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In 1783 the remains of a Roman bath were discovered; P. of parish, 8961.

INVERGORDON, a village of Scotland, county Ross, at the mouth of the frith-ofCromarty, 8 m SSE Tain. It has a good harbour, and a regular ferry over the frith to Cromarty.

INVERKEITHING, a borough and seaport of Scotland, county Fife, on the N side of the frith-of-Forth, 12 m wNw Edinburgh, which has a considerable trade in coal and salt, and good anchorage outside of the bar. The harbour is commodious, with excellent quays; P. 3189: Lg. 3.12 w, Lt. 55.57 N.

INVERKIP, a village of Scotland, county Renfrew, 3 m ssw Greenock, on the Kip, at its entrance into the frith-of-Clyde, frequented as a bathing-place.

INVERLEITHEN, a town of Scotland, in Peebleshire, on the Tweed, at the influx of the Leithen, 5 m ESE Peebles, and 9 w Selkirk. Here is an extensive woollen manufacture, and a famous sulphurous spring.

INVERNESS, a borough of Scotland, capital of county Inverness, on both sides the Ness, near its entrance into the frith-ofMoray, 66 m NE Fort-William, and 116 NNW Edinburgh. It has a commodious harbour, for vessels of 200 tons, and larger may ride in safety within a mile of the town. Here are 6 incorporated trades, a good salmon fishery, a large manufacture of ropes and canvas, several tan-works, and a considerable trade. On an eminence are the ruins of the old castle, demolished by the rebels in 1746; and over the Ness is a bridge of 7 arches. The court-house is handsome, with a fine tower and spire; and here is an excellent academy, provided with a rector and 4 masters. Near this town, on Culloden heath, the duke of Cumberland gained a decisive victory over the rebels in 1746. To the w of the town is the hill of Craig-Phatric, on the summit of which are extensive remains of a fort; P. 14,324: Lg. 4.5 w, Lt. 57.31 N.

INVERNESS, the most extensive county of Scotland; bounded N by Rosshire, E by the counties of Nairn, Elgin, and Aberdeen, s by those of Perth and Argyle, and w by the Atlantic-ocean; it also includes several of the Hebrides. Independent of the islands, it is 80 m long by 50, and is divided into 31 parishes. The N part is mountainous and barren; the s is also mountainous, and contains Ben-Nevis. This county is divided into 2 parts nearly equal by the Caledonian canal; and has several considerable lakes, particularly those of Ness, Oich, Lochy, and Linnhe. The extensive plains surrounding the lakes in general, fertile; the high grounds feed many sheep and beeves, and numerous herds


of goats. The mountains and forests are inhabited by immense numbers of red and roe deer, the alpine and common hare, and other game. Limestone, iron-ore, and some traces of different minerals, have been found, with beautiful rock crystals of various tints; but no mines have been worked hitherto with much success. The principal rivers are the Spey, Ness, and Beauley; P. 74,292 in 1801, and 94,797 in 1831.

INVERSNAID, a village of Scotland, on the E side of Loch-Lomond, 25 m x by w Dumbarton. Here is a small fort, and near it a ferry over the lake.

INVERUGIE, a village of Scotland, on the E coast of county Aberdeen, at the mouth of the Ugie, 2 m Nw Peterhead. It has an extensive bleach-field, and a consi derable brewery. Near it is the ruin of Inverugie castle.

INVERURY, a borough of Scotland, county Aberdeen, on the Ury, just above its conflux with the Don, 15 m NW Aberdeen;

P. 1419.


IONIAN-ISLANDS, seven islands in the Mediterranean, on the sw coast of European Turkey; namely, Corfu, Paxo, St. Maura, Theaki, Cefalonia, Zante, and Cerigo. They belonged to Venice, and on the fall of that republic were occupied by the French, but were taken from them by the Russians, who, in 1800, formed them into a government styled the Republic of the Seven Islands. In 1815, by the treaty of Paris, they were put under the protection of Britain, with the continental seaport of Parga, in Albania, and called the United States of the Ionian-Islands. In 1819 the continental territory was given up. Corfu is the seat of government.

