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In the following pages, many of the author's (gether with the nations more immediately in rela. observations are given in the form of a Journal. tion with them—MODERN GREECE-TURKEY IN EUIt would not, indeed, have been difficult to sub- ROPE AND ASIA-ARMENIA, and the neighboring redivide the volume into parts, each furnishing a gions–PERSIA, SYRIA, and PALESTINE (the review separate account of the different classes of society of which is, in the present volume, in a considerto be found in Syria and Palestine. Since, however, able measure, executed)—ARABIA-EGYPT and that small country does, in fact, present an epitome NUBIA-ABYSSYNIA--and the BARBARY STATES. of nearly all the bodies of men existing around the An intelligent investigation of the condition of Mediterranean, it is evident, that, in such a parti- these various regions, prosecuted by the different tion of subjects, some would have been found too missionaries in a truly Christian spirit, with accuinconsiderable to form by themselves a detached racy of observation, sound judgment, meekness chapter.
of temper, and a practical determination of mind, The want of lucid order, incidental to this mode would furnish to the conductors of missionary of publication, will appear, however, to be, in a and Bible societies, and to missionaries actually considerable measure, remedied by the introduc- on service, an invaluable depository of information, tory section of the work; in which, by means of on which to form their opinions and direct their an extensive compilation from a variety of authors measures. there is presented to the reader a classified view It is however fully to be borne in mind, that of the different bodies of men existing in Syria and such a system of research forms only a part-a Palestine.
small, and continually decreasing part, of the work In the sections which follow the journal, the of a missionary. Enough has, indeed, been already author has aimed at developing more fully than effected, to open an introduction to immediate and his journal had done, the condition of the people; important labors. The various Christian societies not without an ardent hope, that the picture exhi- of our own country, of the continent, and of bited may be the means of rousing the public to a America, would probably all of them concur in this deeper sense of their obligations to prosecute Chris- judgment, and many of them are acting upon it. tian missions in this part of the world. Various But the spirit and the measures of all need a vast suggestions, the result of frequent communication enlargement. It is high time for the faithful memwith the men of intelligence and piety, are like- bers of Christ to be instant in their supplications wise offered, in reference to character of missio- to Him, who is the great Head over all things to naries and the measures of missionary and Bible the church-that He would vouchsafe to pour out societies.
the gift of His Holy Spirit more abundantly than The Church Missionary Society has felt the ad- ever, preparing all the nations by a feeling of anxvantage of the system of research thus far conduct. ious expectation of some great event, and at the ed, with sufficient force to desire that it should be, in same time sending forth a numerous company of its proportion, steadily pursued. It would be desir- Evangelists to visit all the dark places of the able for the public to be furnished with an exact earth in the fulness of the blessing of the Gospel view of the circumstances and opinions of the fol- of Christ. lowing principal countries—the PAPAL STATES, to
are the sects of the Spanish and Polish Jews, the
Hassidim, &c. of which some notice will appear RABBINISTS ARAITES-SAMARITANS. in that part of the following Journal which de
scribes Tiberias. In describing the different classes of people who bt present dwell in Syria and the Holy Land, it bs natural to give the first place to that nation, which, in the most ancient periods of history, pos
CHRISTIANS. sessed so considerable a portion of this territory, by the title of a special gift from heaven. What If pure Christianity consists in the enjoyment of we might almost term, the Divine Nobility of this the light of Revelation; in the exercise of faith, race, is briefly and energetically sketched in those hope, and charity; and in the maintenance of the words of Scripture :~ Who are Israelites ; to unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace—then must whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and it be mournfully admitted, that the professors of the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the our most holy faith have, in Syria and Palestine, service of God, and the promises ; whose are the wandered very far indeed from the truth and simfathers, and of whom, as concerning the Aesh, plicity of the Gospel. Darkness and discord share Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. the dominion here. It is true that there is no Amen.” (Rom. ix. 4, 5.) No Master of Heraldry part of the Christian world into which these foul ever pronounced such a majestic train of titles : spirits have not, in various degrees, found entrance: no country, not the proudest, can present, in a but, in our present survey, the sight of them is condensed form, such a splendid record of its pri- doubly painful; while we contemplate the intenvileges and distinctiong. There does not, nor sity of their influence, and the melancholy fact, ever did there exist, such a remarkable nation as that they should be here ruling in that very sphere, that of the Jewsma people terrible from their be where the religion of light and love was first proginning hitherto!
