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rom the Atlantic, the first ridge of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina, is the blue ridge, or South Mountain, from 130 to 200 m from the sea, and about 4000 feet high from its base. Between this and the North Mountain spreads a large fertile vale. Next lies the ALLEGANY, which is the principal ridge, and has been descriptively called the Back-bone of the United States. Beyond this is a long ridge called the Laurel Mountains, in a spur of which, in Lt. 36, is a spring of water, 50 feet deep, very cold, and as blue as indigo. From these several ridges proceed innumerable branches or spurs. The Kittatiny, or Blue Mountains, run through the northern parts of New-Jersey and Pennsylvania. All these ridges, except the Allegany, are broken. through by rivers, which appear to have forced their way through solid rocks. These mountains are sometimes called the APALA CHIAN, from a river, whose source proceeds from this ridge, called the Apalachia. They are not confusedly scattered, but stretch along in uniform ridges. They spread as they proceed s, and some of them terminate in high perpendicular bluffs; others gradually subside into a level country, giving rise to the rivers which run southerly into the gulph
ALLENDORF, a town of Hesse-Cassel, 15 m ESE Cassel: it has salt-works and three bridges over the Werra.
ALLEX, a town of France, department Drome, 10 m s Valence.
ALLIER, a department of France, 70 m long by 48, so called from a river, which flows by Moulins, the capital, and enters the Loire below Nevers; P. 281,025. ALLOA, a seaport of Scotland, county Clackmannan, near the mouth of the Forth, 27 m wNw Edinburgh: here is a customhouse, a glasshouse, an iron foundry, and an excellent dry dock; and its harbour is the resort of all the coal vessels in the neighbourhood. Many hands are employed in weaving. Near the town is a tower 90 feet high, with walls 11 feet thick; P. 6377: Lg. 3.46 w, Lt. 56.7 N.
ALLONBY, a fishing town of Westmoreland, on the Irish sea, 8 m NNW Cockermouth, and 22 wsw Carlisle: much resorted to for bathing; P. 783.
ALL SAINTS' BAY; see TODOS SANTOS. ALLSTEDT, a town in a detached portion of the principality of Weimar, 2 German m by post road w by N Querfurt, and 14 SE Sangerhausen.
ALMACARON, a seaport of Spain in Mur. cia, with a fort, near the mouth of the Guadalantin, 20 m wsw of Carthagena. It is famous for a fine red earth, used as an ingredient in Spanish snuff, and to give the last polish to glass; also for a saline
white stone, called plume-alum: Lg. 1.26 w, Lt. 37.32 N.
ALMADA, a town of Portugal, Estremadura, on the Tejo, nearly opposite Lisboa.
ALMADEN, a town of Spain, province Mancha, 45 m sw Ciudad Real: famous for rich mines of quicksilver and vermilion. ALMADEN, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, on the Colar, 34 m N by E Seville. ALMAGRE, a town of Spain, in Mancha, 12 m ESE Ciudad Real: with a university.
ALMAGUER, a town of South America, Colombia, province Popayan, on the Cauca, near its source, 21 m s Popayan.
ALMANSOR, a town of Africa, kingdom of Fez, on the Cair, near the sea, 10 m sw Salee.
ALMANZA, a town of Spain, in Murcia, with the remains of an ancient castle; it is situated in a fertile plain, on the frontiers of Valencia, 35 m sw Xativa, 62 N Murcia: here is a considerable manufacture of linen cloth. Famous for a victory gained by the French and Spaniards in 1707, when most of the English were killed or taken, having been abandoned by the Portuguese horse at the first charge.
ALMEIDA, a strongly fortified town of Portugal, province Beira, on the Coa, and near the borders of Spain, 58 leagues NE Lisboa. The French took it in 1810, and abandoned it in 1811, after blowing up part of the fortress.