Iowa, a county of North America, United States, Michigan territory, w of lake-Michigan, Helena county-town; P. 1589.

IPOLY-SAGH, a town of Austria, Hungary, where the assembly of Honth county is held; situated near the Ipoly, 27 m s by E Schemnitz.

IPSALA, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Romania, on the Marissa, 60 m s Adrianople, and 130 w Constantinople. It is a Greek archbishop's see. Near it are mines of alum; and red-wine is an article of commerce: Lg. 26.10 E, Lt. 40.57 N.

IPSARA, a small island in the Archipe lago, in the form of a heart, 15 m NW island of Scio. To the w is another small island called Anti-Ipsara.

IPSWICH, a borough of England, principal town of county Suffolk, governed by a mayor, with a market on Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday. It is irregularly built on the side of a hill, and has declined from its

former consequence; but now contains 12 parish churches, a guildhall, and customhouse with a good quay. It is the birth-place of Cardinal Wolsey. Much corn and malt is sent hence to London, and timber to the different dock-yards. It has a considerable coasting-trade, a small share of foreign commerce, and sends ships to Greenland. Vessels of large burden are obliged to stop 3 m below the town. It is seated on the Orwell, 26 m SE Bury St. Edmund, and 69 NE London; P. 20,454 Lg. 1.16 E, Lt. 52.8 N.

IPSWICH, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Essex county, seated on both sides of the Ipswich, near the mouth, over which is a stone bridge. Returns 2 M.P. Though it has a barred harbour and shoals in the river, some vessels trade to the West-Indies. Silk and thread-lace are manufactured here. The judicial courts for the county are held here once a year. It is 27 m NNE Boston, and 452 Washington; P. 2951 in 1830: Lg. 70.50 w, Lt. 42.39 N.

IRAK, OF IRAC-AGEMI, a province of Asia, Persia, bounded N by Aderbijan, Ghilan, and Mazanderan, E by Chorasan, s by Fars and Kusistan, and w by Kurdistan. It includes the greater part of the ancient Media, and is a large mountainous country. The mountains are barren and devoid of timber, but the valleys, where cultivated, yield abundance of corn. Ispahan is the capital.

IRAK, or IRAC-ARABI, a province of Asia, Turkey, bounded N by Kurdistan and Diarbek, E by Irac-Agemi and Kusistan, and sw by the desert of Arabia. It is the ancient Chaldea, and is a fertile country, watered by the Euphrates and Tigris. Bagdad is the capital.

IRBIT, a town of Russia, government Perm, on the Irbit, m from its junction with the Nitsa. It is 378 m E Perm; has 1 annual fair, which continues a month; 275 shops inclosed by palisades, 2 churches; P. about 1000.

IREBY, a town of England, county Cumberland, with a market on Thursday, seated in a valley, at the source of the Ellen, 10 m NE Cockermouth, and 304 NNW London; P. 314.

IREDELL, a county of North America, United States, state North Carolina, Statesville county-town; P. 15,262 in 1830.

IRELAND, an island of Europe, lying to the w of that of Great-Britain. It is 280 m long by 160; bounded E by St. Georgechannel and the Irish sea, which separate it from England and Wales; NE by the Northchannel, which separates it from Scotland; and Nw and s by the Atlantic-ocean. It contains about 19,436,000 acres. Ireland