mulgated. This family of the children of Abraham-attaint- We must not shrink, however, from faithfully ed and despoiled of its heritage, but not extinct delineating the picture. If the scornful feelings still lingers, a small part of it at least, upon the of the infidel should begin to kindle at the descrippaternal estate; anxious to be found on the spot, lion, let him reflect that here is no triumph over at the moment of the appearance, daily and hourly Christianity, but a developement of erring human expected, of their Deliverer and Restorer; or, in nature. That professing Christians have departed the event of their death, fondly deeming it meri- from the purity of the faith, no more tends toward torious to be gathered to the grave of their fathers. a refutation of Christianity, than the errors of
From Aleppo to Jerusalem, Jews are to be found idolatry and polytheism to deprave the doctrine of in all the principal cities: in Mount Lebanon there the eternal "Godhead. Does a reflecting man are but few. The author, in a future part of this doubt the truth, that there is One God, because volume, gives an account of them, principally in the myriads of the heathen have worshipped stocks, those places which he visited.
and stones, and beasts, and reptiles ? Neither The distinction between the two leading divi- ought the faith of any Christian man to be shaken, sions of the Jews is extremely simple-the Rab by seeing that the professors of Christianity have binica), who are attached to a multitude of human multiplied schismis and heresies. All these facts traditions and commentaries ; and the Karaites, serve but to prove the infirmity and sinfulness of who adhere to the simple text of the Scriptures human nature : they cannot shake the truth of of the Old Testament.
Revelation. Although the evidence of the docBesides this leading distinction, there is an-trine be not apparent in Palestine, yet there is, in other, which is of a national kind; that between the Christian church, “one body, and one Spirit, Jews and Samaritans. It may, indeed, very rea- even as we are called in one hope of our calling : sonably be doubted how far the Samaritans have One Lord, one faith, one baptism ; One God and a claim to be classed with the descendants of Father of all, who is above all, and through all, Abraham. A fuller discussion of this point than and in us all.” (Eph. iv. 46.). He who prays could be allowed in this preliminary chapter, will for' a spiritual participation of the blessings ex. be found in a subsequent part of this volume. It pressed in that passage, and he alone, may, with seemed, however, not improper to class under this safety and with painful profit, contemplate the folhead, a body which professes to ground its religion lowing details. entirely upon the five books of Moses.
The professing Christians of Syria and PalesThere are, further distinctions among the Jews, tine may be thus classed :arising from differences in their modes of worship, Greeks, of the proper Oriental Churchor from refinements of speculative opinion. Such! Armenians, proper
THE Nestorians do not so properly come under
the denomination of bodies existing in Syria, beGreek Roman Catholics
longing rather to Mesopotamia.* The Jacobite Armenian Roman Catholics
Syrians have also their residence chiefly on the Syrian Roman Catholics
banks of the Tigris ; but their Patriarch, who Latins, or Frank Roman Catholics lives near Mardin, not unfrequently visits Aleppo, Protestants.
where many rich Jacobite Syrians reside. He claims also to be styled Patriarch of Antioch: although, at Mosul, resides another Jacobite Pre
late, who is styled, sometimes, the Maphrian, GREEKS.
sometimes the Primate, of tho East ; in dignity The Greeks, of the proper Oriental Church, are inferior to a Patriarch, but superior to a Metro. numerous in some parts of Syria. The Greek politan. The Jacobite Syrians have also a chapel Patriarch of Antioch resides generally at Damas- at the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem.t
. They hold cus: the Greek Patriarchs of Jerusalem have, for the Monophysite heresy in common with the Copts
in Egypt. more than a century, taken up their residence at
It was about the commencement of the sixth Constantinople ; where they have been accustomed to assist the Patriarch and the Synod of that century that this heresy was promulgated by Se.
In Aleppo, Damascus, and Jerusalem, these verus, a Patriarch of Antioch. A very short time Oriental Greeks are in considerable numbers: afterwards, he was expelled from Syria ; and the from the maritime towns they have found it expe- Ere long, however, a follower of his, James Ba
orthodox faith was re-established in that country. dient to withdraw during the present revolution, although some remain. In Mount Lebanon
they radæus, successfully reared again the Monophysite are not tolerated, the Romish influence being standard ; and, in Egypt and Mesopotamia, they there predominant and exclusive : but, to the have ever since maintained their opinions, receiv. south, towards Jerusalem, the Greeks probably far ing, from this second advocate of Monophysitism, outnumber the Roman Catholics. Their standard the title of Jacobites. of faith, it is almost superfluous to repeat, is that
The following remarks of the Jesuit missionaries which the author has mentioned in his former vo- in Syria relative to this body will describe their lume of Christian Researches; being formed ac- sentiments, and the tenacity with which they ad.