ALMENARA, a town of Spain, in Va
lencia, on an eminence near the sea, 25 m
ALMERIA, a city of Spain, in Granada, and a bishop's see, near the head of a large bay, 54 m SE Granada: it was anciently the most commercial city in Spain, but is now much declined, and the exports are confined to some barilla and lead: Lg. 2.41 w, Lt. 36.50 N.
ALMERODE, Hesse-Cassel; see GROSALMERODE.
ALMISSA, a town of Austria, in Dal matia, famous for its wine; seated at the foot of a high rock, 18 m ESE Spalatro.
ALMONDBURY, a town of England, in West Yorkshire, on the Calder, 2 m SSE Huddersfield: it was the Campodunum of the Romans, afterward a seat of the Saxon kings, and had a castle and a cathedral ; P. 7086.
ALMONDSBURY, a village of England, County Gloucester, 7 m N Bristol, where Alimond, father of king Egbert, is said to have been buried: here is a fortification of the Saxons, with a double ditch, commanding an extensive view of the Severn; P. 1492.
ALMORA, Asia, a subdivision of Kemaon,
in the NE of Hindostan : it is a mountainous and barren country, subject to the rajah of Nepaul: the capital is Almora.
ALMUNEZAR, a town of Spain, in Granada, with a good harbour on the Mediterranean, defended by a strong castle, 30 m SSE Alhama.
ALNEY, an island in the Severn, near Gloucester, remarkable for the combat between Edmund Ironside and Canute the Great, in 1016.
ALNMOUTH, a village of England, county Northumberland, at the mouth of the Aln, 5 m E by s Alnwick. Large quantities of corn are shipped here, and vessels of 300 tons are built.
ALNWICK, a town of England, county Northumberland, with a market on Sa turday; seated on the Aln, 34 m N New. castle, 304 N by w London. It was formerly surrounded by a wall, and has three gates almost entire: it was defended by a stately gothic castle, now the seat of the dukes of Northumberland: here is a large townhouse, where the county meetings are held, except the assizes, which are held at Newcastle. The freemen of Alnwick are made by making them pass through a dirty pond; a ceremony which takes place annually on St. Mark's day; P. 6788. Poiling place.
ALORA, a town of Spain, province Granada, with a castle on a high conical hill: stands on the side of a mountain, in a rich vale, 24 m Nw Malaga.
ALOST, a town of Belgium, province East Flanders, on the Dender, 15 m NW Brussels; P. 12,000.
ALPNACH, a town of Switzerland, canton a Underwalden, on an arm of the lake of the Four Cantons, 6 ms Lucern.
ALPS, a chain of mountains in Europe, which begins at the gulf of Genova, E of Nice, passes into Switzerland, crosses that country and Tyrol, separates Austria from Italy, and terminates at the N part of the gulf of Venice. This grand chain is divided into two or more ridges, separated by narrow valleys; and the different portions have distinct appellations, as the Maritime, Pennine, Lepontine, Helvetian, Rhetian, Julian, &c. They are composed of stupendous rocky masses -piled upon each other, from 4000 to above 15,600 feet high. There are few passes over them, and those of difficult access. Switzerland has the central part of these mountains. Hannibal crossed the Alps on the side of Piedmont, in the winter season, when he invaded Italy, and lost most of his elephants among them; they were crossed also by Napoleon Buonaparte, at Great St. Bernard, in 1800.
ALPS, LOWER; see BASSES-ALPS.
ALPS, UPPER; see HAUTES-ALPS. ALPUXARES, high mountains of Spain, Granada, near the Mediterranean; inhabited by the Moriscos, who carefully cultivate the ground, which produces excellent wines and fruits.
ALRESFORD, NEW, a town of England, County Hants, 18 m NE Southampton, and 57 wsw London; with a market on Thursday: sw of the town is a piece of water covering about 200 acres, which forms a head to the Itchin; P. 1437.
ALSACE, an old province of France, bounded on the E by the Rhine, which separates it from Suabia. It is a fertile country, producing corn, wine, flax, tobacco, pulse, and fruit. There are mines of silver, copper, and lead, as well as mineral waters. It is diversified with pleasant hills and mountains. It is now the departments of Haut and Bas-Rhin.
