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appears again, in ch. xxi. of the Apocalypse ; where, to Babylon, the harlot, is opposed the New Jerusalem, the Bride. This corrupt city, now exhibiied, had acquired her greatness and celebrity under the character of harlot; for her power over the kings and inhabitants of the earth, is described as arising from her fornication with them; she is represented as beguiling them to drink of “the cup of her fornica“ tions ;” and leading them, intoxicated, through all the impurities of her idolatry, to that extreme madness of iniquity, when she wallows in the innocent blood of saints and martyrs *. Possessing, by this influence, the riches of the kings, she appears arrayed in vestments of the utmost splendour. Purple and scarlet, the distinguishing regal colours in the ancient world, are employed to adorn her. She is decorated with gold and precious stones. She “sits

upon many waters;” which is afterwards explained to signify, (as indeed it generally signifies in prophetic language t,) that she has dominion over many nations. She has a mysterious pame; a name ænigmatical; uusuçuov I :-it is “ the great Babylon, the * Ver. 6.

+ See note, ch, i. 13. | The word murupior, mystery, does uot appear to have been part of the inscription on the forehead of the wonian; but to imply that her name, so written, was of the mysterious, ænigmatical kind. So it seeins to have been understood in the ancient Latin text used by Primasius; et in fronte ejus nomen scriptum Sacramenti. (Primasius in loc.) See ch. i. 20. where musapoor is used to signify an ænigma, containing a spiritual truth concealed under a literal form. Agreeably to this, the angel says, “I will tell thee the mystery of the woman;" I will explain this syınbolical appearance. And it must be in a mystical sense only that any city or political body can be now called Babylon: for, the literal Babylon has been long since sunk to nothing: and divine prophecy has declared of her, that she shall no rise again. The city was a heap of ruins before this prophecy was delivered. Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. vi. 26. 002

« mother


mother of harlots, and of the abominations of the “ earth.” That which the ancient and literal Babylon was to the nations surrounding her, (the parent of the most gross and corruptive idolatry,) this my's. tical Babylon has been to the modern nations. The ancient Babylon was literally seated "on many wa“ters *.” The mystical Babylon is so seated, in the spiritual sense applied to the passage by the angel; she rules over many kingdoms t. The ancient Babylon is described as “a golden cup; the nations have drunken “ of her wine, therefore the nations are mad $.” Such also has been the modern Babylon. She is herself, like her prototype ş, intoxicated; and not only with her shameful revellings, but “ with the blood of Saints.”

Thus far the description of the woman ; who appears to represent some city, state, or body politic, exercising an extended dominion over kings and nations, like the ancient Babylon ; and thus also distinguished by her ambition, sensuality, idolatry, and by her persecution of true Religion. reader versed in history, without waiting for other prophetic marks of this city, will be led to think of Rome, either ancient or modern, pagan or ecclesias

• Jer. li, 13.

† Ver. 1S. | Jer. li. 7.–For the corrupt and corruptive character of ancient Babylon, see not only the Sacred Scriptures, but the ancient profane historians : Herodot. lib. i. 199. Qu. Curtius, v, I. Vet. Schol. in Juvenal. Sat. i. 104. Bayle's note B. Dict. Hist. And in the classical authors may be also seen Vice personified and corrupting under the synıbolical appearance of a woman. In the Tablet of Cebes, a wQ-. man, whose name is Deceit, holds in her hand the corrupting cup; and in Prodicus's Choice of Hercules, as preserved by Xenophon, there is the same imagery. Isa. xlvii. 7, &c.


tical: but whatever he may have done before, he cannot fail to turn his attention to this great city, when he reads the explanation of the angel in the isch verse.

“ The woman which thou didst see, is the great city which hath dominion over the kings of “ the earth.” What can be more obvious than that this city is Rome? What other city or state, had such dominion at the time when the angel pronounced these words? In the symbolical language of Scripture, Rome is Babylon. Saint Peter dates his first Epistle from Rome under the name of Babylon * ; the Romanists themselves deny not to Rome the application of this name. It is necessary to their own purposes, but it confirms the application of this

prophecy, which plainly belongs to Rome, either pagan or ecclesiastical; and the sequel will discover which.

But the woman does not come alone ; she is mounted on " a scarlet-coloured wild-beast, full of names “ of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.”

* See the notes of Dr. Hammond and of Grotius on this passage, as well as the opinion of the ancients upon it, in Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib, ii. c. 15. Some eminent critics have indeed contended for the literal Babylon, the remains of Babylon,

ylon, in which some Jews appear still to have dwelled in Saint Peter's time, being the place whence Saint Peter dated bis Epistle. (See Michaelis's Introd. ch. xxvii. sect. 4.) But however that may be deterniined, it affects not the mystical application of the word Babylon in a mystical book. (See note, ch. xi. 9, 10.) Babylon, at the time this Revelation was written, was in a still more deserted miserable state than when Saint Peter wrote. Pausanias, who flourished about one hundred years later than the date of St. Peter's Epistle, and about sixty after the date of the Apocalypse, has recorded, that ancient Babylon had then nothing remaining but its wall, which was afterwards employed to inclose a park, in which wild beasis were kept for the hunting of the kings of Persia. Pausan. lib. viii. c. 33.

This description cannot fail to remind us of the wildbeast represented in the xüith chapter. It will be useful to bring the two descriptions together, that thus they may more easily be compared :



1 From the sea.

1 From the bottomless

deep; so the sea is called; EUTTO5. Luke

viii. 31. 2 Seven heads, ten horns. 2 Seven heads, ten horns. 3 Ten diadeins on the 3 The diadems not menhorns.

tioned, but may be supposed, for the horns are bere said to be kings,

therefore crowned. 4 Names of blasphemy on 4 Full of names of blashis heads.

phemy. 5 Like a leopard.

5 6 Has the feet of a bear. 6 7 Has the mouth of a lion. 7 8 Has great power and 8 Has the power of the rule from the dragon. kings, which is used,

like that of the dragon, against the

Church, 9 One of his heads mor- 9 Was, is not, though he tally wounded, but

is; (see the comparison, wonderfully, and un in the note, ch. siii. 3.)

expectedly, healed. 10 A great wonder upon 10 A wonder to the inha

earth, and object of bitants of the earth, adoration,

and may be an object



WILD-BEAST or Chap. XIII. WILD-BEAST OF Cuar. XVII. chapter, i

of worship: for the harlot, who is idolatrous, seems to set up no

other. 11 Blasphemously opposes

1 The kings, who are upGod and his pure wor on the beast give ship, and persecutes their power to him, and

the saints 42 months. war with the Lamb.

12 The Lamb shall destroy 12 The Lab shall over31. him. Ch. xix. 21.

come the kings, who

rise out of this beast. 13 Has a false prophet, 13 Has a woman, a har

who exerciseth his do lot, who rides upon minion, and making a him, i. e. directs the liring image of him, reins of his power: anel compels the world to the woman is idolaworship it.

trous, and bloody. 14 Is cast into the lake of 14 Goes into perdition.

fire. Ch. xix. 21.

It will easily be perceived that the two beasts bear strong resemblance to each other; there are indeed no parts of them which will appear to want this likeness, excepting Nos. 5, 6, 7. The beast of the seventeenth chapter, has no marks of the leopard, the bear, and the lion, which belong solely to the beast of the thirteenth. And what are these? They are the marks of the Assyrian, Medo-Persian, and Grecian monarchies; all which were parts component of the beast of the thirteenth chapter, yet whose more particular resemblance was to the fourth beast, or Roman monarchy of Daniel. Hence it seems to be insinuated, that


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