here to them :cording to the First Seven General Councils, together with the Holy Scriptures. They have
* We could greatly wish that the fruits of our been found, as in Asia Minor and Greece, so also mission were more abundant among the heretics; in Syria and Palestine, favorably disposed to the but it is extremely difficult to recover them from labors of the Bible Society.
the error into which they are gone. The Syrians, otherwise called the Jacobites, are most deeply attached to their peculiar error. They are very
numerous. They are named Jacobites from one ARMENIANS.
of the disciples of Eutyches and Dioscorus, called BETWEEN Syria and the British possessions in the ters in the beginning of the sixth century; and
Jacob. This disciple revived the error of his mas East Indies, there is a vast tract of country, of the taught publicly, that there was only one nature in actual religious condition of which comparatively Jesus Christ, composed of two natures, the one very little is known. If we except a small portion divine the other human. of Roman Catholic Greek influence in the more western parts of this immense region, it will be do not undertand what is the point in question ;
“It is true that the chief part of these Jacobites found to be occupied, so far as Christianity is con- but their schismatic bishops and priests boast to cerned, by Armenians, Jacobite Syrians, and Nes- them so often the pretended sanctity and the protorians, more or less scantily distributed among found doctrine of Dioscorus and Barsamas, that the native Mahommedan population. The Armenian church holds the opinion of the are in favor of these two heresiarcha, cannot ima
the common people of this sect, prejudiced as they Monophysites, concerning the incarnation of Jesus gine that these two men, so celebrated among Christ; in such a manner, however, as to differ them, should have been capable of falling into from the Jacobites, with whom they do not hold communion.
Thus their priests sounded continually in “They are governed,” observes their ears that these two apostles of their sect Mosheim,“ by three Patriarchs. The chief, whose diocese comprehends the Greater
Armenia, Cyril in the Patriarchate of Alexandria, and Bar
namely, Dioscorus the successor of the great St. resides at Echmiazin. The second resides at Cis, samas that famous Monk his Arohimandrite, bare a city of Cilicia.
There is a third, residing at taught them that the divine and human nature Aghtamar, but who is looked upon by the other make but one sole nature in Jesus Christ, they Armenians as the enemy of their church.". Besides these, there are other prelates dignified with the title of Patriarch, although not fully of the * It is, bowever, said that thete are Nestorians in same rank; those, namely, of Constantinople, Je- Syria. Some account of this body, will be given in rusalem, and Caminiec in Poland.*
a note to this section.
+ The author is, however, uncertain whether this • Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. Century xvi. Sec. 3. Partchapel belongs to the Jacobites or Nestorians: I 1. chao. 2.
is called, generally, the chapel of the Syrians.
NOTE ON THE NESTORIANS.
obstinately hold to that sentiment; and, if you time, they call themselves Christians, and dress as combat them, they only answer by invectives, such. All their Christianity, however, consists in making the sign of the cross with only the middle their dress; and in the circumstance that they finger of their hand, holding at the same time the have their children baptized. There is seldom other fingers closed, in order to make you under- seen at church any of their sect, excepting a stand that they acknowledge only one nature in couple, whom they send regularly, in order to Jesus Christ, and that you shall never make them avoid the accusation of never appearing at the believe the contrary.
church. They also have a Jacobite ecclesiastic, “ Their obstinacy, great as it is, does not, how- to assist at the interment of their dead; but they ever, shut our mouth. As their conversion de- do not allow him to enter the house, till the coffin pends particularly upon that of their bishops, we is closed, when he follows the corpse to the burywait upon them as often as possible, in order that ing-ground of the Shemsy: I heard nothing posithey may be induced to come near us; and that tive concerning their religious tenets: the Chriswe may have the opportunity of explaining to them tians at Mardin told me that they always build the what the Catholic faith teaches us, and what we principal door of their houses toward the East, and are obliged to believe in order to be saved. that they always turn their faces toward the sun
“Happily for us, in the visits which we pay when they pray.” Niebuhr, Voyage en Arabie, them they are the first to put us upon those ar- frc. Vol. II. pp. 321, 322. ticles of their belief which are contrary to ours; as, for example, the procession of the Holy Spirit, and the union of the two natures in Christ.