ALSEQ, an island of Denmark, in the Baltic, separated from the coast of SlesIt is 18 m wick by a narrow channel. long, and from 5 to 9 broad, with two deep gulfs on the sw side, and produces abun dance of corn and fruit. The chief town is Sonderborg.
ALSFELD, a town of Hesse-Darmstadt, with a castle, 12 m E Marburg.
ALSLEBEN, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, 9 m ssw Bernburg.
ALSTAD, a town of Austria, province Moravia, 35 m NNW Ohmutz.
ALSTALUNG, a town of Norway, province Nordlands. It stands on the island of Alssen, which is separated from the continent by a narrow sound. It is 185 m NNE Trondheim, and has a commodious palace, built of wood, and painted white, the residence of the bishop of Nordland and Finmark: Lg. 12.40 E, Lt. 65.55 x.
ALSTON-MOOR, or ALDSTONE, a town of England, county Cumberland, with a market on Saturday. It is seated on the side of a hill, on the s branch of the Tyne, 23 m E by s Carlisle, 303 N by w London. Here is an iron foundry and a shot manufactory; in the vicinity are numerous lead mines; P. 6858. Polling place.
ALTAY, HINE-CHAL, or Golden Mountains, Asia, a vast chain, separating Siberia from China; their mines have yielded much silver, copper, and lead: computed to be 10,730 feet high.
ALL-DAMON, a small fortified post town of Prussia, province Pomerania, on the Dammsche sea, at the mouth of the Oder, 14 German m by post road ESE Stettin.
ALTDORF, a town of Bavaria, in the territory of Nürnberg, province Rezat, with a university, 16m SE Nürnberg.
ALTEA, a town of Spain, province Valencia. It is seated on the Mediterranean, 30 m NE Alicant; rich in wine, honey, silk, and flax. It was taken in 1705, for the archduke Charles, but lost after the famous battle of Almanza.
ALTEN; see ALTENGAARD. ALTEND; see ALTONA. ALTENBERG, a town of Saxony, on the frontier of Bohemia, near the source of the Freiberger-Mulde, celebrated for its tin mine, 20 m s Dresden.
ALTENBURG, a town of Sax-Altenburg, in Thuringia, capital of the principality, with a castle on a rock. It is seated on the Pleisse, in a fertile plain, 20 m s Leipzig.
ALTENBURG, a town of Austria, Hungary, with an ancient castle, now principally used for a corn magazine. It is seated on the Leitha, at its entrance into the Danube, 17 m SSE Presburg. It has two churches and a college.
ALTENDORN, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen, 48 m ENE Coln, or Cologne.
ALTENGAARD, a seaport and town of Norway, capital of province Finmark, at the mouth of the river Alten-Elf, 110 m sw cape North; many cows and sheep are fed here, and the exports are fish and skins: Lg. 23.0 E, Lt. 69.55 N.
ALTENKIRCHEN, a town of Prussia, province Nieder-Rhein, 9 German m by post road SE Coln, road to Limburg.
ALTESSON, a town of Sardinia, Piedmont, between the Doire and Stura, 3 m N Turin.
Tell, in the place where he was sentenced to shoot the apple from his son's head. This deliverer of his country lived at Burgli, near this place, and his cottage is changed into a chapel, where mass is solemnly recited.
ALTRINCHAM, a town of England, county Cheshire. It is seated near the duke of Bridgewater's canal, 30 m ENE Chester, and 180 Nw London; governed by a mayor, with a market on Tuesday. Here are manufactures of worsted and cotton; P. 2708.
ALTUNKUPRI, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Kurdistan, 90 m sw Mosul.
ALVA-DE-TOR MES, a town of Spain, province Leon, with a castle; seated on the Tormes, 16 m SE Salamanca.
ALVAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Agra, near the Manes, capital of a hilly and woody district, full of strong positions. It is 75 m ssw Delhi, and 86 wNw Agra; governed by a rajah, who resides in a fortress on the summit of a hill near the town: Lg. 76.31 E, Lt. 27.41 N.
ALVARADA, a town of North America, Mexico, province Guaxaca, on a lake and river of the same name, near the gulf of Mexico, 42 m SE Vera Cruz, 160 NE
ALVASTON, a village of England, county of Gloucester, 8 m N by E Bristol. the top of a hill, near the Severn, is a Roman camp, called Oldbury, where several antiquities have been dug up.
ALYGHUR, or COEL, a town and fortress of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, 40 m ALTKIRCH, a town of France, depart-N Agra, and 75 SE Delhi: the British took ment Haut-Rhin, on an eminence, near the source of the Ill, 25 m s Colmar.
ALTON, a town of England, county Hants, with a market on Saturday. is seated on the Wey, 28 m ENE Southampton, and 51 wsw London. It has manufactures of corded stuffs, figured baragons, ribbed druggets, serges, &c., and round the town are plantations of hops; P. 2742. Polling place.
ALTONA, or ALTENA, a city and seaport of Denmark, Holstein. It is seated on the Elbe, 2 m w Hamburg: built by the Danes, that it might rival Hamburg in commerce. It was burnt by the Swedes in 1712, but has been beautifully rebuilt. It has numerous manufactures, builds merchant vessels for sale, and is largely concerned in the herring and whale fisheries: Lg. 9.58 E, Lt. 53.34 N.
it by storm in 1803.
lencia, on an island formed by the Xucar, ALZIRA, a town of Spain, province Va20 m s Valencia.
AMADIA, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Kurdistan, with a strong fort on a mountain, 72 m i Mosul, and 92 SE Bethis. It is the residence of a powerful prince, whose district is populous, and rich in corn and wine.
AMAK, an island of Denmark, on which part of Copenhagen, called Christianshaven, is built. It is 8 m long by 4, separated from Zealand by a channel, over which are two bridges that communicate with Copenhagen. It is laid out in gardens and pastures, and supplies Copenhagen with milk, butter, and vegetables.
AMAL, a town of Sweden, province ElfsALTORF, a town of Würtemberg, pro- borg, with a good harbour on the lake Wevince Bodensee, 20 m NE Constance.
ALTORF, a town of Switzerland, capital of the Canton of Uri. It stands on the lake of Lucern, near the influx of the Reuss, 20 mSE. Lucern. Here is the statue of William
nern, 48 m N by E Wenersburg. It has a great trade in timber, deals, and tar: Lg. 12.40 E, Lt. 59.6 N.
AMALFI, a town of Italy, Naples, Principato Citra, and an archbishop's see, on the
gulf of Salerno, 13 m sw Salerno. Flavio Gioia, who is said to have invented the mariner's compass, was a native of this town. The Pandects of Justinian were discovered here in 1137.
AMANAPOOR, a town of Asia, in the island of Ceylon, with a strong fort on the top of a precipitous hill, 12 m w by s Candy.
AMANTEA, a seaport of Italy, Naples, in Calabria Citra, near the bay of Eufemia, 20 m sw Cosenza.
AMAPALLA, a seaport of North America, province Nicaragua, seated on an island on the w side of the gulf of Amapalla: Lg. 88.30 w, Lt. 13.10 N.
AMASIA, a city of Asia, Turkey, Natolia. It is seated on an amphitheatre of hills, 38 m NW Tokat; the birthplace of Strabo, and the capital of a district that produces excellent wine and silk. The castle is on the summit of a mountain; and in the rock below are five sepulchral excavations, said to have been the retreats of St. Chrysostom; the mosques are numerous, and one of them is a fine edifice; P.60,000: Lg. 36.12 E, Lt. 40.40 N.
AMATIQUA, North America, a gulf in the bay of Honduras, between Cape ThreePoints and the gulf Dulce: Lg. 90.0 w, Lt. 16.0 N.