is divided into 4 provinces; namely, Ulster to the N, Leinster to the E, Munster to the s, and Connaught to the w; and these are subdivided into 32 counties. Ulster contains the counties of Down, Armagh, Monaghan, Cavan, Antrim, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, and Donegal; Leinster has those of Dublin, Louth, Wicklow, Wexford, Longford, East-Meath, WestMeath, King, Queen, Kilkenny, Kildare, and Carlow; Munster includes Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and Waterford; and Connaught has Leitrim, RosThe common, Mayo, Sligo, and Galway. climate of Ireland is mild and temperate, neral, it is a level country, well watered but more humid than in England. In gewith lakes and rivers; and the soil, in most. parts, is very good and fertile; even irr those places where the bogs and morasses have been drained, there is good meadow ground. It produces corn, potatos, hemp, and flax, in great plenty; and there are so many cattle, that beef, pork, and butter, are exported to foreign parts; and not only the English, but other ships frequently come to be victualled here. The other commodities are hides, wool, tallow, wood, salt, honey, and wax. Here are also quarries of marble and fine slate; and mines of coal, iron, copper, lead, and silver. The principal manufacture is fine linen cloth, which is brought to great perfection, and the trade in it is very great. This country is well situ-. ated for foreign trade, on account of its many secure and commodious bays and harbours. The lakes, more usually called loughs, are numerous; the most noted are those of Erne, Corrib, Neagh, Killarney, and Allen. The principal rivers are the Shannon, Foyle, Liffey, Boyne, Sure, Barrow, Blackwater, and Lee. Whether attributable to the soil or climate, or both, it is certain that in Ireland there are no moles,, toads, nor serpents. Every habitable part of the island abounds in the ruins of castles, churches, and religious houses; and many more have entirely disappeared, whose site is now unknown. The laws of Ireland differ but little from those of England; and the established religion is the same; but the majority of the people are Roman-Catholics, and yet retain their nominal bishops and dignitaries. The ecclesiastical districts. are 4 archbishoprics and 18 bishoprics: the former are, Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam; the latter are, Meath, Kildare, Derry, Raphoe, Limerick, Ardfert n Aghadoe, Dromore, Elphin-Down and Connor, Waterford and Lismore, Leighlin and Ferns, Cloyne, Cork and Ross, Killaloe and Kilfenora, Kilmore and Armagh, Clogher, Ossory, Killala and Achonry, and Clonfert and Kilmacduagh. Formerly, this kingdom had a parliament, which was subordinate to that of Great-Britain; but, in

1800 it was deemed expedient that Ireland should be united to Great-Britain. The two parliaments passed acts for that purpose, and the two kingdoms, at the commencement of 1801, were styled the United Kingdom of Great-Britain and Ireland; and 32 lords (four of them bishops) and 100 commoners of Ireland, were enacted to represent that country in the Imperial Parlia ment, assembled in England The lord lieutenant of Ireland, as well as the council, are appointed from time to time, by the king. The common Irish are generally represented as an ignorant, uncivilized, and blundering sort of people, implacable and violent in all their affections, but quick of apprehension, courteous to strangers, and patient of hardships. Their diet consists chiefly of coarse bread, potatos, and buttermilk; the favourite liquor is usquebaugh,

an ardent distillation from corn; and the rural cottage is a wretched hovel of mud. The manners of the superior classes differ little from those of the same rank in England; but the gentry are more addicted to hunting and other robust exercises, than to literature and the arts; P. 7,734,365. Dublin is the capital.

IRELAND, NEW; see BRITAIN, NEW. IJAH, a town of Asia, Afghanistan, in Cabul, near the branch of the Kameh, 55 m SSE Cabul.



IRKOUTSK, a government of Asia, Russia, Siberia, extending from 51 to 74 N Lt., and from 95 to 191 E Lg. about 2406 m from E to w, and 1752 from N to s; bounded N by the Frozen-ocean, E by the country of the Tchouktchis, the Pacific and Alutian isles, s by Mongolia and Chinese Davuria, and w by the governments Tomsk and Tobolsk; the s is the only part susceptible of culture, the remainder is very mountainous, with immense forests: it is divided into 15 districts, each named af ter its chief town, viz. Irkoutsk, capital of the government, Verkné-Oudinsk, Nijni-Oudinsk, Kirensk, Nertchinsk, Bargousinsk, Olekminsk, Yakoutsk, Olénsk, ligansk, Okhotsk, and Nyni-Camtchatsk. There are also several palisaded posts, Verkholensk, Tounkinsk, Bratskoy, and Riakhta, where the whole of the trade with China is carried on. The principal rivers are, the Olenek, Lena, Indiguirka, Colyma, Anadyr, Camtchatka, Okhota, and Chilka: it contains several lakes, of which the most considerable is that of Baikal, called in the country the Holy-sea, which receives the river Selenga, and is the source of the Angara. The mountains are rich in silver, lead, and precious stones of various colours; and the forests supply some of the most

valuable furs; the climate of the greater por tion is extremely cold; the church is governed by the archbishop of Irkoutsk and of Cadiak; P. is stated to be 407,758.