HAVING had occasion incidentally to mention the “Our custom is, to answer them simply with the Nestorians, I cannot pass on without observing, Holy Gospel, which we have in our hand. We op- that, of the different bodies existing in the East, pose to them those texts of Scripture, which clearly this is one peculiarly interesting as an object for decide the question ; and the decrees of the council religious research and exertion. They are deof Calcedon, which formally condemns their errors." nominated, variously, Nestorian, Chaldean, or AsLettres Edif. et. Curieuses, Vol. I. pp. 145–148. syrian Christians; and they are very numerous.
If the following statement be in all circumstances The fullest account of them is to be found in the correct, it apparently argues an extreme laxity on fourth volume of Assemann's Bibliotheca Orienthe part of the Jacobites, in attaching to themselves talis, which he has entitled, Dissertatio de Syris half-made proselytes. Under the head of “ Obser- Nestorians. Their Patriarchs are three ; those, vations made at Mardin,” Niebuhr thus remarks, namely, of Mosul, Ormia, and Amida. Of these,
“ To the communion of the Jacobites belong the last-mentioned Patriarch has connected also the Shemsy. These seem still to have pre- himself with Rome: the others have, at different served a religion which has been patronised, not times, treated with Rome ; but still remain unonly by the Mohammedans, but also by the Chris- connected with her communion. In the abovetians. An old man assured me, that, in his youth, mentioned work of Assemann, who devotes 962 he knew many villages in the mountainous parts folio pages to this subject, various reconciliations of the country hereabouts, which professed this of this extensive branch of Christians with the religion. At present, it is believed, there are none Romish See are diligently recorded. One chapter of the Shemsy in the country; but, at Mardin, is devoted to the recapitulation of these events. there still exist about a hundred families, in two It is entitled, Conversio Nestorianorum ad fidem different quarters. Formerly but a few years ago, orthodoxam. (Chap. vii.) It might, however, these existed as a separate communion : but when more properly have been denominated, “ Occasionthe idea came into the mind of the sultan Mus- al conversions of a part of the Nestorians, to the tafa, to compel all the Christians and Jews in the church of Rome :” for the learned author enumeempire either to become Mohammedans or to quit rates not fewer than five such events, which took the country ; and all the grandees of the kingdom, place in the following periods, viz. A. D. 1247, not even excepting the Mufti, refused their assent 1283, 1552, 1616, and 1681. These intermittent to this order, since Mahomet himself had, on con- attachments to the Romish See might, alone' sufdition of an annual capitation-tax, granted protec- fice to argue a very feeble degree of Papal inflution to the Christians and Jews; the edict was re
ence in those quarters. But this is yet more fully modelled: and, with a view of giving some satis- developed by Assemann himself, at the close of faction to the sovereign, it was ordered that thence that chapter'; where, in a tone of complaint, he forth no persons should be suffered in the country, notices that one of three Nestorian Patriarchs except those who had sacred books; that is to say, alone continues in his adherence to Rome, while Mohammedans, Christians, or Jews. This order the other two have fallen off. He institutes an ingave very little concern to the Druses, Yasides, quiry into the causes of this; and himself furnishes and Ansari
, and those of other religions, who had a complete answer, full of practical instruction. their residence in mountainous countries, and
Why,” he asks, “ do not the successors of Elias were governed by their own Sheiks and Emirs. and Simeon observe in their jurisdictions this conBut the Shemsy were far too weak: besides which, cord with Rome, in the same manner as it has been they dwelt in cities, where the Mohammedan religiously observed by the successors of Joseph?” magistrate could easily have an eye upon them. To this question he replied in the following manThey therefore submitted themselves to the Jacobite Patriarch of Diarbekir,* and, ever since that “ For four causes, as it seems to me. First,
* It is also mentioned by Assemann, (vol. II. p. because, when they entered into communion with 291) that the Jacobites freely communicate with the Catholic church, their ecclesiastical books heretics.
