemblance

in Greek character, and might be confounded by transcribers. I prefer the word angel, because, in the scenery of the Apocalypse, the action is almost entirely and exclusively administered by angels. And in ch. xiv. 6, the Prophet sees another angel flying in " the space between heaven and earth.To what former angel does this other angel refer, but to this of the eighth chapter, who is the only one before described as flying? And it is in the same “heaven and earth.” And this angel of the sivth chapter is followed by others, all of them angels, no eagle. I remark also the application of the word èvos, one, to this angel or eagle, whichsoever it may be. . If it be to be applied to an eagle, why does the Prophet say one eagle; why not an eagle? for no eagles had been mentioned. But there is a propriety, if it be an angel, in saying one angel, because many angels had been, and were then, employed in the action. The cohort of seven angels were then standing forth with

space between

their trumpets.

Ib. In the space between heaven and earth.] The pergpayapat appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum *: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below t.

Ib. Woe! woe! woe!] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and representative of few particulars. The warfare is now exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed. In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be come $; the mystery of iniquity did then work Ş, “and waxed “ worse and worse l.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last Trumpets.

• Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. i. 139.

+ See note, ch vij. 1. 1 1 Jobn ii, 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7.

$ 2 Thess. ii. 7. || 2 Tim. iii. 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power.





The fifth Trumpet, and

first IVoe.

CHAP, ix. VE R. 1–12.

1 Kaiowiunla äne | 1 And the fifth ange! γελα εσάλπισε, και

sounded : and I saw a είδον ασέρα εκ το star from heaven fall sçavê wiriwxóta to the earth: and to εις την γην και εδό- him was given the key θη αυτώ ή κλείς το

of the pit of the botpetaios Tirs acJ8.

2 tomless deep. And he 2 Και ήνοιξε το φρέας opened the pit of the

της αβύσσε x C- bottomless deep. And νέβη καπνός εκ το there arose smoke out océal@u, ús καπνός of the pit, as the smoke καμίνε μεγάλης και of a great furnace. And έσκολίσθη ο ήλιος και the sun was darkened, ο αης εκ τ8 καπνά

and tbe air, by the 3 tô Ofi&tos. Kai 3 smoke of the pit. And

εκ τε καπνό εξήλ- out of the smoke came θον ακρίδες εις την

forth locusts upon the γην, και εδόθη αυταίς

earth. And to them εξεσία, ως έχεσιν was given power, as εξυσίαν οι σκορπίοι

the scorpions of the 4 rñs cynis. Kai ipfé- 4 earth have power. And θη αυταίς, ένα μη


commanded αδικήσωσι τον χός

them, that they should τον της γης, έδε

not injure the grass of τσάν χλωρών, έδε

the earth, nor any τσάν δένδρον ει μη

green thing, nor any τις ανθρώπες, οί

tree; but only the men τινες εκ έχεσι την

whosoever have not σφραγίδα τέ Θεέ

the seal of God upon επί των μετώπων

5 their foreheads. And 3 airer. Και εδό

it was given them not

1 And the fifth angel

sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to hun was given the key

of the bottomless pit. 2 And he opened the

bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened,

by reason of the smoke 3 of the pit. And there

came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the

scorpions of the earth 4 have power. And it

was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the

seal of God in their 5 foreheads. And to

them it was given that


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