ria, capital of the government Irkoutsk, and IRKOUTSK, a city of Asia, Russia, Sibechief of district, in a hollow, at the junction of the Irkout and Angara, 3880 m E Petersbourg, 3395 ENE Moscow, and 1972 ESE Tobolsk; the streets are wide and straight, the merchants occupy a large brick building in the centre. The slaughter-houses are at the w end of the city on the Ouchakofka; near this are the meat, fish, corn, flour, vegetable and other markets, called bazaar, where also is carried on the fur trade, supplied by the Bouriats. It has 8 churches, 2 convents, a seminary, gymnasium, a naval school, a Japanese school. The American company have here a considerable establishment and warehouses; its manufactures are, sailcloth, hats, candles, morocco-leather, cloth manufacture; many distilleries: the glass, looking-glasses, soap, and a royal value of the commercial exchanges is estimated at 4 millions of roubles per annum. Provision very cheap: residence of the archbishop and of the governor; P. 20,000: Lg. 104.50.30 E, Lt. 52.18 N.


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IRVINE, a borough of Scotland, county Ayr, near the mouth of the Irvine, with the ruins of a castle, 10 m x Ayr, and 24 Glasgow. It has a commodious harbour, a dock-yard, and manufactures of carpets, muslins, and lawns, but the chief trade is exporting of coal to Ireland; P. 5200: Lg. 4.36 w, Lt. 55.39 N.

IRWIN, a county of North America, United States, state Georgia, Irwin countytown; P. 1180 in 1830.

ISABELLA, a town of North America, on the N coast of St. Domingo, now in ruins, but noted for being the first settlement of the immortal Columbus in 1492: Lg. 71.5w, Lt. 19.55 N.

ISAKTCHA, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Bulgaria, noted as the spot that in all ages has been selected by invading armies for crossing the Danube. It was burnt by the Russians in 1711. It is seated on the Danube, a few miles above the point where it begins to form its delta of mouths, 46 m NE Kirsova.

ISBORSK, a bourgh of Russia, govern ment Pskov; anciently capital of a princi pality, belonging to the princes of Novgorod, 24 m Pskov, it has a castle, the walls and towers of which are in ruins, 3 churches; P. 300 to 400.

ISCHIA, the ancient PITHECUSA, an island of Italy, Naples, 16 m in circuit, lying

3 m off the coast of Terra-di-Lavoro. It is mountainous, but abounds in minerals, sulphur, fruit, and excellent wine. The air is healthy, and here are several hot baths, much resorted to by invalids.

ISCHIA, capital of the island of Ischia, Italy, and the see of a bishop, with a fort. It stands upon a rock, which is joined to the island by a bridge, and is like a pyramid of houses piled one above another. At the end of the bridge next the city are iron gates, through which the city is entered: Lg. 13.52 E, Lt. 40.44 N.

ISCHIM, a circle in Asia, Russia, Siberia, government Tobolsk, extending on the left of the Irtish, along the Ischim. The E part alone is fertile.

ISENBURG, a town of Prussia, province Neider-Rhein, on the rivulet Iser, 8 m N Coblenz.

ISENBURG, a town of Hesse-Darmstadt, near the Maine, 3 m s Frankfort.

ISEO, a town of Italy, in Bresciano, on the SE side of lake Iseo, 10 m Nw Brescia.

ISERE, a department of France, 8 m long by 4, including the N part of the old province of Dauphiny. Bounded Eby Savoy, N and w by the Rhone, and s by the departments Drome and Hauts-Alps. It is so named from a river which rises in Savoy, crosses this department by Barraux, Grenoble, and St. Marcellin, and joins the Rhone, above Valence; P. 472,000. Grenoble is the capital.

ISERNIA, a town of Naples, county of Molise, at the foot of the Apennines. In 1805 it was destroyed by an earthquake, and upwards of 1500 persons perished. A singular festival and fair is held here at the end of September, which is much frequented by people from Naples and other places. It is 12 m w Molise.