were not purged of the errors with which they
abound; namely, their euchologium and horologi- tive countries of the east, a more proper claim to the um, or ritual, the Pontifical, and the daily and title of oriential Christians; we come to notice nightly offices, and those of the saints: for, in these, those Christians, who, either being natives, have the Nestorian heresy is everywhere contained, and adopted, or being foreigners, have introduced, the the memory of heretics cherished. Secondly, all dominion of the Papacy. The first four sub-divitheir books, as well Syriac as Arabic, on theology sions of this number consist of persons by birth and the Canons, which are continually in the oriental: the fifth is wholly a foreign interest, hands of their Patriarchs, Bishops, Presbyters, being by birth, as well as in faith, occidental. and others, were composed by Nestorian authors, Maronitesand consequently infected with the poison of heresy: Greek Roman Catholicsthese are the only books which they read : they Armenian Roman Catholics have no other book composed in their language by Syrian Roman Catholicsthe orthodox, by which they might be taught the Latins, or Frank Roman Catholics. Catholic verities. Thirdly, the intercourse of letters and embassies between them and the Catho
MARONITES. lic church is interrupted: had it been continued, and had the Nestorians on the one hand had their orators at the Apostolic See, and were Rome on Mount Lebanon, and the adjacent cities. The re
THE Maronites are to be found principally in the other hand continually to visit them by letter sidence of their Patriarch is at Kanobin, not far or by legates, they would probably never have from Tripoli ; and this may be considered as broken off the union once formed. Lastly, the apostolic missionaries destined for them by the nearly the northern boundary of their residence. Roman Pontiff are, for the most part, ignorant of
The titular jurisdiction of this Patriarch, in comtheir languages and of their rites, and scarcely east equally recognised by the See of Rome, is
mon with that of some other Patriarchs in the penetrate those regions in which their patriarchs ANTIOCH; from which city, as having been visited reside: hence they transact their mission with by Saint Peter, a kind of papal rank and virtue, plebians, not with patriarchs and bishops; and not (secondary, however, to that of Rome,) is by them satisfied with instructing them in the faith, they supposed to emanate to all his successors in that very often move useless questions about rites, cal. See. South of Nazareth, the author heard of no culated to disturb, rather than conciliate, men, resident Maronites. who are remarkable for a most tenacious attachment to their customs.”-Assemanni Bibliotheca
This church is in strict communion with the Orientalis, Vol. IV. pp. 412, 413.
Romish hierarchy; a connection which was careIn these remarks there is much good sense : fully cherished by the Jesuits, as they found, in there is, however, one circumstance, naturally
the ease and security of the mountains, and in the enough not alluded to by this learned papal envoy docility of the natives, the most advantageous
means of forming their oriental seminaries and siCULATED AMONG ALL CLASSES OF CHRISTIANS IN milar establishments.* In the province, called THE EAST. But this could form no part of the Kastravan, situate between Beirout and Tripoli
, policy of the court of Rome. It may be hoped one of their missions was established in the college that the recent publication of the ENTIRE SYRIAC at Antura, or Antoura. Several monasteries have BIBLE, by the British and Foreign Bible Society, Franciscans from Europe. Pope Urban VIII
also been established in this neighborhood by the will, under the divine blessing, be one of the means instrumental in giving Protestant missionaries a
manifested his sense of the value of this station, favorable acceptance from an immense body of by forming here, in connection with the propaganChristians, as yet almost unknown, because almost da, an institution for oriental learning and Romish unexplored by us, peopling the vast region between missions: from the rules of this establishment Aleppo and Travancore.
some extracts will be given in a future page, under the topics of “The Work of an Evangelist"
and “Education.” In this place the reader will COPTS AND ABYSSINIANS.
be sufficiently informed of the origin of the Ma.
ronites, according to the tradition most approved THE Copts and Abyssinians in Palestine are to be by themselves, from the following passage:found principally in the Holy City; devotion being
“ The Maronite nation derives its origin and its the motive which has wn them to this land. name from the celebrated Abbé Maron ; who must The Copts, from the nearness of Egypt, more not be confounded with another of the same name easily return to their native country; but the more ancient, a Monothelite Heresiarch. The Abyssinians, through extreme want, are obliged to holy Abbé Maron was born in Syria, in the fourth remain. They are very few in number, and of no century. He there spent the life of a hermit. He influence; living in great poverty, and many of had under his conduct several disciples, who emthem being dependent upon the richer Armenians, braced his manner of living. The reputation of to whom they are in some degree attached by the his holiness was so great, that St. John Chrysossimilarity of their religious faith.
tom wrote to him from the place of his exile, to entreat him to obtain from God, by his prayers,
+ The Maronites had, previously to A. D. 1182 ROMAN CATHOLICS.
been Monothelites. Ai that period, they abjured
these opinions; and were re-admitted to the comHAVING enumerated the different Christian munion of the Roman church. (See Mosheim's bodies, which seem to have upheld, in the respec- Ecclesiastical History, century VII.)
-THE SCRIPTURES WERE NOT ABUNDANTLY CIR