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land are called Querns. In the centre of the upper stone was a cavity for pouring in the corn; and by the side of this, au upright wooden handle for moving the stone. As the operation began, one of the women with her right hand pushed this handle to the woman opposite, who again sent it to her companion,-thus communicating a rotatory and very rapid motion to the upper stone; their left hands being all the while employed in supplying fresh corn, as fast as the bran and flour escaped from the sides of the machine" (Travels,' iv. 167-8). But although this hand-mill is in general use throughout the East, where wind or water-mills are unknown; yet, as its smallness renders the operation tedious, a fixed mill is sometimes used in large establishments. This differs little from the portable mill except in its larger size. It acts in the same manner as the other, and like that is worked by women, as appears from our present engraving, which shows a Sicilian mill of a similar description. We rather think that the Jews may have had such a mill as this--besides the common small one; and we are supported in this by finding that they certainly had some larger mills than the common; for the Talmud lets us know that, like other nations, they had large mills which were turned by asses. The asses of mills are often mentioned, and notice is taken of a man who worked his mill with wild asses. We mention this merely to show that the Jews had large mills; and that therefore the large and fixed mill was probably in use among them. The large and small hand-mills, together with the large one worked by an ass, mule, or horse, are often found to be in use in the same country. It deserves to be noticed here, that the mill-stone mentioned in ch. xviii. 6, is in the original called an ass mill-stone, which might suggest that it denotes one of those larger mill-stones belonging to a mill worked by an ass: but this is not quite certain, as it happens that the lower mill stone of the hand mill was also called the ass, on account of the burden which it bore.
Such of the other contents of this important chapter as require illustration, will receive it under the parallel passages in Mark and Luke.
1 The parable of the ten virgins, 14 and of the talents. 31 Also the description of the last judg
4 But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.
THEN shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom.
2 And five of them were wise, and five made them other five talents. were foolish.
3 They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them:
5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept.
6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him.
his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods.
14 For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called 1 Or, coing out. Chap. 24. 42. Mark 13. 33.
15 And unto one he gave five 'talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey.
16 Then he that had received the five talents went and traded with the same, and
17 And likewise he that had received two, he also gained other two.
18 But he that had received one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money.
19 After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them.
20 And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them
five talents more.
21 His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.
22 He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst_unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them.
23 His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.
24 Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed:
3 Luke 19. 12.
A talent is 1877. 10s.-chap. 18. 24.
"Rites matrimonial solemnized with pomp
Of sumptuous banquets. Forth they led their brides
38 When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee?
39 Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee?
40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto
41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, 'Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:
42 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink:
43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.
31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:
32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:
33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left.
34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:
not to me.
35 'For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in:
46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.
Chap. 13. 12. Mark 4. 25. Luke 8. 18. Isa. 58. 7. Ezek. 18. 7. 7 Psal. 6. 8. Chap. 7. 23. 8 Dan. 12. 2. John 5. 29.
44 Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?
45 Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it
Verse 1. "Took their lamps.”—It appears from this and the whole narrative that the Jewish nuptial processions took place by night, and by the light of torches or lamps. This is still the prevailing custom in the East, and was in ancient times the same also among the Greeks and Romans. Homer describes (Iliad xviii.)
Of hymeneal song, heard all around.
Here striplings danc'd in circles to the sound
In this there is scarcely any thing which may not be traced in the Jewish ceremonies; even the "striplings dancing to the sound of pipe and harp,” illustrates Luke vii. 32, where the children crying to each other in the market place “We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced," are generally supposed to allude to the rejoicing nuptial procession. As to the lamps or torches used on such occasions, the Rabbins indicate their form as similar to those used by the "Ishmaelites" or Arabians, and which are thus mentioned by Jarchi:-"It was the custom in the land of Ishmael to bring the bride from the house of her father to that of her husband, in the night time: and there were about ten staves, upon the top of each of which was a brazen dish, containing rags, oil, and pitch, and this being kindled formed blazing torches, which were carried before the bride." These are just the same torches which are still employed on similar occasions by the people of Arabia and Egypt.