ISIGNY, a town of France, department Calvados, at the conflux of the Esques with the Vire, 8 m from the sea, and 15 w by N Bayeux.


ISLA, or ILA, an island of Scotland, one of the Hebrides, sw Jura, from which it is separated by a narrow channel, called the Sound-of-Isla. It is 21 m long by 15; the E side is hilly, and covered with heath, but the greater part is flat, and well cultivated. In the centre is Loch-Finlagan, about 3 m in circuit, with an islet of the same name in the middle, where the great lord of the isles resided; but the palaces and offices are now in ruins. Isla has mines of iron, lead, copper, emery, quicksilver, and black lead; with immense stores of limestone, marl, coral, and shell-sand for manure. Much flax is raised, a great number of cattle fed, and a large quantity of yarn exported.

The principal village is Bowmore, which has a convenient harbour and quay, at the extremity of the bay of Loch-in-Daul, on the s coast: Lg. 5.58 w, Lt. 55.45 N.

ISLAMABAD, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, capital of the district Chittagong, on the Chittagong, near its entrance into the bay-of-Bengal, 130 m SE Dacca. A sort of canvas is made from cotton, and vessels of considerable burden are built here. The chief exports are timber, planks, canvas, coarse cloths, stockings, and salt: Lg.91.42 E, Lt. 22.22 N.

ISLAMABAD, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Cashmere, on the river Jhylum, with a wooden bridge 80 yards long, 27 m ESE Cashmere.

ISLANDS, BAY OF, a bay of Australasia, New-Zealand, at the N extremity of the northern-island. In 1772 M. Dufresne Marion, with two French sloops, put into this bay, and with 28 of his crew was murdered by the natives.

ISLE, a town of France, department Vauclause, insulated by the Sorgues, 12 m E by s Avignon.

ISLE-ADAM, a town of France, department Seine-et-Oise, on the Oise, 20 m N by w Paris.

ISLE-DE-ST.-MARGARITTE, Mediterranean, France, department, 2 m long by, at the entrance of the gulf-of-Jouan, 2į m SE Cannes; on its N side is fort-Montery.

ISLE-OF-BEEVES, an island of North America, in the bay-of-Campeachy, province Yucatan, 17 m long by 8. It is fertile, and abounds in cattle and fruit.

ISLE-BOUCHARD, a town of France, department Indre-et-Loire, surrounded by the Vienne, 21 m ssw Tours.

ISLE-DIEU, a small island of France, 18 m ssw Noirmoutier. It was taken by the English in 1795, but soon after evacuated: Lg. 2.15 w, Lt. 46.45 N.

ISLES-OF-DANGER, 3 islands in the Pacific-ocean, seen by Byron in 1765, but so surrounded by rocks and breakers, that it was unsafe to attempt to land. The commodore supposed them to be the islands seen by Quiros, in the beginning of the 17th century, and by him named Solomon-islands: Lg. 169.28 w, Lt. 10.35 s.

ISLE-OF-FRANCE, an old province of France, so called from being surrounded by the rivers Seine, Marne, Oise, Aisne, and Ourque. It now forms the rich departments Seine, Seine-et-Oise, Seine-et-Marne, and Oise.


ISLE-OF-EMBIEZ, a small island in the Mediterranean, France, department Le-Var, with a fort, almost connected with Point

Olivier, 24 m ssw Senaro, or St. Nazaire: Lg. 5.45.30 E, Lt. 43.4.30 N.

ISLE-OF-JOURDAIN, a town of France, department Gers, on an island in the Save, 8 m N Lombez.

ISLE-OF-PINES, an island of Australasia, in the South-Pacific-ocean, off the s end of New-Caledonia, 14 m long. It is a pointed hill, sloping toward the extremities, which are very low; and on the low land are tall pine trees: Lg. 167.38 E, Lt. 22.38 s.

ISLE-OF-RHE, an island of France, opposite La-Rochelle, separated by a navigable channel called Pertuis-Breton. It is 14 m long by 3, and salt-works are its only riches. The principal place is St. Martin, at the NE end, defended by 3 forts: Lg. 1.21 w, Lt. 46.10 N.

