Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism

Front Cover
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997 - History - 144 pages

Ferdinand Marcos came to power in the Philippines in a coup détat in 1972 and ruled absolutely, in the name of order, until his dramatic overthrow in February of 1986. This study examines how the authoritarian regime of Marcos remained in power, sometimes in the face of massive opposition, for 14 years. Repressive regimes may seem undesirable, but they are often able to elicit the support of significant sectors of society. Marcos was able to maintain authoritarian rule through the support of bureaucrats, businessmen, and the military--all with the assistance of the United States government. He maintained this network of support through a patron-client system with a centralized bureaucracy as its power and resource base. In order to reward his supporters, he expanded the authority of government. But to minimize the political cost of expansion, he maintained the legal and constitutional forms of democracy. The Philippine experience in despotism is not unique; many Third World countries are under authoritarian rule. This subtle and nuanced analysis, therefore, provides an examination of the levers of power available to absolute rulers, to better understand the political economy of authoritarianism.

From inside the book

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Selected pages

Contents

Introduction
1
A Nation Divided
7
Martial Law and Regime Legitimation
39
A Complete Government Takeover
73
The Authoritarian Regimes Network of Support
95
Decline and Fall of the Dictatorship
125
The Philippines 19861996
133
Selected Bibliography
135
Index
139
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 111 - ... of potential energy, and other natural resources of the Philippines belong to the State, and their disposition, exploitation, development, or utilization shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens, subject to any existing right, grant, lease, or concession at the time of the inauguration of the Government established under this Constitution.
Page 111 - All agricultural, timber, and mineral lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, and other natural resources of the Philippines belong to the State, and their disposition, exploitation, development, or utilization shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens...
Page 111 - Natural resources, with the exception of public agricultural land, shall not be alienated, and no license, concession, or lease for the exploitation, development, or utilization of any of the natural resources shall be granted for a period exceeding twentyfive years, renewable for another...
Page 39 - The accumulation of all powers legislative, executive, and judiciary in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.
Page 49 - All proclamations, orders, decrees, instructions, and acts promulgated, issued, or done by the incumbent President shall be part of the law of the land, and shall remain valid, legal, binding, and effective even after lifting of martial law or the ratification of this Constitution, unless modified, revoked, or superseded by subsequent proclamations, orders, decrees, instructions, or other acts of the incumbent President or unless expressly and explicitly modified or repealed by the regular National...
Page 111 - July,, nineteen hundred and seventy-four, the disposition, exploitation, development, and utilization of all agricultural, timber, and mineral lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces and sources of potential energy, and other natural resources of the Philippines, and the operation of public utilities, shall, if open to any person, be open to citizens of the United States...
Page 60 - Sec. 4. The interim Prime Minister and his Cabinet shall exercise all the powers and functions, and discharge the responsibilities of the regular Prime Minister and his Cabinet and shall be subject to the same disqualifications provided in this Constitution.
Page 107 - II period:11 ...we have about 50% of the world's wealth, but only 6.3% of its population... In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security.
Page 61 - Minister), there exists a grave emergency or a threat or imminence thereof, or whenever the interim Batasang Pambansa or the regular National Assembly fails or is unable to act adequately on any matter for any reason that in his judgment requires immediate action, he may, in order to meet the exigency, issue the necessary decrees, orders, or letters of instructions, which shall form part of the law of the land.
Page 116 - We found few, if any, Americans who took the position that the demise of individual rights and democratic institutions would adversely affect US interests. In the first place, these democratic institutions were considered to be severely deficient. In the .second place, whatever US interests were or are, they apparently are not thought to be related to the preservation of democratic processes. Even in the Philippines, •our own colonial step-child and showcase of democracy...

About the author (1997)

ALBERT F. CELOZA is on the Faculty of Social Sciences at Phoenix College and an adjunct professor in International Studies at the American Graduate School of International Management Thunderbird and an affiliate with the Program for Southeast Asian Studies, Arizona State University. He holds degrees from the University of the Philippines, the University of San Francisco and the Claremont Graduate School.

Bibliographic information