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or no use in practice; and in 1692 a trial of steam-wheels, contrived by two persons, named Amontons and Deflander, obtained no better success. Six years later, an inventor called Savery devised a steam-engine which was intended to be employed in the draining of mines; but this was soon set aside by the introduction of another. In the year 1705 a patent was granted to Thomas Newcomen, a blacksmith, and John Cawley, a plumber, both of Dartmouth, together with Savery, for a new engine for raising water from mines and deep wells.
From the time when Savery's engines proved to be of some practical value in the business of mining, improvements have been constantly made, down to the present day. In 1712, a boy, called Potter, to save himself the trouble of opening and shutting certain stop-cocks to which it was his business to attend, attached cords and catches to the beam and cocks, so as to cause the engine itself to do the work which he had been accustomed to do. This arrangement was much improved, in 1717, by a Mr. Henry Beighton, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. About the year 1757, Mr. Fitzgerald proposed the use of what is now
But the greatest improvements were made by Mr. James Watt, a mathematical instrument-maker, a native of Greenock, in Scotland. He was followed by other ingenious men; who, in the course of years, have brought the rude engines of Savery and Newcomen to such perfection as to make them available for the service of all branches of human industry wherever wanted.
Locomotive steam - engines, that is, such as are constructed to move from place to place, and to propel or draw carriages, seem to have been first thought of by Dr. Robison, while a student at Glasgow College, in 1759. Oliver Evans, an ingenious American, proposed the same thing twenty-three years afterwards, but it does not appear that his scheme was carried into effect. In 1784, James Watt, of whom we have just spoken, took out a patent for the application of his steamengine to move carriages; and three years later, a Mr. Symington exhibited at Edinburgh a model of an invention of his
own for the same purpose. A railway locomotive, invented by Mr. George Stephenson, in July, 1814, was reckoned the most perfect for many years. In 1829, engines of a still better construction were started upon the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, then just constructed; since which period Mr. Stephenson himself, in connection with many others, have by their ingenuity and skill provided machines by which the transit from London to Edinburgh, a distance of four hundred and twenty miles, is now accomplished in eleven or twelve hours with ease.
The employment of the steamengine in navigation appears to have been first proposed by Jonathan Hulls, who, in 1737, published a little book, called "A Description and Draught of a new - invented Machine for carrying Vessels or Ships out of or into any harbour, port, or river, against wind or tide, or in a calm." The "Draught," or drawing, represents a boat, with a paddlewheel at the hinder part of it, driven by a steam-engine, and towing after it a vessel of war. In 1781, the Marquis de Jouffroy constructed a steam-boat, with which he made numerous
experiments on the Saône, near Lyons.
From the year 1785 to 1789, several competitors for the application of steam to navigation appeared. A double boat, with a paddle-wheel between the twin-boats, moved by a small engine, the invention of Mr. Symington, obtained a speed of three miles an hour. A Mr. Miller soon after, in 1789, found means to propel a small vessel on the Frith and Forth Canal at the rate of four or five miles an hour, Since then the use of steam-boats has rapidly increased, first in America, then on the Clyde, in Scotland; and it has extended to every region of the earth. The "Comet," under the direction of Mr. Henry Bell, made its appearance on the Clyde in 1812, and for some time continued to ply regularly between Glasgow and Greenock at the rate of five miles an hour. These small craft, moved by steam, were the forerunners of the magnificent structures which now glide out of every considerable port of the United Kingdom, bound across wide oceans to the most distant parts of the globe. At first the efforts of their promoters were by many laughed at. Henry
is God's providence that controls the advancement of science, and the inventions of men, for the benefit of mankind generally.
From Him alone all
wisdom, all "cunning inventions," proceed; and to Him, therefore, should our grateful acknowledgment for the discoveries of ingenious men ever be paid.
The picture accompanying this article represents one of the early forms in which the steam-engine was used.
clover, as the wind swung the tall blade up straight; "for he is so high he can spy out everything all around me."
She spread her pink and white-winged spikes wider, and looked out at her neighbours, but soon discovered that of all the garden-flowers she was the plainest and lowliest; though her leaves were soft and beautifully marked, they were unnoticed in the dark, green grass, and her pink and white-winged spikes, though there were so many of them, were very insignificant.
The blade of ribbon-grass bent gracefully toward a scarlet fuchsia, nodded to a tall spire of blue larkspur, and waved goodday to the " 'morning-glories whose striped skirts were spangled with glittering dew. The garden was filled with stately beauties; lady's - slippers in puffs and flounces of every hue, yellow marigolds, blue hare bells, pansies in purple and gold, and majestic gladiolias in scarlet and white caps. The clover-blossom hung her red head: she felt like an uninvited guest; she had come there quite by accident; it was not intended that her lowly form and humble dress should appear among these fine flowers of quality.
"This is no place for me," she sighed, wishing that she might creep again under the cover of the green leaves, and hide her homely charms. But none of the gay beauties were thinking of her. The ribbongrass took no notice of her; he was paying his compliments to the garden belles, and had quite forgotten the clover-blossom.
The eyes of the butterfly were very large; but he roved from one flower to the other without spying out the red clover-head. When the sun rose higher, the "four-o'clocks' and 66 morning-glories" closed their eyes and went fast asleep.
"Dear me! they look very old and withered, to be sure,' thought the clover-blossom; "and I am not at all sleepy, my eyes are opening wider every minute.
These fine folks do not suit me. Perhaps the gardener will chop off my head with his hoe when he sees me. I should not be very sorry, for I am of no use; no one needs me or cares for me here."
A busy bee came humming and buzzing through the garden; he hovered around the apple-tree; the blossoms had long ago withered; he could scarcely tell what he came there