ISLE-OF-WIGHT, a county of North America, United States, state Virginia, Smithfield county-town; P. 10,517 in 1830.

ISLES-OF-SHOALS, 7 small islands of North America, United States, coast of state New-Hampshire.

ISLEWORTH, a village of England, county Middlesex, on the Thames, 8 m w London. Here are many elegant villas; and near it is Sion-house, the seat of the duke of Northumberland; P. 5590.

ISLINGTON, a large village of England, County Middlesex, on an eminence, N of London, to which it is now contiguous. The New-River is received at the sw end of it, into a large reservoir, whence its water is conveyed in pipes to all parts of the metropolis. Near this is a spring of chalybeate water, called New-Tunbridge Wells; and a public theatre called Sadler's-Wells; P. 37,316.

ISLIP, a village of England, county Oxford, on the Cherwell, 5 m N Oxford. The birth-place of Edward the Confessor, whose father had a palace near the church, not a trace of it remaining; P. 645.

ISMAEL, a strong important fortress of Russia, in Besserabia. The Russians took it by storm in 1790; but the long siege and the capture cost them 20,000 men, and the Turks 35,000. It is seated on the N side of the Danube, 140 m s by w Bender: Lg. 29.30 E, Lt. 45.11 N.

ISMAÏLOVO, a village of Russia, government Moscow, 44 m Moscow, with a palace formerly occupied during the summer by the Tzar Alexis-Mikhailovitch; the park is 16 m in circumference, 3 churches; P. about 800.

ISMANING, a town of Bavaria, province Isar, 8 m NE München.

ISNIK, a city of Asia, Turkey, in Na

tolia, and a Greek archbishop's see. It is the ancient Nice, famous for the first general council held here in 325. It is now a small place, with vineyards, fields of tobacco, and masses of decayed buildings, enclosed in a vast compass of ancient walls with majestic gates. Silk is the principal article of trade. It stands at the SE extremity of the lake Ascanious, 75 m SE Constantinople. Lg. 30.2 E, Lt. 40.22 N.

ISNIKMID, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia, supposed to have been the ancient Nicomedia, capital of Bythynia. The Greeks and Armenians have each a church and an archbishop here. The chief commerce is in corn, wool, silk, and cotton. It stands on the side of a hill, bordering on a gulf of the sea-of-Marmora, 58 m ESE Constantinople: Lg. 29.58 E, Lt. 40.52 N.

ISOLA, a town of Italy, Naples, in Calabria-Ultra, 18 m SE St. Severino.

ISPAHAN, Asia, the principal city and the s capital of Persia, province Irak. It is 12 m in circuit, and stands in the middle of a plain, surrounded on all sides by mountains at 8 m distance, and near the Senderud, which supplies it with water. The houses are all coloured a light yellow, and have flat roofs, on which the inhabitants walk, eat, and lie, in summer, for the sake of the cool air. The streets are not paved, but always clean, as it seldom rains here; and many of them have a canal, planted on each side with trees. Here are a great number of palaces; that of the king is enclosed with a lofty wall, above 2 m in cirits establishment is so perfect as to be ready cuit; and though he seldom resides here, to receive him and his suite without a moment's notice. The mosques, bazaars, cara. vansaries, public baths, coffee-houses, and shops of sweetmeats (the chief ingredients of Persian food), are yet numerous, though greatly reduced from former times. The

inhabitants were computed at above 600,000; but having suffered great devastations by civil wars, and the seat of govern ment being removed hence to Teheran, the actual population in 1898 did not exceed 80,000. Ispahan has 3 suburbs, called Julfa, Hasenbath, and Kebrabath; the first is large, and inhabited by Arminians; but it was nearly destroyed by the Afghans in 1722, and three-fourths continue in ruins. The chief manufactures are gold brocades, silks, and fine cotton cloths; and here is a foundry for cannon. Though at a distance from the sea, it carries on a great trade, people of several nations resorting here for the sake of traffic; and every article which is of the produce of Persia is to be purchased in its extensive bazaars. It is 230m s by E Teheran, the N capital, and 260 NE Bassora: Lg. 51.50 E, Lt. 32.40 N.

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