AMATO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Calabria Citra, on the Amato, 7 m SE Ni
AMAZONIA, a name formerly given to a large and undefined region in the interior of South America, extending along the Amazon indefinitely to the N and s. It was discovered in 1500, by Francisco Orellano, who coming from Quito, entered and sailed down the Amazon to the Atlantic. Observ. ing companies of women in arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and gave the name of Amazon to the river, which had formerly been called Maranhao. This country is now included in the s part of New Granada and Guyana, the Nw part of Brazil, and the country of Solimoes.
AMBAHLAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, province Delhi, with a large citadel, 120 m NNW Delhi.
AMBER-ISLES, Africa, Indian Ocean, a small cluster, 130 m from the E coast of Africa, under the Equator: Lg. 50.00 E. AMBERG, a fortified town of Bavaria, province Regen, with a strong castle: on the Vils, 9 German m by post road E Nürnberg. The magnificent church of St. Martin contains many beautiful paintings and curiosities; and the mint is esteemed a fine building. In 1743 it was taken by the Austrians, and in 1796 by the French: Lg. 12.12 E, Lt. 49.27 N.
AMBERT, a town of France, department Puy-de-Dome. It is seated in a beautiful valley, on the Dore, 21 m E Issoire. There are numerous paper-makers in its vicinity, and it has a trade in coarse laces, camlets, ferrets, &c.
AMBLECOTE, a village of England, county Stafford, on the Stour, which separates it from Stourbridge, in Worcestershire. It is famous for a stratum of fire-clay, 45 feet below the coal. In the vicinity are many glasshouses.
AMBLESIDE, a town of England, county Westmoreland, with a market on Wednesday; seated on the Rotha, near the head of lake Windermere, 13 m Nw Kendal, and It has manufactures 275 NNW London. of woollen cloth; P. 1095. Polling place.
AMBLETEUSE, a village of France, department Pas-de-Calais, defended by a battery. It stands on a cove of the English channel, which affords good anchorage; 8 m N Boulogne. Here Cæsar embarked his cavalry when he passed over into England; and where James II landed on his leaving England in 1688.
AMBOISE, a town of France, department Indre et Loire. It is seated on the Loire, 12 m E by N Tours, and 118 ssw Paris. The staircase of the castle is without steps, and may be ascended to the very top. Here, in 1462, Louis XI instituted the order of St. Michel. A conspiracy against the Guises was formed here in 1560, and here the name of Hugenot was first given to the French Protestants. Dict. Univ. Hist.
AMBOYNA, an island of Asia, in the Indian ocean, the Dutch metropolis of the Moluccas, 56 m long, and divided, at the sw end, by a large bay, into two limbs, the largest called Hetou, and the other Leytimor. The surface, woody hills and verdant plains, interspersed with hamlets, and enriched by cultivation. The chief products are cloves, nutmegs, sugar, coffee, and many delicious fruits; also a peculiar wood that is used for beautiful cabinet-work. The woods abound with deer and wild hogs; and the domestic animals are beeves, horses, sheep, goats, and hogs. The natives wear only a slight piece of stuff wrapped round their middle. They are generally Mahomedans; but there are some Christians among them. The English and Dutch had factories here at the beginning of the 17th century, but the Dutch expelled the English, and in 1622 tortured and put to death many of them. The island was taken by the British in 1796, restored in 1802, again taken in 1810, and restored in 1815. The chief town is Amboyna, neatly built, near the middle of the bay, on the smaller limb, defended by fort Victoria: Lg. 128.15 E, Lt. 3.40 s.
AMBRESBURY; see AMSEBURY.
AMBRYм, an island, one of the New Hebrides, Australasia, in the Pacific ocean, 50 m in circuit: Lg. 168.12 E, Lt. 16.10 N. AMEENABAD, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, 35 m N by w Lahore.
AMELIA, an island of North America, on the coast of Florida, 13 m long by 2, extending about two miles from the continent, between the St. Mary and Nassau. It is very fertile, and has a town and good harbour at its N end: Lg. 81.35 w,
Lt. 30.42 N.