"Went forth to meet the bridegroom."—It is remarkable here that the Syriac, Persic, and Vulgate versions add, “and the bride." But this does not exist in any Greek copies, except the Cambridge one of Beza's. Although the testimony of these versions-particularly the Syriac-is very valuable, we are not disposed to insist that they supply an omission in the Greek copies; it being quite sufficient for explanatory purposes, if we find, from this testimony, that the authors of these versions, who were well acquainted with Oriental manners, understood the procession to be that of the bridegroom and the bride-that is, of the bridegroom conducting the bride home from her father's house. And this is the explanation we had been led to consider the most probable, even before we knew that it had the sanction of the
versions we have named. It comports well enough with Oriental ideas to mention the procession as the bridegroom's, even when the bride is present in it: there can be no doubt that the procession is that of the night in which the bridegroom fetches home his bride from the house of her father: and the only question which can arise is, whether he is now described as proceeding to take her, or as returning with her. As the bride is not named, the former alternative is usually taken. But in this case the virgins must be supposed to have been in attendance on the bride, and for these or any women to go forth to meet the bridegroom and his male attendants, would have been very contrary to those ideas of delicacy which the Orientals exhibit on such occasions. And, moreover, it appears that the marriage entertainment, to which the foolish virgins in vain sought admittance, was held at the bridegroom's house, since it is he who takes upon him to answer the application which they made, and since the grand and final entertainment is and was held at the bridegroom's house after the bride was brought home. For these and other reasons, too minute to state on a question of no great importance, but conclusive to one acquainted with Oriental manners, we feel satisfied that the procession was that of the bridegroom conducting home his bride. It only then remains doubtful whether the virgins were friends of the females of the bridegroom's family, and who were in attendance at his house ready to meet and receive the bride on her approach; or whether they were young women living in the neighbourhood, and more or less acquainted with the parties, who proposed to meet the procession with their lamps on its approach to their station, and accompany it to the house of the bridegroom. We imagine the latter to be the best explanation, as we know, from the Rabbins, that it was considered an act of kindness and consideration to attend on such occasions, whether invited
The custom of conveying the bride with great state to her future home is universal in the East; but the details are modified by the local usages and religions of the different countries; and sometimes there are differences even in the same country. In Syria, Persia, and in India the bridegroom in person brings home his bride; the Turks more usually devolve this duty on a near relative, and remain at home to receive the lady on her arrival. We may collect from Scripture and the Rabbinical traditions, that the Jews had both usages, but that the former was the most common. Again, in Egypt, the bridegroom goes to the mosque when the bride is expected, and returns home in procession after she has arrived. In Western Asia the procession usually walks, if the bride's future house is at no great distance in the same town. The bride then generally walks under a canopy, but when the distance is too great—and, in central and eastern Asia, whether the distance be great or small-the bride rides on a mare, mule, ass, or camel, or is carried in a litter or palanquin. Sometimes, when the distance is not great-the bride alone (or the bridegroom also, if present) rides, and the rest walk-as among the Druses of Lebanon. Much depends on the circumstances of the parties. We think we can collect that the Jews practised nearly all these methods; but that, when the bridegroom's residence was near, the bride walked on foot under a canopy. When the bridegroom himself brings home his bride, the former with his friends usually moves in front, sometimes with an interval between the two parties: but they often coalesce, as if for the protection of the bride and her party, and then the bridegroom and bride move near each other, or even, as in India, are borne in the same palanquin. On this point we have not been able to discern clearly the practice of the Jews; but suspect that it varied with circumstances and in the course of the ages which their history embraces. Music usually attends such processions, and often dancing; the Jews certainly had the former, and, as some think, the latter also at least in the time of our Saviour. These observations, which are necessarily brief, may serve to convey some ideas concerning the nuptial processions of the Hebrews. The engravings we now give may afford some further assistance. The first represents an Indian bridegroom proceeding to take home his bride; and it might equally be taken to illustrate the return, with the bridegroom in advance of the bride. The other cut shows the manner in which the bride is conveyed home by the Druses of Lebanon-which will be considered the more satisfactory from the Scriptural interest of the locality, and from the fact that ancient customs are always the longest preserved among the mountains.
