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may maintain, without being at bottom a But, befides this confideration, there is truly worthy man, I muft obferve farther, another of till higher importance, though I that befides the weight which it adds to cha- am not fure of its being attended to as much racter, real virtue operates alfo in other as it deferves; namely, that from the founways, to the advantage of cloquence. tain of real and genuine virtue, are drawn First, nothing is fo favourable as virtue to thofe fentiments which will ever be moft the profecution of honourable ftudies. It powerful in affecting the hearts of others. prompts a generous emulation to excel; it Bad as the world is, nothing has fo great and inures to induftry; it leaves the mind vacant univerfal a command over the minds of men and free, mafter of itfelf, difencumbered of as virtue. No kind of language is fo generally those bad paffions, and difengaged from thofe understood, and fo powerfully felt, as the na mean purfuits, which have ever been found tive language of worthy and virtuous feelings. the greatest enemies to true proficiency. He only, therefore, who poffeffes thefe full Quinctilian has touched this confideration and ftrong, can speak properly, and in its very properly: On all great "Quod fi agrorum nimia own language, to the heart. cura, et follicitior rei familiaris diligentia, fubjects and occafions, there is a dignity, ❝et venandi voluptas, et dati fpectaculis dies, there is an energy in noble fentiments, which "multum ftudiis auferunt, quid putamus is overcoming and irrefiftible. They give an "facturas cupiditatem, avaritiam, invidiam ardour and a flame to one's difcourfe, which "Nihil enim eft tam occupatum, tam multi-feldom fails to kindle a like flame in those who "forme, tot ac tam variis affectibus conci"fum, atque laceratum, quam mala ac im"proba mens. Quis inter hæc, literis, aut "ulli bonæ artî, locus? Non hercle magis quam frugibus, in terra fentibus ac rubis occupata."

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hear; and which, more than any other caufe, beftows on eloquence that power, for which it is famed, of feizing and tranfporting an au dience. Here art and imitation will not avail. An affumed character conveys nothing of this powerful warmth. It is only a native and unaffected glow of feeling, which can tranfmit the emotion to others. Hence the moft re

"If the management of an estate, if an"xious attention to domestic economy, a paf-nowned orators, fuch as Cicero and Demof"fion for hunting, or whole days given up to thenes, were no lefs diftinguished for fome of "public places and amufements, confume fo the high virtues, as public fpirit and zeal for "much time that is due to ftudy, how much their country, than for eloquence. Beyond greater waste must be occafioned by licentious doubt, to thefe virtues their cloquence owed "defires, avarice, or envy? Nothing is fo much "hurried and agitated, fo contradictory to its much of its effect; and thofe orations of "felf, or to viclently torn and fhattered by theirs, in which there breathes mtf the thofe "conflicting paflions, as a bad heart. Amidit virtuous and magnanimous fpirit "the diftraction which it produces, what room which have most attracted the animation of "is left for the cultivation of letters, or the ages. purfuit of any honourable art? No more "affuredly, than there is for the growth of corn in a field that is over-run with thorns "and brambles,"

Nothing, therefore, is more neceffar for those who would excel in any of the higher kinds of oratory, than to cultivate habits of

the

great and high objects which mankind are
naturally formed to admire. Joined with the
manly virtues, he fhould, at the fame time,
poffefs ftrong and tender fenfibility to all the
injuries, distresses, and forrows, of his fellow-
creatures; a heart that can çafily relent; thar
can readily enter into the circumstances of
others, and can make their cafe his own. A
proper mixture of courage, and of modesty,
muft alfo be ftudied by every public speaker.
Modesty is effential: it is always, and juftly,
fuppofed to be a concomitant of merit; and
every appearance of it is winning and pre-
poffeffing. But modefty ought not to run
into exceffive timidity. Every public speaker
fhould be able to reft fomewhat on himself;
and to affume that air, not of felf-compla
cency, but of firmnefs, which befpeaks a
confciouinefs of his being thoroughly per-
fuaded of the truth or juftice, of what he
delivers; a circumstance of no fmall confe-
quence for making impreffion on those who

the feveral virtues, and to refine and improve
all their moral feelings. Whenever thefe
became dead, or callous, they may be affured,
that on every great occafion, they will speak
with lefs power, and lefs fuccefs. The fen-
timents and difpofitions particularly requifite
for them to cultivate, are the following: the
love of justice and order, and indignation at
infolence and oppreffion; the love of honefty
and truth, and deteftation of fraud, mean-
nefs, and corruption; magnanimity of fpirit:
the love of liberty, of their country and the
public; zeal for all great and noble defigns,
and reverence for all worthy and heroic cha-
racters. A cold and fceptical turn of mind
is extremely adverfe to eloquence; and no
lefs fo, is that cavalling difpofition which takes
pleafure in depreciating what is great, and
ridiculing what is generally admired. Such
a difpofition befpeaks one not very likely to
excel in any thing; but least of all in oratory. |
A true orator fhould be a perfon of generous
fentiments, of warm feelings, and of a mind hear.
turned towards the admiration of all those

CONTENTS.

CONTENT S.

Toygen Life; ana necellary in Bulinefs, Time, &c.
Spectator. 123 Beginnings of Evil to be refifted Blair. 27

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