AMERICA, one of the five grand divisions of the world, and by much the largest; bounded by the ocean, E, S, and w, but the N has not yet been fully discovered. It took its name from Americus Vespucius, a Florentine, who having accompanied Ojeda, a Spanish navigator, in 1497, drew up an amusing history of his voyage, in which it was insinuated, that the glory of having first discovered the continent of the new world belonged to him. This was in part believed: the country began to be called after the name of its supposed first discoverer; and the unaccountable caprice of mankind has perpetuated the error. But America was first discovered in 1492, by Christoval Colon, a Genoese, better known by the name of Christopher Columbus. It is called the New World with great propriety; for not only the men, but the birds and beasts, differ, in some respects, from those known before. It has likewise a great number of trees and plants, that grow no where else. All the men, except the Esquimaux, near Greenland, seem to have the same origin; for they agree in every particular, from the strait of Magalaes, in the s, to Hudson's bay, in the N. Their skins are of a red copper colour, and they have no beards; hair, black, straight, and coarse. Many are the conjectures about the peopling of this vast continent, and almost as various as their authors. America is so long, that it takes in the torrid zone, the two temperate zones, and part of the northern frigid zone. continent so extensive must naturally be various in its climate, soil, and productions. In the most northern and most southern parts the countries are cold, sterile, and de
sert; while in the centre are found the richest metals, minerals, precious stones, and abundance of the most valuable and useful commodities. It would be difficult
to enumerate the different languages spoken by the natives, for they vary materially with every tribe, so as to be quite distinct even amongst neighbouring nations or tribes; and as to religion, no satisfactory general account can be given; yet some of the most civilized of the Aborigines seem to have worshipped the sun. The principal motive of the Spaniards in sending so many colonists here was the thirst of gold; and indeed they and the Portuguese are possessed of all those parts where it is found in the greatest plenty. This vast continent is divided into North and South America, which are joined by the isthmus of Panama. It has lofty and immense ranges of mountains, such as the Andes, Stoney, and Allegany; and the most stupendous rivers, such as the Amazon, Plata, Orinoco, Mississipi, St. Lawrence, and Missouri. Beside the Aborigines, who inhabit the interior parts, and the United States of America, who possess European powers have rich and flourishing many of the finest provinces, the different colonies here. In N. America, Britain possesses New Britain, Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick; Spain had Mexico, New Mexico, New Albion, and California; and Russia has some settlements on Cook's inlet. In S. America, Spain possessed Caraccas, New Granada, Peru, Chili, and Buenos Ayres; Portugal had Brazil, and part of Guyana; and France, Britain, and Holland, have the remainder of Guyana. The Spanish colonies have now asserted their independence, and contain Mexico in N. America; Columbia, Chili, and the United Provinces, including the s of Peru, and Buenos Ayres. Brazil is now an independent empire: and Patagonia remains in the possession of the natives.
Hindostan, in Ajmeer. It is seated on a AMERCOTE, a town and fort of Asia, hill, in the sandy desert, near the border of Sindy, 90 m E Hydrabad. This place is celebrated as the retreat of the emperor Humayoon, during his troubles, and for being the birth-place of his son, the illustrious Akber: Lg. 69.49 E, Lt. 25.20 N.
AMERPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Nepaul, and district of Muckwanny, 70 m NNW Purneah, in Bengal.
AMERSFORT, a town of Holland, province Utrecht. It has a trade in beer and to
bacco; and goods from Germany are shipped here for Amsterdam. It is seated in a fertile country, on the Eem, 10 m NNE Utrecht.
AMERSHAM, or AGMONDESHAM, a borough of England, county Buckingham, with a market on Tuesday. It has a beautiful town hall, and is seated in a vale between
woody hills, 26 m xw London; P. 2816.
AMESBURY, or AMBRESBURY, a town of England, county Wiltshire, with a mar.