10. "The door was shut."-The following, from Ward's View of the Hindoos,' contains some points of illustration, although it rather relates to the arrival of the bridegroom to take his bride than to his coming home with her. "At a marriage, the procession of which I saw some years ago, the bridegroom came from a distance, and the bride lived at Serampore, to which place the bridegroom was to come by water. After waiting two hours, at length, near midnight, it was announced, as if in the very words of Scripture, Behold the bridegroom cometh, go ye out to meet him.' All the persons employed-[Were any of them females ?]-now lighted their lamps, and ran with them in their hands to fill up their stations in the procession; some of them had lost their lamps, and were unprepared; but it was then too late to seek them, and the cavalcade moved forward to the house of the bride, at which place the company entered a large and splendidly illuminated area before the house, covered with an awning, where a great multitude of friends. dressed in their best apparel, were seated upon mats. The bridegroom was carried in the arms of a friend, and placed upon a superb seat in the midst of the company, where he sat a short time, and then went into the house, the door of which was immediately shut, and guarded by sepoys. I and others expostulated with the doorkeepers, but in vain. Never was I so struck with our Lord's beautiful parable as at this moment: And the door was shut!" I was exceedingly anxious to be present while the marriage formulas were repeated, but was obliged to depart in disappointment."
1 The rulers conspire against Christ. 6 The woman anointeth his head. 14 Judas selleth him. 17 Christ eateth the Passover: 26 instituteth his
holy supper: 36 prayeth in the garden: 47 and being betrayed with a kiss, 57 is carried to Caiaphas, 69 and denied of Peter.
AND it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, 2 Ye know that after two days is the feast of the Passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.
1 Mark 14. 1. Luke 22. 1. John 13. 1.
3 Then assembled together the Chief Priests, and the Scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,
4 And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him.
5 But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.
6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper,
7 There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment,
* John 11. 47.
Mark 14. 3. John 11. 1.
and poured it on his head, as he sat at
8 But when his disciples saw it, they had indignation, saying, To what purpose is this waste?
9 For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor.
10 When Jesus understood it, he said unto them, Why trouble ye the woman? for she hath wrought a good work upon me.
11 For ye have the poor always with you; but me ye have not always.
12 For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial.
13 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her. 14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the Chief Priests, 15 And said unto them, What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.
16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him.
17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the Passover?
Is And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at thy house with my disciples.
19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the Passover.
20 'Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve.
21 And as they did eat, he said, Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray
22 And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began every one of them to say unto him, Lord, is it I?
23 And he answered and said, "He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me.
24 The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born.
25 Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master, is it I? He said unto him, Thou hast said.
29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.
30 And when they had sung an "hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.
31 Then saith Jesus unto them, "All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad.
32 But after I am risen again, "I will go before you into Galilee.
33 Peter answered and said unto him, Though all men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended.
34 Jesus said unto him, "Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
35 Peter said unto him, Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee. Likewise also said all the disciples.
36 Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder.
37 And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy.
38 Then saith he unto them. My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with me.
39 And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt.
Mark 14. 12.
7 Mark 14. 18
Luke 22 14. John 13. 21.
Deut. 15 11. Mark 14. 10. Luke 22. 3. Luke 1 Cor. 11. 23, 24. 10 Many Greek copies have, gave thanks, 11 Or. psalm. 12 Mark 14 27. John 16 32. 14 Maik 14. 28. and 16. 7. 15 John 13. 38. 16 Mark 14. 32. Luke 22 39.
8 Psal. 41. 9. Zech. 13.7.